Yangi

Frensis Marion

Frensis Marion

Frensis Marion Janubiy Karolina shtatining Berkli okrugidagi Jorjtaun yaqinida tug'ilgan. Mahalliy maktablarda boshlang'ich ma'lumot olgandan so'ng, Marion 15 yoshida dengizga ketdi va keyinchalik akasi bilan frantsuz va hind urushida xizmat qildi. 1760 -yillarning boshlarida u Cherokilarga qarshi kurashda Uilyam Multri qo'lida xizmat qilgan. Marion Sankt -Peterburgda muvaffaqiyatli ekuvchi bo'lib, farovonlikni oshirib, jamoat ishlarida faol ishtirok etib, u erda advokat sifatida paydo bo'lgan. Britaniya mustabid siyosati qarshisida amerikalik kolonistlarning huquqlari. 1775 yilda urush boshlanishi bilan Frensis Marion Patriot ishida tobora oshib bordi. U, shuningdek, janubdagi bir qancha janglarda, yana Moultrie ostida, shu jumladan 1776 yil fevral oyida Fort -Sallivandagi to'qnashuvda, shu jumladan 1778 yil sentyabr oyida Marion Janubiy Karolinaning ikkinchi shtat polkining qo'mondoni etib tayinlangan va keyingi yili , u Savannaning ikkinchi jangida Benjamin Linkoln qo'l ostida jang qilgan. Buzilgan to'pig'i Marionni 1780 yil davomida harakatdan saqlab qoldi va unga may oyida Charleston qulashi paytida qo'lga olishdan qochishga imkon berdi. Frantsis Marion 1780 yil avgustda Britaniyaning Camden shahridagi g'alabasiga javoban tungi partizan uslubidagi muvaffaqiyatli reydlarni o'tkazdi. Britaniya etkazib berish va aloqa liniyalari va ingliz yoki sodiq askarlarning kichik kontsentratsiyasiga qarshi. 1780 yil dekabrda u Natanael Grin boshchiligidagi brigada generali lavozimiga ko'tarildi. 1781 yilda Marion sentyabr oyida Eutav -Springsda avj olgan Karolinalardagi uzoq davom etgan janglarda qatnashdi. Amerikaliklar maydondan majburan olib ketildilar, ammo inglizlarning yo'qotishlari ularni Charlstonga qaytishga majbur qildi va keyingi haftalarda urush rejasi tez yomonlashdi, urushdan so'ng Frensis Marion Janubiy Karolina Senatida xizmat qildi va adolatli munosabatni ta'minlash uchun qonuniy chora -tadbirlarni qo'llab -quvvatladi. qolgan sodiqlar uchun. 1790 yilda u shtat konstitutsiyaviy konventsiyasining delegati bo'lgan va yangi federal boshqaruv hujjati tarafdori bo'lgan. 1795 yil 27 fevralda o'z mulkida vafot etgan.


Frensis Marion

Marion va asir bo'lgan ingliz zobiti portreti

"Botqoq tulki" Frensis Marion 1732 yilda Janubiy Karolina shtatining Berkli okrugida o'z oilasining plantatsiyasida tug'ilgan. Marion ekuvchi, Pond Bluff uyini 1773 yilda Eutaw Springs hududida qurgan, hozir suv ostida. Marion ko'lidan. Uning birinchi harbiy xizmati, Tomas Sumter kabi, Cherokee urushida (1759-1761), katta frantsuz va hind urushining bir qismi bo'lgan. Cherokilarga qarshi chegara urushidagi tajribasi uning Janubiy Karolinada 1780-82 yillardagi inglizlarga va sodiqlarga qarshi partizan urush taktikasiga ta'sir qilgan bo'lishi mumkin.

1775 yilda Marion Janubiy Karolina provinsiyasi Kongressi a'zosi edi. 21 -iyun kuni unga polkovnik Uilyam Multri boshchiligidagi 2 -Janubiy Karolina polkining kapitani tayinlandi. U 1776 yil 28 -iyunda mashhur Sallivan orolidagi jangda bo'lgan, taxminan 400 janubiy karolinliklar Charlzton portiga hujum qilgan qirollik flotini muvaffaqiyatli qaytargan.

G'alabadan so'ng, unga Kontinental Armiya podpolkovnigi tayinlandi. Marion 1779 yilning kuzida Savannani halokatli frantsuz-amerikaliklar qamalida Janubiy Karolinaning ikkinchi polkiga qo'mondonlik qildi. Vatanparvarlik tufayli Marion o'z uyida jarohatdan tuzalib ketgandi. 1780 yil may oyida Charlston inglizlar qo'liga o'tgach, tostlar ketma -ket yoqimsiz ichkilikka olib keldi. Shimoliy Karolinaga qochib, u va kichik partiya general Xoratio Geyts qo'shiniga qo'shildi, ammo Kamdendagi mag'lubiyatda kuch yo'q edi. Avgust.

Marion, bu ikki harbiy ofatdan so'ng, Buyuk Britaniyaning aloqa va ta'minot liniyalarini nishonga olganidan so'ng, Janubiy Karolinadagi pasttekislikdagi Britaniya boshqaruviga qarshi chiqdi. Uning taktikasi inglizlarning Jorjtaun tumanidagi sodiqlarni safarbar qilish harakatlarini puchga chiqardi. 1780 yil avgust va dekabr oylari orasida Marion Buyuk Savanna, Qora Mingo, Tearcoat Swamp va Jorjtaun shaharlaridagi harakatlari bilan milliy e'tirofga sazovor bo'ldi. Britaniyalik podpolkovnik Banastre Tarleton, Marion va uning odamlarini topish va zararsizlantirish uchun yuborilgan, missiyaning qiyinligini inobatga olgan holda, "bu eski tulkiga kelganda, Iblisning o'zi uni ushlay olmagan!"

Marion, Tomas Sumterdan farqli o'laroq, general -mayor Natanael Grin boshchiligidagi Kontinental Armiya bilan samarali hamkorlik qilgan. "Yengil ot" Garri Li legioni bilan birgalikda Marion 1781 yil aprelda Santi daryosidagi Fort Uotsonni, keyin may oyida Fort Mottani egallab, inglizlarni Camdenni evakuatsiya qilishga majbur qildi. Marion Brig bilan birgalikda Janubiy Karolina militsiyasiga oldindan buyruq berdi. General Endryu Pikkens 1781 yil sentyabr oyida Eutav -Springs jangida, Karolinalardagi so'nggi yirik jang bo'lib, unda inglizlar juda ko'p qurbonlarga uchrab, ichki kampaniyani to'xtatdilar.

Britaniyaliklar ustidan g'alaba qozongan Marion o'z plantatsiyasiga qaytdi va siyosat bilan shug'ullandi. U Janubiy Karolina shtati Senatida bir necha bor xizmat qilgan va 1784 yilda Fort Jonson qo'mondoni faxriy unvonini olgan, buning uchun har yili 500 dollar miqdorida stipendiya olgan. U 1795 yilda o'z mulkida vafot etdi va Janubiy Karolina shtatining Berkli okrugidagi Belle orol plantatsiya qabristoniga dafn qilindi.


Marion Benjamin Marion va Luiza d'Aubrining nabirasi edi, ular Frantsiyadan haydab chiqarilgan va 1690 yilda Janubiy Karolinaga kelgan gugenotlar edi. Ularning o'g'li Gabriel Ester Kordesga uylandi va Frensis bu nikohning olti farzandining eng kichigi edi.

Oila Janubiy Karolina shtatining Jorjtaun yaqinidagi Vinyaxga joylashdi. Marion 1732 yil qishda, Berkli okrugidagi Sent -Jeyms Parishidagi Goatfield plantatsiyasida tug'ilgan. U besh yoki olti yoshida, uning oilasi Sent -Jorjdagi plantatsiyaga, Vinyax ko'rfazidagi cherkovga ko'chib o'tgan. Ko'rinishidan, ular Jorjtaundagi ingliz maktabi yonida bo'lishni xohlashgan.

15 yoshida Frensis dengizchi bo'lishga qaror qildi. U G'arbiy Hindistonga ketayotgan skoonerning oltinchi ekipaji sifatida imzolandi. Qaytib kelayotganlarida, kit qayiqni urdi va taxtani bo'shatib yubordi. Kapitan va ekipaj qayiqda qochib ketishdi, lekin qayiqchi shunchalik tez cho'kib ketdiki, na ovqat, na suv ololmadilar. Tropik quyosh ostida olti kun o'tgach, ikkita ekipaj a'zosi tashnalik va ta'sirdan vafot etdi. Ertasi kuni tirik qolganlar qirg'oqqa etib kelishdi.

Uyga qaytgan Marion otasiga kichik plantatsiyasini parvarish qilishda yordam berdi. 1759 yilda, otasi vafotidan bir -ikki yil o'tgach, u Pond Bluffda o'z umrining oxirigacha o'z uyi bo'lgan plantatsiyasining egasi bo'ldi. Ώ ]

U yangi plantatsiyasiga joylashgandan ko'p o'tmay, Cherokee hindulari bilan urush boshlandi. Marion 1760 yilda polkovnik Montgomerining Hindistonga qilgan ekspeditsiyasida qatnashgan deb taxmin qilinadi, ammo bu borada ba'zi noaniqliklar mavjud. 1761 yilda Janubiy Karolinadagi qo'mondonlik Shotlandiya qiroli polkovnik Jeyms Grantga topshirildi va unga polkovnik Middlton boshchiligidagi 1200 shtat qo'shinlari polki yordam berdi. Bu polkda Marion kapitan Uilyam Multrining qo'mondonligi ostida leytenant bo'lib xizmat qilgan.

Uning polki 1761 yil 7 -iyunda Fort -knyaz Jorjdan yo'l oldi va bir necha kundan keyin Etchoyda hindular bilan qonli jang olib bordi. Mojaro tez orada tugadi va shu vaqtdan 1775 yilgacha Marion o'z plantatsiyasida tinch yashaganga o'xshaydi.


Botqoq tulki

Uning hiyla -nayrang va jangovar uslubi shunchalik samarali bo'lganki, Marion militsiyasi tez orada ingliz qo'shinlari tomonidan nafratlanib, qo'rqib ketdi. Marionning o'zi ayyorligi va ayyorligi tufayli “Swamp Fox ” laqabini olgan. Nihoyat, bu erdagi ingliz qo'shinlari boshqa hech narsaga dosh berolmadilar va podpolkovnik Banastre Tarletonni Frensis va uning odamlarini ta'qib qilish uchun yuborishdi. Biroq, u militsiyani botqoq yo'llardan 26 mil uzoqlikda quvganidan so'ng umidsizlikka tushdi. U g'azablanib qichqirdi: “ Bu qarg'ish tulkiga kelsak, Iblisning o'zi uni ushlay olmadi. ”

Uning o'zini isbotlash imkoniyati Camden jangida general -mayor Xoratio Geytsga qo'shilish uchun kelganida paydo bo'ldi. Biroq, Geyts Frensisga ishonmasdi, shuning uchun unga Uilyamsburg militsiyasini boshqarishni va skautlik missiyasini davom ettirishni tayinladi. U jangni o'tkazib yuborgan bo'lsa -da, Marion o'z imkoniyatidan foydalanib, o'z militsiyasini ko'plab g'alabalarga olib keldi. Marion militsiyasi kamdan-kam dushmanlari bilan jangda qatnashardi. Ular yashirin edilar va ko'plab yirik dushman guruhlarini mag'lub etdilar. Shu sababli, Marion zamonaviy partizanlar urushining otalaridan biri sifatida tanilgan.

Xizmatda bo'lganidan so'ng, u uyiga qaytib keldi va uning plantatsiyasi jang paytida yonib ketganini ko'rdi. U yiliga 500 dollar maosh olardi va o'zini yangi uy topardi. U nihoyat 54 yoshida 49 yoshli amakivachchasiga uylandi. U tojga sodiqligi uchun qiynoqqa solinayotgan va haqoratlangan Tori -larni himoya qilish uchun ko'p mehnat qildi. Frensis Marion 1795 yilda 63 yoshida o'z mulkida vafot etdi.


Boy tarix

HOTELIMIZGA XUSH KELING

Inqilobiy urush qahramoni Frensis Marion nomi bilan atalgan (“Swamp Fox ”), Frensis Marion mehmonxonasi 1924 yilda ochilganda Charlestonning eng muhim diqqatga sazovor joyiga aylandi. tepaliklar, tarixiy saroylar va mashhur port, Charlestonning boyliklariga oson kirishni ta'minlaydi.

1996 yilda mukofotga sazovor bo'lgan restavratsiya 234 ta mehmonxona va lyukslarning barchasini yangilab berdi, hozirda ular hashamatli mebel va marmar hammomlarga ega. Marion maydonida shahar markazida joylashgan mehmonxona Charlestonni janubning eng yaxshi shaharlaridan biriga aylantirgan ajoyib bog'lar, uy muzeylari, antiqa do'konlar, mahalliy butiklar, restoranlar va tungi hayotga yaqin masofada joylashgan.

Spa Adagio, Swamp Fox Restaurant and Bar, Starbucks va 18000 kvadrat metrlik yig'ilish maydoni kabi qulayliklarga ega bo'lganingizda, agar siz Frensis Marion mehmonxonasida qolsangiz, hech kim sizni ayblamaydi.

Frensis Marion mehmonxonasi, beri Amerikaning Tarixiy mehmonxonalari a'zosi 1999.

Har qanday vaziyat uchun eng zo'r sovg'ani qidiryapsizmi? Tarixiy Frensis Marion mehmonxonasida yoki Swamp Fox restoranida kechki ovqat sovg'asini bering.


Detrek Brauning FMUga sodiq qoldi va maktabning eng yaxshi to'purari bo'ldi

Yanvar oyining boshida Kleyton shtatiga qarshi o'yinda Detrek Brauning uch nuqtali chiziq orqasida xotirjamlikni kutdi, jamoadoshi Brandon Parker bo'sh chiziqda bo'sh to'p uchun kurashdi. Oxir-oqibat, Parker to'pni Brauning tomon siljitdi, u to'pni yig'ib oldi, to'xtab qoldi va tasodifan uch nuqtadan o'tib, uning ismini FMU rekordlar kitobidan joy oldi. Nisbatan beqiyos savat bilan Brauning juda ajoyib narsaga aylandi-maktabning deyarli 50 yillik tarixidagi etakchi karerasi.

Rekordchi muntazam o'yinda qatnashgani ajablanarli emas. Brauningning o'yinchi sifatida tashrif kartasi - bu gol urish qobiliyati, garchi to'p savatini qo'yish usullarini topishning o'ziga xos qobiliyati oddiy ko'rinadigan bo'lsa.

Nima edi Spektaklning diqqatga sazovor tomoni shundaki, Brauning bu ishni umuman bajarishi kerak edi.

FMU basketbolining eng yaxshi o'yinchisi Detrek Brauning

O'tgan o'n yil ichida kollej basketbolining barcha darajadagi dinamikasi keskin o'zgardi. O'yinchilar maktabdan maktabga muntazam va osonlik bilan ko'chib o'tishadi, bir oz yashil o'tni qidirishadi va bu borada mehnatkash murabbiylar va maktablar uddasidan chiqa olmaydi. Ularning yo'li xavf bilan to'lgan.

O'yinchini juda sekin olib keling va u tez -tez o'ynashi/otishi/boshlashi mumkin bo'lgan vaziyatga ketadi. Ammo, ularni tezda olib keling, juda yaxshi rivojlantiring - va bu, ayniqsa, FMU kabi II bo'lim maktablari dasturlari uchun to'g'ri keladi - va katta maktablar qo'ng'iroq qilishadi. Ular o'z nomini NCAA rasmiy transferlar ro'yxatiga kiritmaguncha (har yili minglab), lekin hamma gap tarqalguncha, o'yinchi yollay olmaydi. Pssst. Agar sizning ismingiz ushbu ro'yxatda bo'lsa. …

U 2015-16 yillarda FMU uchun o'rtacha 20,1 ochko to'plaganidan so'ng, uning ikkinchi kursi, so'z Browningga aylandi. U erda maktablar bor edi - I bo'lim maktablari - qiziqish bildirishdi. Va Brauning mashqni bilardi. Do'stlar, dushmanlar, hatto uning ba'zi jamoadoshlari ham bu yo'ldan ketishgan.

"Men bir nechta odamdan eshitgandim, - deydi Brauning, - va odamlar qulog'imga tushib, menga bu katta imkoniyat ekanligimni aytishdi. Lekin… ”

Brauning boshini qimirlatadi, yelkalarini qisadi. Uning aytishicha, katta qaror, umuman, hech qanday qaror emas edi.

"Odam, (FMU) men uchun qilgan ishidan keyin ... men hech kim bo'lmaganida ular mening yonimda edilar", deydi Brauning. "Va bu erdagi odamlar har doim ajoyib edi. Bu men tegishli bo'lgan joy. Men hech qayerga bormadim. O'ylaymanki, ehtimol murabbiy xavotirda edi, lekin men ketmadim. "

Gari Edvards, Brauningning FMU murabbiyi, bahor paytida asabiylashib ketganini tan oladi. Ammo o'sha kunlar o'tdi va ularni eslash Edvardsning yuziga tabassum keltiradi.

"Detrek bu erda juda ko'p yaxshi ishlarni amalga oshirdi, ko'plab katta spektakllarni o'ynadi va u har doim mening sevimlilarimdan biri bo'ladi", deydi Edvards, "lekin agar siz mendan nimani eslayman deb so'rasangiz, bu hammasi. Bu Detrek ko'rsatgan sodiqlik. Bu kamdan -kam uchraydigan sifat. Bu u to'plagan barcha ochkolardan yaxshiroq ".

Voqealar sodir bo'ladi

Balki Detrek Brauning hech qachon FMUda jarohat olmasligi kerak edi.

U Kolumbiya shimolidagi Irmo (S.C.) o'rta maktabidan kelgani sir emas edi. Irmo, afsonaviy murabbiy Tim Uaypl boshchiligida, Janubiy Karolinadagi o'rta maktab basketbolining eng yaxshi dasturlaridan biri hisoblanadi va Detrek Brauning Yellowjackets bilan bo'lgan vaqt ichida buni kamaytirish uchun hech narsa qilmagan.

Brauning Irmoda uchta mavsumni o'tkazdi va jamoaga ikki davlat chempionligini qo'lga kiritdi. Katta yoshida Irmo 29-0 ga o'tdi-Whipple 37 yil davomida boshqargan yagona mag'lubiyatsiz jamoasi-Uipple beshinchi shtat unvonini qo'lga kiritdi.

Brauning bo'lmasligi mumkin - may Kalit so'z - Janubiy Karolina universiteti tarkibiga Jastin Makkini jalb qilgan jamoaning eng yaxshi o'yinchisi. Ammo u sir emas edi. U yoshligida katta ishga jalb qilingan va unga I ko'rinishda uzoq ko'rinishga ega bo'lgan bir qator dasturlari bo'lgan.

Lekin ... voqealar sodir bo'ldi. Ishonchli tuyulgan bitta dastur boshqa qo'riqchiga imzo chekdi va Brauningga boshqa qo'ng'iroq qilmadi. Yana bir murabbiy almashdi. Va hokazo.

Uayplning aytishicha, Brauning birinchi divizion ro'yxatiga tegishli ekanligi unga aniq edi.

"Oh, bu darajada o'ynashi mumkinligiga shubha yo'q", deydi Uipple. "Lekin bilasizmi, murabbiylar narsalarga qaraydilar ... bu qiyin. U (Brauning), ehtimol, kichkina edi, lekin bu oradagi vaziyatga aqlli kirgandir. U nuqta qo'riqchisi yoki o'q otishmidi? U katta yiligacha biz uchun ko'p ochko o'ynamadi. Balki u D-I o'q otish qo'riqchisi uchun kichkina bo'lsa kerak, balki u unchalik tez emasdir ... Shunday qilib ... "

Shunday qilib, o'sha yilning boshida, FMUdagi Edvards yordamchilaridan biri Brauningning o'yinini ko'rdi va vatanparvarlarga unga yugurishni taklif qildi. Edvards uni ko'rdi va tezda rozi bo'ldi - "men yil davomida ko'rgan eng yaxshi posbon", dedi Edvards.

Edvards Brauningning ishga yollanishi kulgili burilish yasaganini va sud matbuotini to'liq bosganini bildi. Browning rasmiy tashrifiga kelganida, Edvards unga to'liq stipendiya taklif qildi.

Brauning bir muncha vaqt turdi va hech qachon kelmagan "yaxshiroq" taklifni kutdi. Oxir-oqibat, uning aql-idroki-uni bilganlarning hammasi uni juda asosli odam deb bilishadi va onasining ozgina bezovtalanishi uni vatanparvarga aylantiradi.

"Men o'ylardim:" Balki katta maktab menga nimadir taklif qiladi ", - deydi Brauning. "Bu orada onam:" Sen aqldan ozdingmi? Ular sizga to'liq stipendiya taklif qilmoqdalar. Ular sizni chindan ham xohlashadi. Bilasizmi nima? U haq edi ».

Qizil ko'ylakning ko'z yoshlari

Birinchi kurs talabasi uchun sayqallangan o'yinchi bo'lsa -da, Browning FMU kampusiga Evrik Garini topish uchun keldi. uch raqami maktab tarixidagi to'purar - allaqachon nuqta qo'riqchisi rolini o'ynagan. Edvards va "Patriot" xodimlari Brauninga ishonishdi, bu ishni o'tirish - qizil ko'ylak - bu uning birinchi kursi, xuddi Gari qilganidek.

Bu harakat mantiqiy edi, lekin aytish osonroq. Qizil ko'ylaklar oddiy o'yinchilarning barcha mashg'ulot vaqtini o'tkazadilar, lekin o'yinlarda qatnasha olmaydilar, hatto jamoa bilan safar musobaqalariga bora olmaydilar.

"Siz haqiqatan ham ko'p marta yolg'iz qolasiz va ishlar ustida ishlashni davom ettirish, o'zingizni yaxshilashingiz uchun diqqatni jamlashingiz kerak", deydi Brauning. "Bu yaxshi narsa. O'rta maktabdan kollejga o'tishga ko'nikish uchun ko'p narsa bor. Bu basketbolga, maktabga, hamma narsaga yordam berdi. Men hammaga aytaman: "Qizil ko'ylak". Buni shunday qilish kerak. Bu men qilgan eng yaxshi ish. ”Lekin bu oson emas. Aytishim kerakki, bir necha ko'z yosh to'kilgan tunlar bo'lgan. "

Energiyani tejash

Bir nuqta - bu birinchi nuqta emas, lekin baribir - Brauning o'z o'yini, basketbol o'ynash uslubi haqida gapiradi. mumkin to'pni mahkamlang.

"Albatta," deydi Brauning. "Menda aslida ikkita o'yin bor (FMUda). O'ylaymanki, bundan ham ko'proq bo'lishi mumkin edi - muxlislar buni yoqtirishardi - lekin bu men hech qachon hayajonlanmagan narsa. Paqir - bu chelak. Men kuchimni tejashni afzal ko'raman. "

Energiyani tejashda yaxshi. Endi ko'p skautlik hisobotlarida ko'rinmaydigan chiziq bor. Ammo basketbolchi Detrek Brauningning bu jihati uning o'yini haqida hamma narsadan ko'p narsani aytadi. U hovli bo'ylab sirpanib, nazorat ostida, bir joydan ikkinchisiga - naridan to'g'ri joy uchun to'g'ri joy - raqiblarni, muxlislarni va hatto o'z murabbiyini befarqlik holatiga keltiradigan o'rganilgan beparvolik bilan.

"U o'sha yigitlardan biri,-deydi FMU Edvards,-keyin siz statistik varaqni olasiz va:" Yigirma besh ball? U buni qanday qildi? Men buni ko'rmadim. U juda silliq ".

Brauningning asosiy mahorati mutlaqo nomoddiydir. U o'yinni tug'ma tasavvurga ega, bu unga o'yinlarni rivojlanishidan oldin ko'rishga imkon beradi.

"Bu shunchaki sodir bo'lmaydi", deb tushuntiradi Brauning. "Menda juda yaxshi murabbiylar bor edi. Va men hamma spektakllar haqida o'ylayman. Men ular sodir bo'lishidan besh yoki 10 soniya oldin o'ylayman ".

Bu ko'pchilikdan besh yoki 10 (yoki undan ko'p) soniya oldinda.

Tezlik, o'q otish

Mukofotlar va mukofotlar Brauningning so'nggi mavsumida tez yig'iladi. U to'rt marta (yanvar oyigacha) "Shaftoli kamari" konferentsiyasining haftalik o'yinchisi bo'lgan, yanvar oyining boshida FMUning yagona o'yinida (41 ochko) to'plagan va mavsumdan keyingi mukofotlarga ham tayyor.

Bularning barchasi munosib, lekin baribir ajablanarli emas, chunki Brauning kamdan-kam hollarda erning eng yaxshi sportchisiga o'xshaydi. 6-0, 180-funtli basketbolchilar ketayotganda biroz baquvvat bo'lib, ba'zilarining mushaklari yo'q. Uning ikkita qamoqxonasi bir chetga surilsa ham, u unchalik zo'r emas, va u, ehtimol, atrofdagi eng tezkor yigit emas, garchi shaftoli kamari konferentsiyasining o'nlab dushmanlari buni tasdiqlasa-da, u etarlicha tez.

Brauning juda sportchi oiladan keladi. Uning onasi (Karlisa), turli amakilari, xolalari va amakivachchalari kollejda sport bilan shug'ullanishgan. Uning ukasi Detrekdan biroz og'irroq, "lekin baribir meni musobaqada mag'lub eta oladi. U ucha oladi.

"Mening kollejda futbol o'ynagan va tez aqldan ozgan amakim (Milton Kershou) menga tezlikni o'ldirishni erta o'rgatdi", deydi Brauning. "Bu ko'pchilik sport turlarining eng muhim qismi. Lekin kim tezroq bo'lishi shart emas. Bu kerak bo'lganda kim tez bo'lishi mumkin ".

Brauning-yaxshi himoyachi (u ham o'z karerasini o'g'rilik bo'yicha FMUning hamma vaqt etakchisi qatorida tugatadi), lekin uni ajralib turadigan narsa-uning hujumkor mahorati. Brauningning fikricha - basketbolni tahlil qilishni boshlash uchun yaxshi joy - asosiy mahorat - bu otish. U oddiy mexanikaga ega va o'yinni boshlagan paytidan boshlab unga kelgan zarbani sezadi - u 12 yoshida uyushtirilgan basketbolning birinchi yilida chempionlik o'yinida g'alaba qozonish uchun uzun ovozli signalchi urdi.

"Agar siz basketbolni o'qqa tuta olsangiz, demoqchimanki, siz uni otib tashlaysiz, siz umuman himoyasizsiz", deydi Browning. "Otishni to'xtatishga urinib ko'ring, bu soxta va men sizning oldingizga (sakrash) yoki joylashishga tayyorman. Buni to'xtatishga harakat qiling va .... "

Uning ovozi izdan chiqadi. Yana bir basketbol o'yini shunday ma'lumotni hayratlanarli tezlikda qayta ishlaydigan fikrga keldi.

"Men uchun har doim basketbolchilar soni ajablanarli - birinchi divizion o'yinchilari - otishni bilmaydilar", deydi Brauning. "Bu o'yinning ma'nosi, shunday emasmi?"

Gari rejasi

Brauning sobiq jamoadoshi Garining izidan borishni va iloji boricha professional tarzda basketbol o'ynashni rejalashtirmoqda. Gari FMU - Lyuksemburg, Bolgariya, Dubuk, Ayova va hozir, Kiprni tark etganidan beri g'alati dunyo turnesida edi, lekin u unutilmas voqealarga to'la chamadonga ega va u hali ham o'ynamoqda. Orzu hali ham tirik.

Brauning tushunadi. U juda yuqori saviyada o'ynashi mumkinligini biladi va buni isbotlashga intiladi, garchi bu g'alati yo'llarni bosib o'tib, sabr -toqatni o'rgansa ham.

Qachonki bu amalga oshsa, Brauning o'zining uzoq muddatli kelajagi murabbiylikda gumon qilinadi. U Dekan ro'yxatining talabasi, u may oyida psixologiya fakultetini tamomlaydi va u bu sohada yaxshi tarjima qilinadi deb o'ylaydi.

"Men basketbolni juda yaxshi tushunadiganga o'xshayman", deydi Brauning. "Menimcha (murabbiylik) natija berishi mumkin."


Frensis Marion: botqoq tulki

Bugun Amerika tarixi darsliklarida Frensis Marion haqida ko'p ma'lumot topa olmaysiz. Marion Kontinental Kongressda ham, Konstitutsiyaviy Konvensiyada ham xizmat qilmagan va u hech qachon federal hukumat lavozimini egallamagan. Shunga qaramay, u holda, Amerika mustaqillik urushi, albatta, boshqacha yo'l tutgan bo'lishi mumkin. Vashington urushdan keyin inqilobning buyuk qahramoni sifatida saxovatli maqtovlarga sazovor bo'ldi va Franklin frantsuz yordamiga muhtoj bo'lgan diplomatik boshlig'i edi, lekin Marion, partizan urushida qatnashgan "botqoqliklar" ning qodir va qat'iyatli qahramoni. o'z davlatini Britaniya ishg'olidan qutqarish bizning tarixiy ongimizdan g'oyib bo'ldi. So'nggi yillarda uning obro'si qisman Mel Gibsonning "Patriot" filmi tufayli qayta tiklandi, u Marionga o'xshash qahramonga ega edi, lekin u baribir asos soluvchi avlodni siyosiy jihatdan to'g'ri talqin qilishda muammolarga duch keladi va umuman unga munosib e'tibor berilmadi.

Marion 1732 yilda Janubiy Karolina shtatining Berkli okrugidagi Sent -Jon parishida, Amerika koloniyalarida Gabriel va Ester Marionda tug'ilgan. Marionlar oilasi Janubiy Karolinaga 1690 yilda Shimoliy Amerikadan boshpana izlayotgan frantsuz gugenotlari to'lqini tarkibida kelgan. Marion - chaqqon va kasal bola edi, bir zamondosh hazil qilganidek, "omarning kattaligida". U yoshligini otasining Santee kanalidagi plantatsiyasida o'tkazdi va dengizdagi hayotga bitta fojiali hujumni hisobga olmaganda, u 1758 yilda otasi vafot etguniga qadar shu erda qoldi. Marion ko'p o'tmay Pond Bluffga ko'chib o'tdi va o'zini farovon odam sifatida ko'rsatdi. va hurmatli ekuvchi.

Ko'pchilik ta'sischi avlodlar singari, Marion ham birinchi hind amerikalik hindu qabilalariga qarshi qonli va shafqatsiz janglarda birinchi jang ta'mini oldi. 1759 yilda Cherokee va Pensilvaniyadan Jorjiyaga oq tanli aholi punktlari o'rtasida ziddiyatlar ko'tarilganda, qayg'uni bostirish uchun bir necha shtat qo'shinlari chaqirildi. Janubiy Karolinada katta kuch to'plandi va Marion ixtiyoriy ravishda xizmatga ketdi. Urush ruhi bir muncha vaqt o'ldi, lekin 1761 yilda Cherokining bir qancha boshliqlari Janubiy Karolinaning uzoqdagi postida so'yilganidan so'ng, Cherokee xalqi urushga chaqirdi. Marion yana o'z davlatining chaqirig'iga javob berdi va bu safar militsiyada leytenant sifatida harakatni ko'rdi. U o'z odamlarini kuchli Cherokee pozitsiyasiga umidsiz hujumga olib keldi va keyinchalik Cherokee shaharlari va ekinlarini yoqishda ishtirok etdi. U bu vayronagarchilikda o'z roli haqida qayg'urdi va pishgan makkajo'xori dalalarini yoqishni buyurganida "ko'z yoshlarini tiyolmasligini" aytdi. Faqat "oq xalqlar, nasroniylar" ularni ochlikdan o'ldirganini biladigan "kichik hind bolalari" azob chekdilar. U o'z plantatsiyasiga qaytdi va 1775 yilda xizmat chaqirilgunga qadar tinch va osoyishta hayot kechirdi. Uning hamjamiyati uni Janubiy Karolina provinsiyasi Kongressiga xizmat qilib sayladi va Marion mustaqillik chaqirig'i ustida munozaralarni o'tkazdi. Leksington va Konkord janglaridan so'ng, Kongress yig'ilib, harakat yo'nalishi to'g'risida qaror qabul qildi. Marion munozaralarda qatnashmadi, lekin u urush uchun ovoz berdi va inqiroz sharoitida o'z davlatining irodasini qabul qildi.

Kongress yopilishidan oldin ham, Marion mustaqillik yo'lida odamlarni faol jalb qilardi. U Janubiy Karolina militsiyasining Ikkinchi polkida kapitan etib saylandi va ko'pchiligini skot-irland protestantlari bo'lgan ellik ko'ngilli kvotasini tezda topdi. Marion Fort -Jonsonni qo'lga kiritishda qatnashdi, keyin 1776 yil 28 -iyunda Sallivan orolidagi jang paytida o'zini tanitdi. Britaniya dengiz floti ertalab Charleston -Harborda kichik Amerika qal'asi - Fort -Sullivan Fort -Multrini bombardimon qila boshladi. va o'n bir soatlik jangdan so'ng, ikkita ellik qurolli jangchi yo'q qilindi, yumshoq palmetto yog'ochdan yasalgan qal'a katta zarar ko'rmadi. Xabarlarga ko'ra, Marion nikohning oxirgi zarbasini buyurgan, portlashda ikkita ingliz zobiti va uch dengizchi halok bo'lgan. Umuman olganda, ikki yuz ingliz dengizchisi o'ldirilgan yoki yaralangan, Janubiy Karolina militsiyasi esa o'ttiz sakkizta qurbon bo'lgan. Bu g'alaba inglizlarni uch yil janubdan uzoqlashtirdi. Xizmat va etakchilik uchun Marion podpolkovnik unvoniga sazovor bo'ldi va Fort Sallivan qo'mondoni bo'ldi, bu nufuzli sharaf, chunki qal'a Britaniyaning bo'lajak hujumlarining taxminiy markazidir.

1778 yilda inglizlar janubga qaytganlarida, ular birinchi bo'lib Savannaga (Jorjiya) hujum qilishdi. 1779 yilda Amerika qo'shinlari shaharni qaytarib olishga urinishdi. Marion Janubiy Karolina politsiyasi bilan janubga ko'chib o'tdi, lekin birinchi bo'lib kelgan inglizlarga o'z pozitsiyalarini mustahkamlashga ruxsat bergan frantsuz kontingenti g'azablandi. Xabar qilinishicha, u frantsuzlarning qobiliyatsizligini bilib, g'azabga kelgan. "Voh Xudoyim! Bunaqasini kim oldin eshitgan? Birinchidan, dushmanni o'ldirishga ruxsat bering, keyin u bilan jang qilasizmi? Bunker tepaligida inglizlar qanday vayronagarchiliklarga duch kelganini qarang- bizning qo'shinlar faqat militsionerlar, yarim qurolli, na minomyot, na to'ng'iz, hatto aylanma ham bor edi- faqat ularning o'rdak qurollari! Xo'sh, biz to'liq qurollangan, tanlangan artilleriya poyezdlari va ko'krak ishi bilan qoplangan oddiy odamlardan nima kutishimiz mumkin? ” Marion Britaniyaning Savannadagi pozitsiyasiga frontal hujumda qatnashdi. Uning Ikkinchi polki katta talofat ko'rdi va inglizlar qisqa vaqt ichida frantsuz-amerika qo'shinlarini 1100 kishiga kamaytirdilar. Marion qochib ketdi, lekin uning polkidagi eng zo'r erkaklar qochib qutula olmadilar.

Inglizlar oz odamlarini yo'qotib, shaharni egallab olishdi. Amerika qo'shinlari orqaga chekinishdi va Marionga Janubiy Karolina militsiyasini burg'ulash va tashkil qilish vazifasi topshirildi. Hamma inglizlar Charlstonni egallashga urinishadi deb taxmin qilishdi va 1780 yilda Marion o'z himoyasi uchun tayyorgarlik ko'rish uchun o'z odamlari bilan shaharga yurish qildi. Taqdir aralashdi. Marionni do'stlari bilan kechki ovqatga taklif qilishdi va uy egasi ularni sharob tugaguncha qamab qo'yganda, mo''tadil va hushyor Marion ikkinchi qavatli derazadan sakrab chiqib ketishga qaror qildi. Yiqilish uning to'pig'ini sindirdi va Marion Sent -Jon cherkovidagi uyiga nafaqaga chiqishga majbur bo'ldi.

Bu Amerika ishi uchun omadli voqea bo'ldi. Shahar mudofaasi uchun yuborilgan shimoliy general Benjamin Linkolnning qobiliyatsizligi tufayli, butun Amerika armiyasi keyingi hujumda Charlestonda asirga olindi, lekin Marion uy shifoidan qutulib qoldi va oxir -oqibat janub teatrining eng ko'zga ko'ringan ofitseriga aylandi. Amerika mustaqilligi.

Botqoq tulki

To'piq jarohati bilan og'rigan paytda Marion kichik bir guruh odamlarni uyushtirdi va Horatio Geyts qo'mondonligi ostida kontinental armiya bilan uchrashish uchun shimolga ko'chib o'tdi. U kelganida, Geyts janubiy karolinliklarning tartibsiz guruhiga kulishdan o'zini tiydi. Marion to'pig'ini sindirib tashladi, uning odamlari - oq va qora - yaxshi jihozlanmagan va yirtiq edi. Geyts ularni Janubiy Karolinaning ichki qismiga buyurdi. Rasmiy ravishda, ular dushman harakatlarini skaut qilish uchun yuborilgan, lekin aslida Geyts Marion va uning guruhidan qutulishga harakat qilardi. Bu qaror Amerika ishi uchun juda muhim edi. Geyts Kamden jangida mag'lubiyatga uchradi, natijada Marion odamlari Britaniyaning Janubiy Karolinani bosib olishiga katta to'siq bo'lib qoldi. Marion operatsiyalari bazasi, Uilyamsburg, Janubiy Karolina shtatining vatanparvar aholisi kuchli edi va u o'sha erga qo'shinlar jalb qilgan. Uning odamlari hech qanday haq to'lamasdan xizmat qilishgan, o'z mol -mulki va otlarini berishgan. Ular samarali, qattiq zarba beradigan, partizan guruhi bo'lib, ular tahdid solganda botqoqqa bug'lanib ketishi mumkin edi.

Kamden jangidan oldin, Marion va boshqa janubiy karolinliklar janubda "Fabian strategiyasini" rag'batlantirgan edilar, Gannibal boshchiligidagi karfagenlik ustun kuchlarini yo'q qilish uchun yakkalanish urushidan foydalangan Rim generali Kvint Fabius Maksimus nomidagi hujum chizig'i. Punik urushlari. Muntazam Janubiy Amerika qo'shinlari vayron bo'lganidan so'ng, Marion generallar Tomas Sumter va Endryu Pikkens bilan birgalikda Britaniyaning qarorini buzish va ularni shimolga siljishlariga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun bu yondashuvni qo'lladi.

Raqamlar unga ma'qul kelganida, u hujum qilar edi, va ular bo'lmaganida, u inglizlarni botqoqlarga olib borolmasdi. Uni inglizlar "eski tulki" yoki "botqoq tulki" deb atashgan. Marion ta'minot va aloqani to'xtatdi va mintaqadagi ingliz qo'mondonlarini bezovta qildi. 1780 yilda inglizlar uning ortidan polkovnik Banastre Tarletonni yuborishdi, ammo muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Xabarlarga ko'ra, "Qonli taqiq" Vaxshovlar jangida taslim bo'lgan amerikaliklarni o'ldirgan. U Marionni qo'lga olish uchun xuddi shunday shafqatsiz taktikaga qo'l urdi. Like General William Tecumseh Sherman in the War Between the States, “Bloody Ban” burned homes and other property, stole food and supplies, and left a swath of destruction in his path.

Of British officers Tarleton was possibly the most despised man by the patriots. Marion sometimes resorted to similar methods—he commandeered food and supplies he never burned homes—but whereas Tarleton left only blood and tears behind, Marion and his men left receipts, most of which were honored by the South Carolina government after the war. Guerilla warfare took its toll on the British. Instead of methodically moving north and sacking North Carolina, they were bottled up in South Carolina chasing a “swamp fox” that often disappeared rather than fight.

Marion’s fame grew. South Carolina Governor John Rutledge, leading the state “from the saddle” in exile, heard of his exploits and commissioned him a brigadier-general. Marion was ordered to take Georgetown, South Carolina, in January 1781, but failed. In the same month, however, American forces in the region won a stunning victory over the British at the Battle of Cowpens.

Newly appointed commander Nathanael Greene recognized Marion’s success and adopted a Fabian strategy during 1781 to keep the British out of North Carolina. He summarized it this way, “We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again.” Marion’s motto would have been, “We fight only the battles we should win, and we win if not, we disappear, and fight again.”

Marion was able to secure Fort Watson and Fort Motte, and he rescued a small American contingent in August 1781, a deed that resulted in an official letter of appreciation from the Continental Congress. He also stopped American General Charles Lee, the man who would have lost Fort Moultrie in 1776 if not for the genius of the South Carolinians, from slaughtering Loyalist captives at the conclusion of the battle of Fort Motte.

Marion despised cruelty in all its forms. British General Lord Charles Cornwallis determined that the American army in the South was being supplied through Virginia. In the spring of 1781, he left South Carolina for Virginia and, in the process, let Nathanael Greene slip back into the state. Marion helped Greene push the British back to the coast through a series of bloody engagements. He commanded the militia during the final battle in the Southern theater, the Battle of Eutaw Springs in September 1781, a battle immortalized in the South Carolina state song.

Marion had no more battles to fight. His heroic efforts had not only made him a household name in South Carolina, but might have provided the turning point of the war, tying up British troops that would otherwise have advanced North and possibly captured George Washington in a vise.

Marion retired to a plantation destroyed by war. The life-long bachelor, who one subordinate officer described as an “ugly, cross, knock kneed, hook-nosed son of a bitch,” took his cousin, Mary Esther Videau, as his wife in 1786. She was a wealthy widow, and Marion needed the money, if nothing else. He served in the South Carolina Senate in 1781, 1782, and 1784, and as the honorary commander of Fort Johnson from 1784 to 1790. He was elected as a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1790 and served again in the state senate the following year.

Marion died at his home in St. John’s in 1795 at the age of 63. His tombstone read: “HISTORY will record his worth, and rising generations embalm his memory, as one of the most distinguished Patriots and Heroes of the American Revolution: which elevated his native Country TO HONOUR AND INDEPENDENCE, AND Secured to her the blessings of LIBERTY AND PEACE. . . . ”

The politically incorrect soldier

Marion was a dedicated servant to South Carolina throughout his life. That is his allure. He never served in the Continental Army and considered South Carolina to be his native “country.” When duty called, he served with honor, and like Washington, the more famous “citizen-soldier,” returned to his plantation when the fighting was over. He owned slaves, but fought alongside blacks for much of the war. John Blake White, in an 1830s painting, portrayed Marion as a gentleman offering an “enemy” officer supper, a depiction that also included Marion’s body servant, Oscar, the man who fought side-by-side with him during the darkest days of the Revolution. Washington is often chastised for his refusal to allow black soldiers to fight in the Revolution—he later changed course—but they did fight in the Southern theater. Marion proved that.

Historians have also been critical of Marion for the role he played on the frontier, fighting Indians, in 1761. Wars against the Indian tribes were typically brutal, often inhumane affairs, with barbarism exhibited on both sides. Marion showed remorse for his deeds, even during the conflict, and never appeared to be an “Indian hater.” Marion is one of the true heroes of the Founding generation, a man who played no political role, but who personified the spirit and determination of South Carolina’s patriots.


American Heroes: Francis Marion, South Carolina’s “Swamp Fox”

MOST AMERICANS ENVISION Colonel Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox,” as a tall, strong, handsome, and swashbuckling cavalryman, fearlessly leading South Carolinians to victory in the American Revolution. Certainly after the film, “The Patriot,” many Americans will associate the Swamp Fox with Mel Gibson’s brave and tragic character. Actually Marion did not look or act like a hero at all. He was short (although Mel Gibson isn’t that tall, either!), frail, and walked with a limp (he broke his ankle jumping out the window of a party he left early). Colonel Marion was an uneducated bachelor who was described as eccentric and unable to get along with his fellow military officers. He was not bold in his military tactics, but rather very cautious and prudent. Yet Marion was undoubtedly a courageous and deadly soldier, whose guerilla warfare techniques severely crippled British campaigns in the South, and helped to ensure American victory in the War for Independence.

Marion first learned his “Indian style” of warfare while fighting the Cherokees in the Southern theater of the French and Indian War (1756-1763). With American Independence in 1776, Marion was commissioned a major in the South Carolina militia. He helped to repulse the British bombardment of Charleston in 1776, commanding a battery of cannon that crippled the British fleet and sent it running off the next morning “like earless dogs.” But the American triumph was short-lived. The Redcoats returned under Lord Cornwallis and captured Charleston and 5,000 Americans (under Benjamin Lincoln) in 1780. A short time later, another American army under General Gates was shattered at Camden. Without an army or a base of operations, Colonel Marion collected a ragged band of followers and slipped into hiding in the swampy lowlands of British-occupied South Carolina.

During the next 2 ½ years Marion engaged in the devastating guerilla warfare that earned him the title of “Swamp Fox.” Although virtually in a sea of enemies, Marion and militia leaders Thomas Sumter and Andrew Pickens kept resistance alive in South Carolina until the Continental Army could recapture the region. Since over half of the South Carolina backcountry was Loyalist, or Tory, Marion engaged as much in civil war he did war against the British. The Swamp Fox and his mounted raiders hid and camped in the woods and swamps of the backcountry, foraging for food and supplies, and when the opportunity arose, striking at the British and Tory forces with ferocity.
Their chief weapon was surprise, and the ambush was their specialty. They attacked swiftly, and then vanished into the swamps before reinforcements could arrive. British officers soon became obsessed with capturing the Swamp Fox and his men. “Our army will be destroyed by these damned driblets,” one British general raged. Marion actively gathered intelligence and disrupted the redcoats’ supply and communication lines. Yet the British seemed powerless to stop him. As his name and reputation spread, scores of volunteers rode into the lowlands to join his band. The once-strong Loyalist militia refused to fight him and, as Colonel Marion observed, “the Torreys are so affrighted with my little Excursions that many is moving off to Georgia with their Effects other are rund into Swamps.”

Ironically, the Swamp Fox and the other South Carolina guerillas eventually worked themselves out of a job. The Continental Army returned and Colonel Francis Marion, much to his dismay, found himself back in the regular army. Marion despised the rules and politics of professional soldiering and found himself constantly at odds with his commanding officers. When the British surrendered in Charleston (1783), he returned to civilian life, though retaining the commission of Brigadier General in the South Carolina militia.
Nevertheless, Francis Marion can share some of the credit for American independence. Due to Marion’s and others’ guerilla bands, the British could never secure South Carolina permanently their entire Southern offensive was stymied. Indeed, factoring in the North Carolina militia’s subsequent victory at King’s Mountain (1780), historians have rightly credited the Southern militia with expediting the American victory in the Revolutionary War. It was setbacks in Carolina, after all, that propelled Lord Cornwallis to his rash decision to leave the Carolinas and attack Virginia instead—a decision that landed him and 8000 troops on the Yorktown Peninsula in 1781.

The “Swamp Fox’s” last years were spent rebuilding his war-torn plantation and serving in the South Carolina state senate. Marion finally married at age 56, and led the life of a country gentleman. When Francis Marion died in 1795, the “little Colonel with a limp” had the respect and admiration of the nation whose independence he had fought to secure.

Source: Marion Marsh Brown, The Swamp Fox (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1950) Robert D. Bass, Swamp Fox: The Life and Campaigns of General Francis Marion (New York: Holt, 1959).


Later Life

Marion was re-elected to the state senate in 1782 and 1784. In the years after the war, he generally supported a lenient policy toward the remaining Loyalists and opposed laws intended to strip them of their property. As a gesture of recognition for his services during the conflict, the state of South Carolina appointed him to command Fort Johnson. Largely a ceremonial post, it brought with it an annual stipend of $500 which aided Marion in rebuilding his plantation. Retiring to Pond Bluff, Marion married his cousin, Mary Esther Videau, and later served at the 1790 South Carolina constitutional convention. A supporter of the federal union, he died at Pond Bluff on February 27, 1795.


Francis Marion National Forest

The Francis Marion National Forest is located north of Charleston, South Carolina. It is named for revolutionary war hero Francis Marion, who was known to the British as the Swamp Fox. It lies entirely within the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. [3] The park is also entirely in the Subtropical coniferous forest.

This National Forest is contained entirely in the counties of Charleston and Berkeley and is 258,864 acres (1,050 km 2 ) in size. The forest contains the towns of Awendaw, Huger, Jamestown, and McClellanville. Charleston provides emergency services to the southeastern portions of the forest. Forest headquarters are located in Columbia, together with those of Sumter National Forest. There are local ranger district offices located in Cordesville.

In 1989, the forest was nearly destroyed by Hurricane Hugo only the young growth survived the storm and its aftermath. Today, most trees in the forest do not predate this hurricane.

The forest is a multiple use area. Recreation opportunities include campsites, rifle ranges, boat ramps, and several trails for hiking, horseback riding, mountain biking, including the Palmetto Trail, as well as off-road motorcycling and atv riding specifically at the Wambaw Cycle Trailhead. (OHV) The Forest Service also administers wilderness areas, experimental forests, timber production, and protection and management of wildlife and the watershed.

There are four officially designated wilderness areas lying within Francis Marion National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Francis Cabrel appelle à laide pour trouver un médecin pour sa commune (Oktyabr 2021).

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