Muhandislar XVI asr boshlarida Markaziy Evropaning konlarida yog'och temir yo'llar qurishni boshladilar. Angliyada birinchi yog'och temir yo'l 1604 yilda Vullatonda qurilgan. Asl g'oya Wollaton Colliery-dan Nottingem aholisiga ko'mir tashish uchun otli yog'och temir yo'ldan foydalanish edi. Ko'p o'tmay, shunga o'xshash temir yo'llar Shropshir va Nortumberlendda qurildi.
Iloji boricha yuk vagonlari daryo yoki bandargohga tushishi uchun vagon yo'llari o'rnatildi. Keyin otlar bo'sh vagonlarni tepalikka olib chiqish uchun ishlatilgan. 1758 yilda parlament kollej egalari vagon qurishdan oldin ruxsat so'rashlari kerak degan qarorga keldi. O'sha yili, Charlz Brandling, Middlton Kollieri va Lids o'rtasida vagon qurishga ruxsat so'raganda, birinchi bo'lib parlament aktini qabul qildi.
Kristofer Blekett, Wylam Colliery kompaniyasining egasi, Tayn daryosiga ko'mir olib o'tadigan besh millik yog'och vagonga ega edi. 1804 yilda Blekett Richard Trevitikni otdan yasalgan ko'mir vagonlari o'rnini bosadigan lokomotiv qurish uchun ishga joylashtirdi. Biroq, Vaylam lokomotivning og'irligi besh tonna edi, u Blekettning yog'och aravachasi uchun juda og'ir edi.
Beamish Shimoliy tirik muzeyining uyi sifatida mashhur. Bu Shimoliy -Sharqiy Angliyaning ijtimoiy va sanoat tarixi bilan bog'liq artefaktlarni yig'ishni boshlagan Yorkshirman, sobiq Barnard qal'asidagi Bouz muzeyining direktori Frenk Atkinsonning fikri edi. Uning to'plamlari 1970 yilda Beamish Hall muzeyiga asos solingan va natijada Beamish ochiq havo muzeyiga aylangan.
Beamish muzeyi. Surat © Devid Simpson
Bunday muzeyni qurish loyihasi birinchi marta 1958 yilda Atkinson tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan va dastlabki kunlarda ba'zi artefaktlar Durham -Siti yaqinidagi sobiq Brancepet armiyasi lagerining kulbalarida saqlangan.
1970 yildan boshlab Beamishdagi Angliyaning Shimoliy Ochiq Ochiq Muzeyi Shimoliy -Sharqiy mintaqadagi mahalliy hokimiyatlarning qo'shma qo'mitasi tomonidan moliyalashtirildi va hozir ham shunday davom etmoqda. Muzeyda saqlanadigan xususiyatlar Teesside -dan Northumberlandgacha bo'lgan butun mintaqadan keladi.
1970-1972 yillar mobaynida ko'rgazmalar zalga joylashtirildi, lekin o'sha vaqtdan keyin muzeyning ochiq havosi borgan sari oshib bora boshladi va hozir muzey 300 gektardan ortiq maydonni egallaydi.
Beamish Hall endi muzeyning bir qismi emas va 2000 yildan buyon mehmonxona bo'lib kelgan. Muzeyning ko'plab binolari, xususiyatlari, artefaktlari va kostyumli xodimlari Angliyaning shimoli -sharqida, 1913 yilgi kabi, qo'shimcha maydon bilan hayotni qayta tiklaydilar. 1820 yilga bag'ishlangan Pockerley saytida va hozirda ishlab chiqilayotgan yangi hudud 1950 -yillarga qaratiladi.
Beamishdagi binolar 1800 yilga yaqin uy xo'jaliklarini o'z ichiga oladi. Bu xo'jalik muzeydan ancha oldin joylashgan edi va dastlab Beamish Hall bilan bog'liq otxonalar edi.
Muzey shaharchasi Gatesxeddagi Benshamdan terasli ko'cha va#8211 Ravensworth Terrace, Sanderlenddagi masonik zal, Annfild tekisligidagi kooperativ do'koni va shu jumladan butun hududdan olib kelingan demontaj qilingan binolarni qayta qurish natijasida qurilgan. Bishop Oklenddan Sun Inn deb nomlangan uy. Shahardagi boshqa binolarga bosmaxona va stantsiyalar, stomatologiya, otxona va otlar bilan pivo zavodi kiradi.
Shahar, Beamish muzeyi. Rasm © Jon Simpson
Muzeyning Beamish Station deb nomlangan temir yo'l vokzali, haqiqatan ham, Rowley Stantsiyasi yaqinidagi Consett yaqinidagi kichik aholi punktidan 1867 yilga to'g'ri keladi. Muzeyning boshqa xususiyatlariga Geytsxeddagi Saltuell Parkdagi bandstend, Carr House East yaqinidagi temir yo'l signallari kiradi. Consett va Alnvikdan to'kilgan tovarlar.
Muzeyning ko'mir konida 1854 yildagi Ueslian metodistlar ibodatxonasi joylashgan bo'lib, u haqiqiy Beamish qishlog'idan (Pit Xill), muzey maydoni tashqarisida joylashgan, muzey maktabi esa yaqin atrofdagi Sharqiy Stenli qishlog'idan kelgan.
Muzeyning chuqur uylari Hetton-le-Xol shahridagi ko'chalardan kelgan. Bu Frensis ko'chasi edi va asl joyida Kembrij gersoginyasi Keyt Middltonning ko'mir qazib oluvchi ajdodlari yashaydigan boshqa kollierlar qatori bo'lgan.
Biroq, mahogany drift deb nomlangan muzey yaqinidagi drift minasi muzey ochilishidan ancha oldin edi. Mahogany Drift Beamish hududida mavjud bo'lgan ko'plab minalardan biri edi. Muzeydagi kolliya binolari ham o'sha joydan. Burilish moslamalari va kollierlar binosi Beamish 2 -sonli chuqurdan qilingan va muzeyning kollieri maydonida ustunlik qiladi.
Beamish muzeyida eski uslubda dehqonchilik. Rasm © Jon Simpson
Muzeyning sharqiy qismi 1825 yilgi mavzuni o'z ichiga oladi va "Pockerley Vagonway" nomli qayta ishlangan vagon yo'lini o'z ichiga oladi, u Jorj Stivensonning birinchi raqamli lokomotivi va boshqa bug 'lokomotivining ish nusxasi va "bug' fil" deb nomlangan.
Yaqin atrofdagi Pockerley Manor fermasida 1825 yilgi mavzu ham bor, lekin bu ferma muzey ochilishidan ancha oldin bo'lgan. Bu qisman O'rta asr tosh uyi bo'lib, bu erda qadimgi Norman uyidan mustahkamlangan qal'a uyining o'rnini egallagan. Pockerley ingliz-sakson va "8216Pocca" dan kelib chiqqan qiziqarli inglizcha ismga ega, uning nomi "gobgoblinni tozalash" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Muzeyning bu qismida, shuningdek, O'rta asrlardagi Sent -Xelen cherkovi joylashgan bo'lib, u bu erga Midlsbro yaqinidagi Estondan ko'chirilgan va shu joyda qayta qurilgan.
Muzeyning alohida qismlari bir -biri bilan haqiqiy elektr tramvaylar yoki tepasi ochiq avtobus orqali bog'langan.
Burradon va Nortumberlend o'tmishi
Men Blyt daryosining janubiy qirg'oqlari bo'ylab, eski Bates kollieri joylashgan joydan, Bebsidedagi o'choq ko'prigigacha piyoda yuraman. Sohilning narigi tomonida suv oqimi paytida loydan chiqib ketgan yog'och ustunlarning ko'rinadigan, ammo to'liq bo'lmagan qoldiqlari ko'rinadi. Bir to'plam Slebbern og'ziga yaqin, ikkinchisi A189 yo'l ko'prigiga yaqin. Uzoq vaqt davomida suv ostida qolgan anaerob sharoit, shubhasiz, ularning saqlanishiga yordam bergan.
|Slekburn og'zidagi chiziqli yog'och tuzilmaning qoldiqlari|
|Yog'och konstruktsiya River Blyth Shimoliy qirg'og'i Kiti Brewsterga qarama -qarshi|
Birinchi taxmin shundaki, ular qandaydir jetni qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Lekin ularning aniq maqsadi nima edi? Qaysi davrda ular ishlatilgan? Va ular ishlayotganda qanday ko'rinishga ega edilar?
Men birinchi navbatda 1850-60-yillarning qurol-yarog'lar tadqiqotining xaritasiga qaradim, u yog'och konstruktsiyalarda to'xtaydigan vagon yo'llarini ko'rsatdi. Shubhasiz, konstruktsiyalar yuklarni qayiqlarga tushirish uchun burilishlar yoki tayanchlar edi. Vagon yo'llari allaqachon 1 -chi xaritada ishlatilmagan deb belgilangan.
|1 -chi OS OS xaritasi c1860, sariq rangda belgilangan eski vagonlarni ko'rsatadi (kattalashtirish uchun bosing)|
Ikkita vagon yo'llari Bedlington kollieri deb nomlangan joyga olib keladi. Vagon yo'li Bedlington chuquridan avval Shimoliy, keyin G'arbiy Gollandiya tomon cho'ziladi.
A189 (Orqa miya yo'li) ko'prigi yaqinida tugaydigan vagon, shimoliy-g'arbiy yo'nalishda, bir necha yuz metrga, shimolga keskin burilishdan oldin, Puddlers Rowning terasli uyida, endi yo'q.
|Grinvudning Northumberland xaritasi 1828 yil|
1828 yilgi Grinvudning Northumberland xaritasi Bedlington chuquridan Slebbern og'zigacha vagon borligini bildirmaydi. Darhaqiqat, 1860 yildagi Odnance Survey xaritasida 1-nashr bosilgan Bedlington chuqurligi Bedlington Pit edi, u Durham kon muzeyi veb-saytining ma'lumotlariga ko'ra 1838 yilda ochilgan. Shuning uchun Slekburn vagon yo'li 1838 yil yozilgan bo'lishi kerak. Qisqa muddatli xizmat faqat 1840-50 yillarda foydali xizmatni topdi. Vagon yo'llari-ot vagonlarini olib yuradigan dastlabki temir yo'llar. Reylar yog'ochdan yasalgan.
1860 yildagi xaritada shimoldan janubgacha va Bedlington chuquridan o'tadigan asosiy temir yo'l liniyasi ko'rsatilgan. Bu liniya bugungi kunda ham ishlatilmoqda. Bu liniyaning qurilishi ko'mirni Blit daryosi orqali tashishdan ko'ra osonroq, tezroq va arzonroq bo'lardi. Slebburn vagonlari tezda eskirgan bo'lardi.
Umurtqa yo'li ko'prigi yaqinidagi vagon, ehtimol, yangi temir yo'l bilan ham eskirgan. Ammo uning uzoq tarixi bor edi. Xo'sh, bu vagon qachon qurilgan va nima uchun?
Saytlar va yodgorliklar yozuvi, www.KeystothePast.info veb -saytida e'lon qilinganidek, vagon yo'lining 1787 yilga tegishli bo'lgan xaritada, Bedlington nomli chuqurdan Blyt daryosining shimoliy qirg'og'igacha cho'zilganligini ko'rsatadi. Shuningdek, u 1837 yilgi Xirst Xed Mulk xaritasida ko'rinadi.
Xaritani ko'ra olmaganim uchun, chuqur qaerda bo'lishini bilmayman. Ehtimol, bu 1828 yilgi Grinvud xaritasida ko'rsatilgandek vagon yo'lida bo'lgan va kichik hajmdagi ibtidoiy korxona edi. Ehtimol, bu Bedlington A chuquriga aylanadigan joy edi.
Blyt daryosi - bu vaqtda vagonlar to'xtab qoladi. To'lqinning eng past nuqtasida daryo tomchilab ketmaydi. Grinvud xaritasi shuni ko'rsatadiki, 1828 yilda bu joy aslida daryoda to'xtash joyi bo'lgan. Xaritalar, shuningdek, vagon daryo bo'yiga chiqishdan oldin kichik tunneldan o'tganini ko'rsatdi. Saytlar va yodgorliklar yozuvi tunnel hali ham mavjudligini va yaqinda mustahkamlanganligini ko'rsatdi.
Saytga tashrif shuni ko'rsatdiki, mahalliy hokimiyat organlari tomonidan o'rnatilgan tunnelning og'ziga talqinli displey taxtasi o'rnatilgan bo'lib, unga o'simliklar o'sib ketganligi sababli ham kirish mumkin emas. Bu nimani oshkor qildi:
|Tunnelga Vagonway daryosi tomon qarab turgan chiziqqa qaragan|
Hatto yuqori to'lqinlarda ham, dengizga munosib bo'lgan katta kemalar, bu narigi oqimga, tog'larga chiqa olmas edi. Biz taxmin qilishimiz mumkinki, Bedlington A pitining egalari Slebbern og'ziga, undan pastroqda, vagon yo'lini qurishga ketdilar, chunki suv uzoq vaqt chuqurroq edi, bu esa uzoqroq ishlash muddatini ta'minladi. Yaqin atrofda joylashgan Keelman's Row nomli uy -joy bloki 1 -chi OS xaritasida ko'rsatilgan va bu transport tizimining qanday ishlashini ko'rsatishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, Blyutda ancha pastda Keelman qatori bor edi.
Keelmen 18-asrda Nyukasl aholisining katta va taniqli qismini tashkil qildi. Bu Vikipediyadan:
Blythda qayiqlardan foydalanish boshqa joylarda ham yaxshi hujjatlashtirilmagan. Shubhasiz, Tayn bilan taqqoslaganda, Blyitda ishlayotgan keelmenlar sonining ozgina qismi bor edi. Blyitdagi port 1850 -yillarga qadar ishlab chiqilmagan. Bu vaqtgacha portdan foydalana oladigan kemalar soni cheklangan edi.
Qal'aning tuzilishini yaqindan o'rganish shuni ko'rsatadiki, asosiy tuzilishga burilish yordamida biriktirilgan ba'zi qoldiqlar mavjud bo'lib, bu birinchi qarashda ko'rinadiganidan ancha murakkab mexanizmni ko'rsatadi. Ehtimol, tikuvlar yaqin atrofdagi temir zavodlarida ishlatila boshlagach, yaxshilangan va kengaytirilgan bo'lishi mumkin.
Oston janubidagi Pelton, kelib chiqishi Sakson davridan kelib chiqadi, garchi ismning ma'nosi bahsli bo'lsa. Bu "pallisadli qishloq" yoki "belkurak shaklidagi tepalik yaqinidagi qishloq" degan ma'noni anglatishi mumkin. Ko'rinib turibdiki, bu uchburchak shaklidagi belkurakni anglatadi, agar mahalliy tepaliklardan birortasi shunday shaklga o'xshash deb ta'riflansa.
Pelton qishlog'i old ko'chaning bir qismini tashkil etuvchi Pelton Leynda joylashgan. O'tmishda "Pelton Lonnin" deb nomlangan, u Peltonni Chester-le-ko'chaning markazi bilan bog'laydi. Tarixiy ravishda Pelton Leyn Shimoliy mamlakatning "Pelton Lonnin" xalq qo'shig'ida eslab o'tilgan. An'anaviy tarzda Pelton tumanidagi bolalarga aytilgan so'zlar ko'p satrlarda takrorlangan:
Cho'chqalar Pelton Lonnindan pastga jiringlaydilar
Beshta qora cho'chqa bor va hech qachon g'alati emas
Uchtasi - dayk va ikkitasi - lonnin
Beshta qora cho'chqa bor va hech qachon g'alati emas
1320 yilda Pelton Burdon oilasiga mansub edi va 1569 yilda erlari musodara qilingan Redhughs, Whelpingtons va Nevillesga o'tdi. Pelton Fell shahridagi Collieries XIX asrda aholi sonining o'sishiga olib keldi, lekin bu erda allaqachon konchilik bilan shug'ullanadigan aholi ko'p edi. XVIII asrda joylashgan hudud.
Metodizm asoschisi Jon Uesli 1743 va 1780 yillarda Pelton qishlog'ida va'z qilgan. 1743 yilda u shunday degan:
"Men Peltonda va'z qilayotganimda, bu kabi narsalarga unchalik o'rganmagan eski kollierlardan biri, va'zning o'rtasida, faqat mamnunlik va qalb hursandchiligi uchun" amain "deb baqira boshladi. Ammo ularning odatiy tasdiqlash belgisi (bu meni biroz hayratda qoldirdi) meni orqamdan qarsak chaldi ».
Northumberlanddagi temir yo'llarning tarixi
Vaggonvey Bigges Main Colliery -dan Tayn staytlariga yugurgan ko'rinadi.
Daily Mail - 200 yil oldin qurilgan yog'och vagonvay, sobiq koleriya yaqinida topilgan - bu "topilgan standart temir yo'lning eng qadimiy namunasi".
Google Street View va www-old-maps.co.uk 430000,565700 manzillarini ko'ring ("Chop etish hajmini o'chirish" tugmasini bosing)
Plessi Vuden Vagonvey Plessey Checks NZ2479 yaqinidagi chuqurlardan Blyth NZ3181gacha yugurdi. U 1600 -yillarning oxirlarida ochilgan va 1813 -yilda yopilgan. A192 yo'li bir necha mil masofani bosib o'tadi.
Blyth xaritalari -
Geografiya NZ3181 - Britaniya tarixi - Microsoft Virtual Earth - Vikimapiya - Google Xaritalar
Northumberland jamoalari - Blyth
Eski xaritalar 1865 yil 1: 10,560 xaritasida "Plessay Old Wagonway" ni ko'rsatadi, koordinatalari 431500_580800.
Blyth shifoxonasi Vokzal maydonida qurilgan, koordinatalari 431000_581600.
Wylam Wooden Waggonway 1748 yilda ochilgan. Keyinchalik u temir relslarga ega bo'lib, 1867 yilda yopilgunga qadar. Uilyam Xedli Wylam NZ1164 dan Lemington NZ1864 staitlariga ko'mir tashish uchun lokomotivlar qurgan. Billini puflash 1813 yil Londondagi fan muzeyida. Vaylam Dilli 1814 yil Edinburgdagi Shotlandiya Qirollik muzeyida.
O'shandan beri Tayn yo'nalishi Lemingtonda uzoq davom etmasligi uchun o'zgartirildi. Wylam Waggonway yo'nalishining ko'p qismi 1875 yilda Skotsvud, Nyurnn va Vylam temir yo'llari tomonidan ishlatilgan.
Northumberland jamoalari - Vylam
Killingvort Vaggonvey - CR o'z kitobida ogohlantiring Waggonways va Northumberlandning erta temir yo'llari 1764 yilda Killingworth Moor -dan Villington Quaygacha bo'lgan yog'och vagon yo'li ochilganligini aytadi.
Qurol -yarog 'so'rovi Killingworth Old Pit NZ2870 dan Tyne daryosidagi Killingworth Drops NZ3166gacha bo'lgan temir vagonni ko'rsatadi. Bu vagonlar Burradon Colliery NZ2772 ga etib kelishdi. Jorj Stivensonning NZ2770 raqamli yozgi uyi G'arbiy Murdagi Killingworth Colliery yaqinidagi Paradise Rowda edi.
Kittining siljishi Sharqiy Kentondan Skotsvudgacha 3 kilometrga yaqin tunnel edi. Tunnelning shimoli-sharqiy uchi bu saytda ko'rsatilmagan, lekin NZ2267 kvadratda bo'lishi mumkin. Kristofer Bedlington uni 1796 yilda konlarni to'kish va Taynga ko'mir tashish uchun ochgan. The yer osti tunnel Robert Gallouey tomonidan 1812 yilgi xaritada ko'rsatilgan. U Montaganing magistral vagonlari g'arbiga yugurdi.
Siklopediya 1819 yilda Ibrohim Ris tunnel bo'ylab bo'sh ko'mir vagonlarida sayohat qilganlar haqida hikoya qiladi. Keyinchalik ko'mir 1808 yilda ochilgan Kenton va Coxlodge vagonlari tomon yo'naltirildi.
Shilbottle kollieri temir yo'li 1809 yilda Shilbottle Colliery NU1808 dan Alnwick NU1912gacha ochilgan. U 1828 yilgi xaritada Grinvud tomonidan ko'rsatilgan. Ushbu yo'nalishning shimoliy uchi hali ham Vaggon yo'li yo'li deb nomlanadi. Bundan tashqari, Longdyke Pit NU2010 dan Alnwickgacha bo'lgan tramvay yo'li va Grange Pit NU2107 dan ECML NU2308gacha bo'lgan temir yo'l bor edi.
Northumberland jamoalari - Shilbotl
Uitli Vagonvey U 1811 yilda Whitley Bay NZ3571 yaqinidagi chuqurlardan ochilgan va North Shields NZ3668 ga yugurgan. Marshrutning katta qismi 1860 yilda Blyth va Tyne temir yo'llarida ishlatilgan.
Backworth Waggonway 1818 yilda ochilgan va Backworth A Pit NZ3071dan Tayn daryosidagi Whitehill Point NZ3566gacha yugurgan. Vaggonvey Backworth B Pit NZ2972 va West Cramlington Colliery NZ2675 ga uzaytirildi.
Kramlington Vaggonvey Cramlington Colliery (1825) NZ2876 dan Tayn daryosidagi Cramlington Staiths NZ3366gacha yugurdi. Amelia Pit NZ2778, Hartford Colliery NZ2679, Nelson Colliery NZ2677 va Dadli Colliery NZ2573 filiallari bor edi.
Northumberland jamoalari - Kramlington
Seaton Burn Waggonway 1826 yilda Brunton NZ2270 dan Wideopen NZ2472, Hillhead Engine NZ2872 va Shiremoor Engine NZ3170 orqali Tayn daryosidagi Staiths NZ3366gacha bo'lgan Brunton va Shilds temir yo'li sifatida boshlangan. U 1837 yilda Wideopen Collierydan Seaton Burn Colliery NZ2374gacha uzaytirilib, Olti mil ko'prigi yaqinidagi Buyuk Shimoliy yo'lni kesib o'tdi. 20 -asrda Brenkley Colliery NZ2274, Mill Hill Pit NZ2172, Havannah Drift Mine NZ2171 va Weetslade Colliery Lizzie Pit NZ2572 filiallari bor edi.
Golton Vaggonvey 1828 yilda Netherton NZ2381 dan Morpeth NZ2085gacha ochilgan. Keyinchalik u Xovard Pit, Frensis Pit va Goltonxoll kollieri bilan Bedlingtonni bog'ladi. 1828 yil Grinvud xaritasi Bedlington Iron Works NZ2782 atrofida erta temir yo'llarni ko'rsatadi. Gollandiya Vaggonveyning sharqiy uchi ko'rsatilgan. Niderton endi Nedderton deb yoziladi.
Northumberland jamoalari - Nedderton
Vaggonveyning gumbazi (yoki Wallbottle) - Temir vagonli yo'l Shimoliy Walbottle Colliery NZ1868 dan Coronation Pit NZ1767, Blucher Pit NZ1766 va Lemington Staiths NZ1864gacha yugurdi. Boshqa filial Duke Pit NZ1666dan Lemington Staithsgacha bo'lgan.
Coxlodge Waggonway - Gosforth va Kenton Vagonvey sifatida ham tanilgan. Bu Coxlodge Colliery Jubilee Pit NZ2368 va Regent Pit NZ2468 dan Tyne daryosidagi Wallsenddagi Coxlodge Staiths NZ3065gacha bo'lgan. Marshrutning ko'p qismini 1901 yildan 1930 yilgacha Tyneside tramvaylari va tramvaylari ishlatgan. Bu kompaniya 1930 yilgacha ikki qavatli elektr tramvaylarni, keyin esa 1930 yildan 1975 yilgacha avtobuslarni boshqargan.
Favdon Vagonvey - Old-Ordnance Survey xaritalarida NZ2169 (keyinchalik Bell House) dagi dvigatelning birlashishi vaggonways ko'rsatilgan. Birinchi nashr 1864 yilgi qurol -aslaha tadqiqotlari xaritasida West Brunton Engine NZ2271 Fawdon Old Waggonway va Middle Brunton Engine NZ2370da ko'rsatilgan. 1920 -yillardagi Ordnance Survey xaritasida yangi Fawdon Waggonway Coxlodge Colliery Jubilee Pit NZ2368 ga yugurayotgani ko'rsatilgan.
Jorj va Robert Stivenson
Stivensonning dvigatel ishlari 1823 yilda Nyukasl -Tayn shahrida joylashgan Forth Banklarda ochilgan Lokomotiv va Raketa qurilgan edi.
www.robertstephensontrust.com va Nyukasl fotosuratlari, Stivenson ishlari
Microsoft Bing Maps Forth Banklarning havo fotosurati.
Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 shkalasi, 1861 yil Janubiy ko'chadagi Stivenson dvigatellari xaritasi.
Nyukasl va Karlisl temir yo'li (N & ampCR)
Birinchi bo'lim 1835 yilda Blaydon va Xeksem o'rtasida ochilgan. 1836 yilda Karllez Blenkinsopga kollieri ochildi. 1836 yilda Xeksongacha bo'lgan Xaydon ko'prigi ochildi. 1838 yilda Bleykinsopp kolleji Haydon ko'prigigacha ochildi. 1837 yilda chiziq Bleydondan Redxoga cho'zilgan. 1839 yilda u Redheughda Brandling Junction Railway bilan aloqa o'rnatdi. Shuningdek, 1839 yilda chiziq Blaydondan Skotsvudgacha Tayn daryosidan o'tdi va keyin Elsvik orqali Nyukasldagi vaqtinchalik bekatga bordi. 1839 yilga kelib Karlisl va Nyukasl o'rtasida yo'l ochildi. 1851 yilda u Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasiga kirdi. 1860 yilda Skotsvud temir yo'l ko'prigi yonib ketdi. Vaqtinchalik ko'prik 1871 yilda mavjud temir ko'prik bilan almashtirildi. N & ampCR 1862 yilda NER tomonidan qabul qilindi.
Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 shkalasi, 1861 yil Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasining xaritasi. Platformalar orasida ko'plab kichik aylanuvchi stollarni ko'rish mumkin. Stantsiya Nyukasl shahar devori bo'ylab qurilgan.
Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasi, Elsvik, Skotsvud, Blaydon, Ryton, Vylam, Prudho, Eltringem (keyinchalik Mikli stantsiyasi), Stokfild, Ridingmill, Farnli tunneli, Korbridj, Xeksem, Chegara okruglari birlashmasi, Nazoratchi ko'prigi, Fourstones, Haydon Bridge, Bardon Mill, Uitchester tunneli, To'xtatish hushtagi, Blenkinsop kollieri, Greenhead, Hadrian devori, Rouzxill (keyinchalik Gilsland stantsiyasi), Past qator, Naworth, Milton (keyinchalik Brampton Junction stantsiyasi), O'rta Gelt ko'prigi, Cowran kesish, How Mill, Heads Nook, Wetheral, Scotby, Carlisle London Road Station NY4154
1864 yildan boshlab, Karlisl qal'asi bekati NY4055
Lord Karlislning Brampton temir yo'li Miltondan Kirkxaus temir quyish zavodi, Hallbank darvozasi (Hallbankgeyt), Clowsgill ohak zavodi, Qora qora ko'mir koni, Howgill Mines, Tindalefell Spelter Works, Midgeholme Colliery NY6458 (Cumberland/Northumberland chegarasi), Haltonlee Geyt va Lambgacha bordi. Layn Lambley stantsiyasidagi Alston filialiga qo'shildi NY6758.
1836 yil Milton filiali Brampton shahriga.
1852 N & ampCR Alston filiali, Haltwhistle, Featherstone, Coanwood, Lambley, Slaggyford va Alston stantsiyalariga ega.
www.south-tynedale-railway.org.uk-Janubiy Tynedeyl temir yo'llarini saqlash jamiyati
www.cumbria-railways.co.uk/brampton_railway.html - Brampton temir yo'lining tavsifi va xaritasi. 1700 -yillarda yog'och vagonli ko'mir Brampton Steytga olib borilgan.
Nyukasl va Shimoliy Shilds temir yo'li (N & ampNSR) 1839 yilda Nyukasldagi Carliol maydonidagi NZ2564 dan Ouseburn Viaduct NZ2664, Heaton, Wallsend, Willington Viaduct NZ3166 va Persi Maindan North Shields NZ3568 orqali ochilgan. Laminatsiyalangan yog'och viyaduklari xuddi shu dizayndagi temirdan yasalgan. Manordan Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasiga viyadukning ochilishi bilan Carliol maydonidagi stantsiya chetlab o'tildi. Manorsdan Heaton Junctiongacha bo'lgan N & ampNSR yo'nalishi hali ham ECML tarkibiga kiradi. Walkergate -dan North Shieldsgacha bo'lgan N & ampNSR yo'nalishi Tyne and Wear Metro -da ishlatiladi.
Eski xaritalar - Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 shkalasi, 1861 yil Karliol maydoni terminalining xaritasi.
Microsoft Virtual Yer - Ouseburn Viaductlarining "Qushlarning ko'z bilan ko'rinishi". Shimoliy viyaduk - Nyukasl va Shimoliy Shilds temir yo'li, hozir Sharqiy sohil magistral liniyasi (ECML). O'rta viyaduk - 1970 -yillarning oxirida qurilgan Tyne and Wear Metro.
Microsoft Virtual Earth - hozirda Tyne and Wear Metro foydalanadigan Villington Viyaduktining "Qushlarning ko'z bilan ko'rinishi".
Nyukasl va Bervik temir yo'llari 1847 yilda Shimoliy Shildsdan NZ3669 eski Tynemut bekatigacha bo'lgan kengaytmani ochdi.
Eski xaritalar - Tynemut Britaniya tarixi xaritalari.
Blyt va Tayn temir yo'li (B va ampTR) 1840 yilda Seghill Kollieridan Tayn daryosidagi Northumberlend dokiga vagon sifatida boshlangan. U Seghill Colliery Cramlington Waggonway -dan foydalanmaslik uchun qurilgan.
1840 yil Seghill Colliery NZ2874, Tayn daryosidagi Northumberland Dock NZ3366gacha.
1846 yil - Segill - Xartli, NZ3176.
1846 yil Xartli - Newsham NZ3079 va Cowpen Colliery - NZ2980.
1846 yil Cowpen Colliery Junction to Blyth NZ3181.
1846 yil Xartli prospekt filialidagi NZ3275 sut uyiga, Seaton Sluice -ga shaxsiy yo'nalish bilan.
1847 yil Blyt va Tayn nomi birinchi marta ishlatilgan.
1857 yil Newshamdan Bebside va Bedlingtongacha NZ2782, 1850 liniyasi yordamida.
1857 yil Bedlington - Choppington NZ2583, Gepscott NZ2284 va Morpeth NZ2085.
1859 Bedlingtondan Shimoliy Seatongacha NZ2786, Shimoliy Seaton kollieriyasiga shaxsiy temir yo'l.
1860 Sut mahsulotlari uyi Monkseaton NZ3472, Cullercoats NZ3570 va Shimoliy Shilds NZ3669 Avenyu filialida. Uitli Vaggonvey yo'nalishi janubiy chekkada ishlatilgan.
1864 yil Monkseaton Backworth NZ3071, Benton NZ2768, South Gosforth NZ2567 va Nyukasl NZ2564.
Nyukasldagi terminal Nyu -Bridj ko'chasida edi. Yangi ko'prik 1812 yilda Pandon Dene ustida Shimoliy Shildsga boradigan yo'lning bir qismi sifatida qurilgan. Keyinchalik Pandon Bernni kemerli qilib, Pandon Denni to'ldirishdi. Qayta tiklangan erga Yangi ko'prik terminali qurildi. 1909 yilda NER Manorsda ECML bilan bog'lanish uchun janubga yo'nalishni davom ettirdi. Bu Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasiga o'tishni yakunladi.
NER 1907 yilda Yangi ko'prik ko'chasida temir-beton buyumlar omborini ochdi. Bu Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida bombardimon qilingan, mazmuni bir necha kun yonib ketgan. Bu omborning skeleti o'nlab yillar davomida o'rnini Warner kinoteatri egallagan. Sayt hozir Northumbria universitetining bir qismidir.
A167 markaziy avtomagistrali aylanasi endi Yangi ko'prik terminalining o'rnini egallaydi. Jesmonddan shimolda B & ampTR yo'nalishi bo'yicha Janubiy Gosfort orqali Tyne and Wear Metro foydalanadi. B & ampTR Jesmond Stantsiyasi endi restoran.
Eski xaritalar - Britaniya tarixi - Nyu -Bridj ko'chasining Microsoft Virtual Earth xaritalari.
1828 yil Grinvud xaritasida Cramlington Colliery va Seghill Colliery moyil tekisligi ko'rsatilgan. Bundan tashqari, Seaton Sluice vaggonwayi ko'rsatilgan.
1828 yil Grinvud xaritasi Bedlington Iron Works NZ2782 atrofida erta temir yo'llarni ko'rsatadi. Jon Birkinshou 1825 yildagi Stokton va Darlington temir yo'llari uchun Bedlington temir fabrikasida temirdan yasalgan temir relslarni yasagan. Bu relslar ilgari quyilgan temir relslarning baliq qornidagi shaklini saqlab qolgan, lekin uzunligi taxminan 5 metr edi.
www.ntsra.org.uk - Shimoliy Tynesid bug 'temir yo'llari assotsiatsiyasi muzeyi NZ3269 o'rta dvigatel bo'lagida joylashgan. Bug 'poezdlari Percy Main NZ3367 ga boradi.
Northumberland jamoalari - Blyth
Viktoriya tunneli 1842 yilda Spital Tongues Colliery NZ2365 dan Oyneburn NZ2664gacha Tayn daryosida ochilgan. U tez orada ko'mir tashish uchun yopildi, lekin 1939-1945 yillardagi Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida havo hujumi boshpanasiga aylandi. U hanuzgacha Nyukaslning Barras ko'prigi ostida joylashgan.
Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 shkalasi bo'yicha 1872 yildagi xarita va Eski xaritalar - Spital Tillar Colliery xaritalari.
Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 ko'lamli 1872 yil Barras ko'prigining xaritasi. Bir paytlar Buyuk Shimoliy Yo'l Pandon Bernni ko'prikdan kesib o'tgan.
Britaniya tarixi 1: 2500 o'lchovli 1884 yil Spital Tillar Staiths xaritasi va Glasshouse ko'prigi yaqinidagi Viktoriya tunneliga kirish, Ouseburn.
www.victoriatunnel.info, Fil Tirkell.
Vikipediya Viktoriya tuneli haqida sahifa.
Nyukasl va Bervik temir yo'llari (N & ampBR) 1847 yilda Tvidmutdan ochilib, Xiton kavşağında Nyukasl va Shimoliy Shilds temir yo'llariga qo'shildi. N & ampBR, shuningdek, Shimoliy Shildsdan NZ3669 eski Tynemut stantsiyasiga kengaytmani ochdi. O'sha yili (1847) N & ampBR Nyukasl va Darlington Junction temir yo'llari tomonidan qabul qilindi, u tez orada York, Nyukasl va Bervik temir yo'llari tarkibiga kirdi.
Yuqori darajali ko'prik 1849 yilda Teyn daryosi ustida ochilib, Geytsxed va Nyukaslni birlashtirgan. Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasi sobiq Nyukasl va Shimoliy Shilds temir yo'lidagi Manor bilan bog'langan. Qirollik chegara ko'prigi 1850 yilda Tvid daryosi orqali Bervik stantsiyasiga ochilgan.
1854 yilda YN & ampBR Shimoliy -Sharqiy temir yo'l (NER) tarkibiga kirdi. Marshrut endi ECML tarkibiga kiradi. 1969 va 1984 yillarda Morpet stantsiyasining janubidagi keskin egri chiziqda relslar bo'lgan.
Bervik orqali Tvid orqali yo'l, Qirollik chegara ko'prigi, Tvidmut, Skremerston, Gosvik, Beal, Smeafild, Belford, Omadli suv o'tkazgichlari, Lucker, Newham, Chathill, Fallodon, Christonbank, Little Mill, Longhoughton, Lesbury Viyadukti, Alnmut, Uarkvort, Eklington, Amble JunctionChevington, Widdrington, Longhirst, Pegswood, Morpeth, Netherton (keyinchalik Stennington stantsiyasi), Plessey Viaduct, Plessi, Kramlington, Annitsford, Killingvort, Benton (keyinchalik Forest Hall stantsiyasi), Benton karer birikmasi va Xiton birikmasi
www.senrug.co.uk - Janubi -Sharqiy Northumberland temir yo'llari foydalanuvchilari guruhi - Morpet stantsiyasi.
York, Nyukasl va Bervik temir yo'llari (YN & ampBR)
1849 yil Amble filiali Chevington shimolidagi Amble Junction NZ2298 dan ECML bo'ylab Broomhill Station NU2401 va Amble Station NU2604gacha yugurdi. Yo'lovchilarga xizmat ko'rsatish 1879 yilgacha boshlangan. Sobiq RAF Ekklinton atrofida ochiq qazib olish ishlari olib borilgan. Ochiq mashinalar aerodrom perimetri bo'ylab va Amble filialining bir qismi bo'lgan shaxsiy yo'llardan foydalangan.
1849 yil Tvidmutdan Sproustongacha Velvethall, Norxem, Tvizell, Kornxill (1873 yilgi Coldstream stantsiyasi deb o'zgartirildi), Uark (Sunilaws stantsiyasi deb o'zgartirildi), Angliya/Shotlandiya chegarasi NT7937, Carham, Sprouston Station NT7635
Shimoliy Britaniya temir yo'li 1851 yilda Sproustondan Kelso NT7333 stantsiyasigacha (Maksvell -Xey, Maksvell Xyu) davom etdi.
1850 yil Alnvik filiali Alnvik NU1912 stantsiyasidan NU2311 Alnmut Junction stantsiyasigacha yugurdi, u dastlab Bilton Junction deb nomlangan.
www.avrs.co.uk - Aln vodiysi temir yo'llari jamiyati marshrutni qayta ochishni rejalashtirmoqda.
Ashington ko'mir kompaniyasi temir yo'l Ashington Colliery NZ2688 dan filiallari bilan Linton Colliery NZ2691, Ellington Colliery NZ2891, Lynemouth Colliery NZ2990 va Woodhorn Colliery NZ2888gacha bo'lgan. Ushbu keng tarmoq mina ishchilari uchun yo'lovchi poezdlarini yuritdi. Mineral temir yo'l 1980 -yillarda Ashington Colliery tarmog'idan ECMLgacha qurilgan. Ellington kollieri Shimoliy -Sharqiy ko'mir konidagi oxirgi chuqur kon bo'lib, 2005 yil fevral oyida yopilgan.
www.experiencewoodhorn.com - Woodhorn kollieriya muzeyi.
Shimoliy Sanderlend temir yo'li - 1898 yil Chathill stantsiyasidan NU1827 dengiz uylariga NU2132 xususiy temir yo'l
Whittle Colliery Waggonway ECML NU2205 dan Buyuk Shimoliy Yo'lning sharqida, Moor Nyutoni yaqinida joylashgan Whittle Colliery NU1706gacha yugurdi. Whittle Colliery va Shilbottle Colliery kooperativ ulgurji jamiyatiga (CWS) ko'mir etkazib berdi.
Northumberlanddagi Shimoliy -Sharqiy temir yo'l (NER)
1868 - Allendale filiali eski Nyukasl va Karlisl temir yo'lining chegara okruglari birikmasidan. Elrington, Langli, Stouard va Katton yo'lidagi bekatlar (keyinchalik Allendale stantsiyasi)
1870 yil Quayside shoxobchasi ECML -dan Manors NZ2564 stantsiyasidan Nyukasl -Kvaysaydgacha tik burilishli tunnel orqali yugurdi. Keyinchalik tepalik va uchinchi temir yo'l elektr ta'minoti yordamida ikkita elektrovoz qurildi.
1878 yil Tvidmut dock liniyasi.
1879 yil Riverside filiali liniyasi Ouseburn viyadukti va Heaton stantsiyasi o'rtasidagi ECML -dan Ny265648 Byker platformasiga qadar tarvaqaylab ketdi. Tunnel hali ham Bayker NZ266647 -dagi Shields Road -dagi do'konlar ostida ishlaydi. Stantsiyalar St.Peter's NZ275636, Sent -Entoni NZ284631, Walker NZ295642, Carville NZ303662, Point Pleasant NZ314664, Willington Quay NZ323665 va Percy Main NZ337673da bo'lgan. Bu liniya keyinchalik uchinchi temir yo'l tizimi yordamida elektrlashtirildi.
1882: Monkseaton, Whitley Bay, Cullercoats va Tynemouth Station NZ3669 orqali qirg'oq chizig'i. N & ampBR liniyasi bilan asl Tynemouth stantsiyasi yaqinida aloqa o'rnatildi.
1887 Coldstream, Mindrum, Kirknewton, Akeld, Wooler, Ilderton, Wooperton, Hedgeley (Powburn), Glanton, Whittingham orqali Alnwick va Cornhill filiallari, Hillhead tunneli, Edlingem, Alnwick Station NU1912
Coldstream Station NT8639 Angliya, Northumberlend, Kornxill shahrida bo'lgan
1948 yilda Vuler va Ilderton o'rtasidagi yo'l toshqin natijasida vayron bo'ldi. Bo'shliqni tuzatish iqtisodiy emas edi va shu vaqtdan boshlab chiziq ikki alohida uchastka sifatida ishlagan.
1904 yil - Elektr tramvay yo'llarining muvaffaqiyatiga javoban Nyukaslga qirg'oq chizig'ini elektrlashtirish. Benton NZ2869 dagi ulanishlar N & ampBR liniyasini B & ampTR liniyasiga qo'shdi. Bu ECML orqali Monkseatondan Nyukaslga tezkor elektr xizmatiga ruxsat berdi.
1905 yil Ponteland filiali Janubiy Gosfort, G'arbiy Gosfort (hozirgi Regent markazi metro stantsiyasi), Coxlodge (hozirgi Fawdon metro bekati), Kenton (hozirgi Bankfoot metro bekati), Callerton va Ponteland stantsiyasi NZ1672 orqali.
Bu liniya Nyukasl aeroportining NZ1871 terminali bilan Tyne and Wear metrosi sifatida qayta ochildi.
1906 yil Nyukasl va Geytsxed o'rtasidagi qirol Edvard VII ko'prigi NZ2463. Bu Nyukasl markaziy stantsiyasida Edinburg va London Kings Cross o'rtasida ketayotgan poezdlar uchun orqaga burilishdan saqlandi.
1909 Manors Station NZ2564 ni Blyt va Tayn liniyasiga qo'shib, Nyukasl va Shimoliy Shilds liniyasi bilan bog'laydi. Bu Nyukasldan Jesmond, Janubiy Gosfort, Benton, Uitli ko'rfazi, Shimoliy Shilds va Uollsend orqali Nyukaslga elektr poyezdlarining harakatlanishiga imkon beruvchi Shimoliy Taynesid halqasini yakunladi.
1913 yil Darras Xoll Ponteland NZ1672 bekatidan NZ1571 Darras Xoll bekatigacha bo'lgan engil temir yo'l
1914 yil Seaton Sluice filiali Monkseaton, Brierdene va Collywell Bay Station NZ3376 orqali. This unopened branch was dismantled for the War Effort 1914 to 1918 and was not rebuilt.
1915 Monkseaton Station built on a new site.
1923 NER becomes part of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER).
1928 - Tyne Commission Quay opened on the riverward side of Albert Edward Dock.
There was an LNER rail link to Newcastle Central Station. Port of Tyne
North British Railway (NBR)
1862 Border Counties Section joining the NBR Waverley Route from Carlisle to Edinburgh.
Route via Riccarton Junction Station NY5397, Saughtree, Dawstonburn Viaduct, Deadwater, England/Scotland Border, Kielder, Kielder Viaduct, Plashetts, Falstone, Thorneyburn, Tarset, Bellingham, Redesmouth Junction, Wark, Barrasford, Chollerton, Chollerford, Hadrian's Wall, Wall, River Tyne Viaduct va Border Counties Junction NY9265. North British services from Hawick then ran via the N&CR line to Newcastle.
(Chollerford to Border Counties Junction opened 1858 as the Border Counties Railway).
Old Maps - maps of Plashetts, now submerged under Kielder Water
www.wrha.org.uk - Waverley Route Heritage Association. Track is being laid between Whitrope Tunnel and Riccarton Junction Station.
1862 Wansbeck Valley Railway ran from Reedsmouth Junction to Morpeth. NBR trains reversed into the Blyth and Tyne Railway Morpeth Station. This was an attempt by the NBR to gain access to Newcastle, using the B&TR lines. In 1871 new junctions allowed NBR and B&TR trains to run into the NER Morpeth Station. The B&TR Morpeth Station then became a goods shed.
(Also known as the Wanney Line yoki Wannie Line). Route via Morpeth Station NZ2085, Meldon, Angerton, Middleton, Scots Gap, Knowesgate, Woodburn, Broomhope Siding and Redesmouth Junction Station NY8681
1870 Northumberland Central Railway via Rothbury Station NU0601, Brinkburn, Lee Siding, Fontburn, Ewesley, Longwitton and Scots Gap Station NZ0386
Scotswood, Newburn and Wylam Railway opened the line along the North bank of the River Tyne in 1875, following most of the route of the Wylam Waggonway. There were stations at Wylam NZ1164, Heddon-on-the-Wall, Newburn, Lemington and Scotswood NZ2063. Wylam Railway Bridge NZ1164 opened in 1876 across the River Tyne, joining the SN&WR to the Newcastle and Carlisle line. The SN&WR was taken over by the NER in 1883.
Kirkheaton Colliery Waggonway - This was an isolated coalfield with pits at Kirkheaton NZ0478, Ingoe NZ0374, Fenwick NZ0572, Muckleridge NZ0473, Todridge NZ0072 and Boghall NZ0477. The mineral railway opened in 1927 and ran from Belsay Colliery NZ0476 to Darras Hall NZ1571 where it joined the Darras Hall Light Railway to Ponteland NZ1672.
Rural Branch Lines of Northumberland by C R Warn.
Published by Frank Graham 1975, ISBN 0859130772
Contains a page about the Kirkheaton Colliery Waggonway.
Bastles were built as fortified farmhouses to protect against raids by the Border Reivers. Livestock were kept on the ground floor. The family lived above. The walls are up to 1 metre thick. Some bastles have been modernised with living accomodation on the ground floor. Modern Ordnance Survey maps of Northumberland incorrectly describe them as Qal'alar.
Bastions and Belligerents by John F Dodds, 1999
Keepdate Publishing, ISBN 1899506454
Instead, they stumbled across the 25-metre stretch of wooden rails, an early contributor to the mining industry which transformed the North East.
The waggonway is made up of a heavy duty 'main way' with two sets of rails laid on top of each other to preserve their longevity, with a loop from the main line descending into a dip.
That depression would have been filled with water where coal wagons' wooden rails were rested to stop them drying out and cracking. In the middle of the loop is a stone elevation where the horse pulling the waggon would have stood.
Pioneering: The waggonways helped the North East develop and were the precursor to Britain's train network
Breakthrough: Standard-gauge railways ended up being used for steam trains around the world
A waggonway from the former mining town of Tanfield in County Durham
'The wooden waggonway uncovered by the excavation is the direct ancestor of the modern standard-gauge railway,' Mr Carlton said.
With horses and carts eventually replaced by steam trains, railways quickly became the fastest form of transportation the world had ever seen and facilitated the creation of the modern world.
In Newcastle and the surrounding areas, the railways allowed coal to be transported around Britain, leading to the rapid growth of the region.
Mr Carlton added: 'The coal industry was so vitally important for the North East, and there are so few signs of it left now.'
The archaeologists' find is remarkably well-preserved - Mr Williams said: 'It looks as if it has just been covered up and left yesterday.'
The discovery has revealed features which were previously known only from drawings and the notebooks of engineers such as John Buddle, who lived near the dig site.
Work: The dig on the former site of the Neptune shipyard comes as it is redeveloped for new construction
Preserved: The wooden rails have not rotted because they have been kept from biodegrading under the ground
'We have drawings describing what has been found by the dig but this is the real thing,' said local historian Les Turnbull. 'It is tremendous to be able to see these features rather than just looking at them in historic drawings and notebooks.
'Because the line is standard railway gauge, it is tremendously important as the earliest example in the world and this is of international significance. The waggonway complex is at the forefront of late 18th-century engineering.'
Mr Turnbull, who has written a book on waggonways, claimed that the discovery was more important than any Roman find could be.
'One of the gifts of the North East to world history is the development of the railways,' he said. 'Coal and the railways are Tyneside's heritage and this waggonway was part of that, because without the waggonways the coalfields would not have developed.'
In the late 18th century, hundreds of waggons ran from collieries to wharves on the Tyne, where coal would be loaded onto brigs for transport to London and abroad.
The excavated remains were part of the Willington waggonway, which took in collieries at Willington Quay and Bigges Main on the edge of Wallsend.
In 1801 the Killingworth waggonway, for which George Stephenson's first locomotives were built, joined the Willington line.
Stephenson and his son Robert went on to build locomotives at their works in South Street in Newcastle to the Willington gauge, which was 4ft 8½in wide - this became the standard width for railways throughout Britain and much of the world.
COAL FROM NEWCASTLE: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE WAGGONWAY
A waggonway was a timber track used for transporting coal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
They were an ingenious solution to a problem facing coal barons in Northumberland and Durham - namely, how to efficiently get coal from pit-head to port.
The alternative, slower, option was via pack-horse or ox cart.
A waggonway was a timber track used for transporting coal in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
Where possible, the waggonway would slope gently downhill so that the waggons could roll under their own weight.
The driver sitting on the back would control the brake while the horse trotted behind on a tether.
After the contents were emptied, the horse would pull the empty cart back up the slope.
The rails on the Newcastle waggonway were made of wood, four or five inches thick and five or six inches broad.
Although the use of wood as a travelling surface was not new - Neolithic man had used it for carrying trackways across bogs - it was the use of the flanged wheel, which made all the difference, allowing the wagon to move snugly on the track.
By 1810, the wooden waggonways began to be phased out, replaced by iron.
Over the years, the wooden networks fell into disrepair.
In 2000, North Tyneside Council successfully bid for £2million worth of funding to transform more than 30 miles of routes as part of the Government's Liveability Fund.
The former haulage routes were made into a welcoming and accessible community leisure, travel and learning resource.
Woodern Wagonway - History
You may remember the remains of a section of a wooden waggonway were discovered underneath the former Neptune Shipyard not far from Segedunum Roman Fort in the summer of 2013. Before being redeveloped, the site was investigated by archaeologists due to its close proximity to Segedunum and therefore the potential for Roman remains in the area. The unexpected discovery of the rare and substantial remains of an early railway instead was a very welcome surprise. Constructed in 1785, the section of waggonway was identified as part of the route of the Willington Waggonway by local historian and author Les Turnbull. The Willington Waggonway was the collective name for a series of waggonways which were used by horse-drawn waggons to transport coal from collieries at Willington Quay and Bigges Main on the edge of Wallsend to the Tyne for shipment.
The excavated remains of the Willington Waggonway. Photograph © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
During the 18 th century, the North East emerged as the centre of mining technology and earned a place on the world stage because of the skills of its engineers and miners. The site is considered to be internationally significant for the archaeological record in terms of the development of railway technology. Only one other wooden waggonway has previously been professionally excavated and recorded in Tyne and Wear, that at Fencehouses on Wearside in 1995. However, no recovery of the remains were carried out and the extent of their survival is unknown. The discovery of a section of the Willington Waggonway presents a rare opportunity to study the substantial and well-preserved remains of one of Tyneside’s wooden waggonways.
Excavation Plan. Image © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
The excavation at the Neptune shipyard unearthed the most complete and best-preserved section of early wooden railway to have been found anywhere in the world. It also included the only ‘wash hole’ for cleaning and wetting waggon wheels to have ever been professionally excavated and recorded. We knew that wash holes existed through documentary sources, but none had been discovered previously. This gives us an amazing opportunity to learn about their construction and how they were used by the large volume of traffic on the waggonway.
Excavated Wash Hole. Photograph © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
Re-used ships’ timbers also appear to have been used in the construction or the maintenance of the waggonway. If these timbers originate from types of vessels which no longer survive then there is also the potential to learn about their construction.
Re-used ship timber. Photograph © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
Peg in piece of re-used ship timber. Photograph © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
Perhaps most significantly, the excavated remains of the Willington Waggonway is the earliest railway that has been discovered which was built to what became the international ‘standard’ gauge, defined as 4’ 8 1/2” or 1435mm. The later Killingworth Waggonway, which was used by George Stephenson during his development of the steam locomotive, used part of the Willington Waggonway to reach the river Tyne. The gauge of the Willington Waggonway (based on the earlier Benton Way) therefore set the gauge for the Killingworth Waggonway and ultimately the rest of the world. Today approximately 55% of railways in the world are standard gauge.
Studying and analysing such a significant and well preserved early railway will allow us to contribute new information to the archaeological record as well as increase our understanding of the technology and innovations of the time.
What’s happened in the last 3 years?
Thanks to the Arts Council England PRISM (The Preservation of Industrial and Scientific Material) fund, TWAM was able to rescue wooden and stone components within a zone 6 metres in length across the width of the waggonway. Representative and significant components were also collected from other locations on the site.
Timbers in storage prior to conservation. Photograph © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
Samples of the timbers were analysed at the conservation laboratories of the York Archaeological Trust, providing a baseline assessment of the condition of the timbers in general and of their treatment needs. Based on the results, the timbers required consolidation with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) wax followed by freeze-drying, a process which can take between 24 and 36 months.
Last summer, TWAM secured funding from the Arts Council England Designation Development Fund which will allow us to research, carry out scientific analysis and explore how the waggonway may be displayed in the future. We also intend to create a scale model, develop a publication as well as run both family friendly and specialist events. The project is now underway and will conclude at the end of March 2018.
The timbers will return to the North East in February 2017 to their new home in the Regional Museum Store at Beamish where the stone components are currently stored. Our hope is that this project will be a step towards full scale reconstruction and public display in the future.
Keep an eye out for regular blog posts on the progress of the project as we uncover the secrets of the Willington Waggonway!
Reconstruction drawing of the excavated section of waggonway in use. Image © The Archaeological Practice Ltd.
The Willington Waggonway Research Programme is funded by the Designation Development Fund, Arts Council England.
Wesen Railway Ticket Center
Wagon ways (or 'train ways') are thought to have developed in Germany in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, utilising primitive wooden rails. Such an operation was illustrated in 1556 by Georgius Agricola.
The technology spread across Europe and had certainly arrived in Britain by the early 1600s. The Wollaton Wagonway was probably the earliest British installation, completed in 1604, and recorded as running from Strelley to Wollaton near Nottingham. Another early wagonway is noted at Broseley in Shropshire from 1605 onwards. Huntingdon Beaumont (who was concerned with mining at Strelley) also laid down broad wooden rails near Newcastle upon Tyne, on which a single horse could haul fifty or sixty bushels (130 kg) of coal.
On 26 July 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London - arguably, the world's first public railway, albeit a horse-drawn one. It was not a railway in the modern sense of the word
On 25 March 1807. Mumbles Train",
as it came to be known, is as heart breaking as it is fascinating. Considering its myriad achievements and world records, it's incongruous that the railway isn't more famous. It is disgraceful also that the railway was abruptly dismantled in 1960 (at that time electric tram powered) - 153 years after those historic first steps in 1807. To the commuter age and the world of transport that we take for granted today, this was an innovation equivalent to any. The world's first - and the longest surviving railway until 1960 - is a worthy candidate of the history books.
1603/4 - Between October 1603 and the end of September 1604, Huntingdon Beaumont, partner of the landowner Sir Percival Willoughby, built the first recorded above ground early railway/wagonway. It was approximately two miles in length, running from mines at Strelley to Wollaton in Nottinghamshire, England. It is known as the Wollaton Wagonway. Beaumont built three further wagonways shortly after, near Blyth in Northumberland related to the coal and salt trade. Shortly after the Wollaton Wagonway was built other wagonways are recorded at Broseley near Coalbrookdale in Shropshire. Further waggonways emerged in the English North East.
Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century
Revolution of Trains
The scenario of the trains completely changed with the introduction of the first stationary steam engine by Thomas Savery in the 17th Century. It is a great step in the history of trains. The functioning of the steam engine is quite less which can’t be used as a train engine. It nearly took 60 years for the transformation of the steam engine into a powerful train.
After a long time, the power of the steam engine is converted into circular motion ichida year 1763 by taking the designs of Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Savery and James Watt who invented crankshaft. Most of the inventors started using steam engine into every invention like boats, cars and power trains of all the types and sizes. The concept of the steam engine allowed the motion to take place.
Check out the Palace on Wheels route
2: The Waggonways Arrive
“imployit the maist pairt of his youth in uncuth nations in searching and learning the knawledge for making and practizeing of ingynis and workis for the commodious and aisle transporting of coillis betix the colpotis, sey and salt panes of this realm”
So reads the records of the Privy Council of Scotland of 1606, relating to the granting of a patent to one Thomas Tulloch to build around Inveresk a conveyance for taking coals from the collieries down to the salt pans on the Firth of Forth, provided that it was “ane work and ingyne nocht known in this kingdom at na time of before”. The description by the Privy Council clearly describes an early form of railway – the waggonway, of which there were none in Scotland, and the first in England had appeared at Woolaton, Nottinghamshire, two years previously. Such waggonways had began to appear on the continent, of which there is a surviving woodcut of one such working in Lorraine. Tulloch may have visited these works, hence the reference to “uncuth nations”. This equally however have been a sideswipe at the English.
Whether Thomas Tulloch built his early waggonway is unknown. If it were built however, the location and route would certainly make a great deal of sense. The monks of Newbattle, near Dalkeith, had mined coal from around the year 900 and transported it by road to Prestonpans on the Firth of Forth, where they would barter it for salt, which would then be transported back to Newbattle Abbey. Prestonpans takes it’s very name from the salt pans which were a huge industry in the area, and which supplied a great deal of Scotland, while the road which the monks of Newbattle followed is to this day called Salters Road, which narrowly bypasses Inveresk. Prestonpans equally was the location of the salt pans referred to by the Privy Council. If Tulloch’s conveyance was built, then that means that Edinburgh had a means for conveying coal and salt nearby, which many European capitals did not yet have. If it were built, sadly there are no vestiges of it remaining today.
Equally there are no remains of what may have been another early waggonway, which was recorded to have been built around Stacks, near Bo’ness, in 1646. Of the third example however there is absolutely no doubt, for the trackbed of it ramains to this day.
The Yorks Building Company had been given lands seized by the crown in East Lothian after the Earl of Winton supported the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715. In 1722 they opened what is today widely recognised as the first railway in Scotland, the Tranent Waggonway. Approximately 12 miles to the east of the centre of Edinburgh, this was a waggonway from the collieries around the East Lothian town of Tranent, down to the harbour of Port Seton, and which later incoporated a westwards branch to Prestonpans (the importance of salt in Scots history cannot be underestimated).
On a side note, for a waggonway which owed it’s existence to a Jacobite defeat, the Tranent Waggonway became the first railway in the world to be used in battle tactics and a Jacobite victory. Following his victories in the highlands, Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) had marched steadily south and taken Edinburgh by September 1745. The government sent troops under Sir John Cope to head the Jacobites off and deny them a route to England. They lined their guns up along the Tranent Waggonway on 20 September 1745, then retired for the evening. Lord Elcho, seeing this took a phalanx of Jacobite troops up to tree cover near Tranent. The following morning the Jacobites attacked without warning (Cope was apparently still asleep) from the front. As the government troops desparately tried to repel this assualt, Elcho and his highlanders came charging down the waggonway, attacking them on their left flank. The result was a complete rout, over in less than an hour, which saw Sir John Cope and many of his men flee the field. This is remembered to this day in the Scots song Hey, Johnnie Cope which has become a sort of unofficial anthem of East Lothian
Hey, Johnnie Cope are ye wauking yet?
And are your drums a-beating yet?
If ye were wauking, I wad wait,
Tae ging tae the coals in the morning.
The Tranent Waggonway should have been viable but eventually proved to be a financial disaster, eventually being sold off as scrap in 1778. The principle however galvanised others to start similar schemes.
Sir Archibald Hope of Craighall, owned lands around Pinkie, near Inveresk, and in 1815 opened a waggonway from his colliery at Pinkie down to Fisherrow Harbour, and eventually as far as salt pans at the Magdalene Bridge, right on the border between East Lothian and Midlothian. This waggonway appears to have been enormously successful and survived until 1841.
The waggonways were getting closer and closer to Edinburgh. While Robert Stevenson had been commissioned to survey a route for the ‘Edinburgh Railway’ in 1817 (see Chapter 1: Early Attempts), the following year saw him working on another project. Alexander Laing of Shawfair was the owner of Newton Colliery, near Millerhill, Midlothian. Laing and another colliery baron and landowner, Sir John Don Wauchope of Edmonstone, commissioned Robert Stevenson to survey a four mile route from Newton Colliery to LIttle France, on Sir John’s Edmonstone estate, and right by the Old Dalkeith Road.
The route Stevenson chose was agreed on and the waggonway appears to have been built very quickly – somewhat amazing given the steep inclines involved. The line ran uphill to the north from Newton, curving around where the later Monktonhall Colliery would later be built, apparently close to where Woolmet Colliery later stood, then taking a sharp left downhill to the foot of the Wisp, serving Edmonstone Colliery, and across the Edmonstone Estate to Little France. The line was built of malleable iron edge-rails (the rails being L shaped, as opposed to wheels being flanged), tied to freestone blocks and opened in August 1818, as reported in the Edinburgh Evening Courant:
MR ALEXANDER LAING begs leave to inform inhabitants of Edinburgh and neighbourhood that he has completed a Rail Road, fourmiles in length, from his Coal Works at Newton to Little France, at which he will, on Monday next COMMENCE SALES of the BEST JEWEL COAL and EDMONSTONE GREAT COAL., at reasonable prices. Little France is on the Dalkeith Road, only two miles from the southern vicinity, and three miles from the high street of Edinburgh, those who purchase their coals at the Little France depot will save over half the present carriage, and tear and wear of harness, &c. in proprotion he now solicits his friends and the public to make trial, when he flatters himself they will find the quality and price to be such as will merit a liberal share of their patronage.
NEWTON-HOUSE, August 20, 1818
The Edmonstone Waggonway rarely gets a mention in railway histories of Edinburgh, and yet it’s enormous success cannot be underestimated. Stevenson, Laing and Wauchope had brought coal traffic for the first time to within two miles of the southern boundary of the city (at this time around Pollock Halls to Salisbury Road) and three miles from the city centre, and it continued to be used for many years to come.
The lease on Edmonstone Colliery transferred to the Stenhouses of Whitehill in either 1824 or 1826. On the first attempt of the Edinburgh & Dalkeith Railway Company (EDR) to gain an Act of Parliament in 1825, John Don Wauchope was one of the objectors (but strangely enough to did not attend the hearing or send a representative to argue his case). After that Bill failed on it’s Third Reading, when the EDR submitted their second (and successful) Bill in 1826, it is rumoured that Stenhouse tried to have a clause inserted compensating him for the abandonment of the waggonway. Wauchope attempted to get the EDR to buy the line but was not successful, while James Jardine’s 1825 survey for the EDR showed a proposed junction with the Edmonstone Waggonway at Redrow.
Whatever the speculation, it is widely regarded that the Edmonstone Waggonway was abandoned after the Edinburgh & Dalkeith Railway opened in 1831.
In his excellent work, Early Railways of the Lothians, M J Worling makes the point that an 1899 map shows a coal yard at Pentecox, Little France, with a tramway to it marked “disused”. Could it then have survived another sixty years, maybe connected to other industrial lines?
This is not just perfectly possible, I would suggest that is exactly what happened, and I can give my own anecdotal evidence to support that claim. I grew up in the Moredun area, and just up the road from Little France. I recall during my childhood an ancient wall bordering the Burdiehouse Burn collapsed, revealing that it had been strengthened at one point with two long stretches of iron, one of which was L shaped – and the other of which I now know to have been a length of more modern ‘bullhead’ rail. Little France lies over a mile from the nearest railway, the Edinburgh suburban line, so it is highly unlikely a length of rail would have been transported that far for this purpose. It is far more likely that the wall was strengthened with one of the original rails from the waggonway, and a later one.
My second account dates from 2010, when I walked the last remnants of the Waggonway before it disappeared for good beneath modern road building works. As the trackbed reached the Niddrie Policies it had become eradicated, and there at my feet were the rotting remnants of a wooden sleeper. The waggonway was tied to freestone blocks, not laid on modern sleepers, so this remnant is a definite pointer to the upgrading of the line.
There was once a network of industrial colliery lines which emnated out from Niddrie Colliery and brickworks, taking in Woolmet Colliery, near Newton, and a coal depot right at the top of Edmonstone village, near Danderhall. These lines crossed the route of the Edmonstone Waggonway, and I therefore surmise that it was upgraded with bullhead rails laid to standard gauge on wooden sleepers, and thus incorporated into the local colliery railway network.
Sadly, we shall never now know, as the last remnants of the Edmonstone Waggonway disappeared forever with the building of the Edinburgh Bioquarter development and it’s feeder roads.