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Olimlarning aytishicha, Isoning xotiniga tegishli papirus soxta emas

Olimlarning aytishicha, Isoning xotiniga tegishli papirus soxta emas

2012 yil sentyabr oyida, "Isoning xotinining Xushxabari" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan papirusning rangsiz bo'lagi, Garvard Ilohiylik Maktabining tarixchisi Karen L. King tomonidan e'lon qilinganida, xalqaro sarlavhalarga aylandi. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, bu e'lon g'azab va hayajon bilan kutib olindi, shuningdek, hech qanday boshqa oyatda ko'rilmagan iborani o'z ichiga olgani uchun katta shubha bilan qaradi: " Iso ularga dedi, xotinim ... " va " u mening shogirdi bo'la oladi " Ayollarga ruhoniy bo'lishga ruxsat berish kerakmi degan munozarani qo'zg'atgan ibora. Vatikan gazetasi tahririyatida papirus boshqa olimlar singari soxta deb e'lon qilingan. Biroq, fragment hozirda olimlar tomonidan sinchkovlik bilan sinovdan o'tkazildi, ular Garvard Theological Review jurnalida chop etilgan hisobotda siyoh (aslida pigment) va papirus qadimgi kelib chiqishi bor, degan xulosaga kelishdi, shuning uchun bu parcha zamonaviy soxtalashtirish emas.

Papirus parchasi hozirda Kolumbiya universiteti, Garvard universiteti va Massachusets texnologiya instituti (M.I.T.) olimlari tomonidan sinovdan o'tkazildi, ular siyohning kimyoviy tarkibini aniqlash uchun uglerodni aniqlash va mikro-Raman spektroskopiyasini o'tkazdilar. Natijalar shuni ko'rsatdiki, papirus miloddan avvalgi 700-800 yillarga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin, u to'rtinchi -sakkizinchi asrlardagi boshqa papiruslarga mos keladi, uglerodli qora siyoh (aslida pigment turi) boshqa papiruslarga xos bo'lgan. O'sha paytda va matnda shifokorni taklif qiladigan hech qanday farq yoki qarama -qarshilik ko'rsatilmagan.

Matn qadimgi Misr tili bo'lgan Sahidiy tilida yozilgan va tadqiqot mualliflari, bu ko'p asrlar oldin yaratilgan yunon nusxasiga asoslangan qadimgi kopt matnining transkripsiyasi bo'lishi mumkin, deb taxmin qilishgan. Miloddan avvalgi 700-800 yillar bu matn birinchi marta paydo bo'lgan degani emas.

Biroq, ba'zilarini ishontirish uchun ilmiy tahlil har doim ham etarli emas. Garvard ilohiyoti sharhi, shuningdek, Braun universiteti Misrshunosi Leo Depuydtning maqolasini nashr etadi, uning maqolasi ilmiy tahlildan oldin. Nyu -York Taymsda yozilgan xabarga ko'ra, doktor Depuydt parchani sinab ko'rish muhim emasligini va "tekshirishga hojat yo'qligini" aytgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, u "grammatik xatolarni" ko'rgan papirusning gazetadagi fotosurati va Tomas Xushxabaridagi yozuvga o'xshashligi asosida bu qalbaki deb qaror qildi. Rad qilishda King Depuydtning matnli tahlilini ishonarli emas deb hisoblaydi.

Doktor King, test natijalari Isoning xotini yoki shogirdlari borligini isbotlamasligini, faqat parcha qalbaki emas, qadimiy ekanligini aniq ko'rsatdi. U umid qiladiki, munozara, sharh va e'tibor endi "bu soxta emasmi?" Dan "bu nimani anglatadi?"

Tavsiflangan rasm: Iso Masihning Xotini Xushxabari yozilgan ilk nasroniy kodeksidan papirus parchasining old qismi. Fotosurat: Karen L. King


    Papirus matni ', bu Isoning xotini borligini ko'rsatishi mumkin va#x27 ilmiy munozaralarni keltirib chiqaradi

    Isoning xotini borligiga aniq ishora qiluvchi qadimiy matnning haqiqiyligi va ahamiyati to'g'risida bahslar boshlandi.

    Professor va Garvard ilohiylik maktabining xristianlik tarixi bo'yicha mutaxassisi Karen King to'rtinchi asrdagi dialogli papirus parchasini ochdi, uning so'zlariga ko'ra, tadqiqotchilar "Iso ularga" mening xotinim "degan so'zlarni aniqlagan. , bu Magdalalik Maryamga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin.

    Bekorchilik va ayollarning nasroniylikdagi o'rni haqidagi munozaralarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin bo'lgan kashfiyot King tomonidan seshanba kuni Rimda koptshunoslik bo'yicha xalqaro kongressda ochilgan.

    Xristian an'analariga ko'ra, Iso uylanmagan. Ammo bir qator mutaxassislar parchaning haqiqiyligiga kafolat berishdi. Ularning aytishicha, dastlabki yillarda Isoning oilaviy ahvoli munozaralarga sabab bo'lgan. Bu matn, ilova qilganidek, ba'zi erta masihiylar Iso uylanganiga ishonishgan.

    Ammo Kvebekning Laval universiteti Nag Hammadiy nomidagi kopt kutubxonasini tahrirlashda frankofon loyihasini boshqargan, kopt tilshunosi, professor va bo'ri-Peter Funk bu da'voni shubha ostiga qo'ydi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, "aql bovar qilmaydigan narsalarni topadigan minglab papirus qoldiqlari" bor va Garvard parchasi haqidagi ko'plab savollarga javob berilmagan.

    Tennessi shtatining professori va baptist pastori Jim Uest ham shubha bilan qaradi: "Papirus parchasidagi bayonot hech narsaning isboti emas. Bu muhim kontekstga ega bo'lmagan havoda aytilgan gapdan boshqa narsa emas".

    Ben Witherington III, bibliya olimi va Kentukki shtatining Uilmor shahridagi Asbury diniy seminariyasi professori, hujjatning kelib chiqishi noma'lum odamlarni ehtiyot bo'lishga undashi kerakligini qo'shimcha qildi. "Hujjat ikkinchi, uchinchi va to'rtinchi asrlarning kuchli monastirlik davridagi gnostik matnlar namunasiga mos keladi, bunda ruhiy munosabatlar haqida gapirish uchun yaqinlik tili ishlatilgan.

    "Gnostikdan eshitadigan narsamiz-bu opa-singil matnlari deb nomlangan amaliyot, bu erda ular imonli ayolni olib yurib, ular uchun ovqat tayyorlaydilar, yuvadilar va odatdagi uy ishlarini qiladilar, lekin ular bilan hech qanday jinsiy aloqasi yo'q. .

    "Boshqacha aytganda, bu gnostiklar Isoni so'zning normal ma'nosida uylangan deb o'ylashi haqidagi fikrni tasdiqlamaydi."

    Kingning aytishicha, bu parcha xushxabarning nusxasi, ehtimol ikkinchi asrda yunon tilida yozilgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, 3,8 sm x 7,6 sm bo'lakdagi to'rtta so'z qadimgi Misr nasroniylari tili bo'lgan kopt yozuvi bilan yozilgan. "Bu so'zlar" Iso ularga aytdi, xotinim "deb tarjima qilinadi. Parchada Isoning shogirdlari o'rtasidagi muloqot ham bor, ular davomida ular Maryamga munosibmi yoki yo'qligini muhokama qilishadi va Iso" u mening shogirdim bo'lishi mumkin "deb javob beradi".

    King ta'kidlaganidek, bu parcha Isoning uylanganligini isbotlamaydi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, u "nasroniylar duch kelgan oila va nikoh masalalari" haqida gapirgan.

    Xristian urf -odatlari uzoq vaqtdan beri Iso turmushga chiqmagan deb hisoblaydi, garchi bu pozitsiyani tasdiqlaydigan ishonchli tarixiy dalillar bo'lmasa ham, dedi King. Yangi Xushxabar "hamma savol faqat jinsiy aloqa va nikoh haqidagi shiddatli bahslar doirasida paydo bo'lganligini aytadi".

    "Xristianlar boshidanoq uylanmaslik yaxshiroqmi, degan fikrga kelishmagan. Lekin Isoning o'limidan bir asr o'tgach, ular o'z pozitsiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun Isoning oilaviy ahvoliga murojaat qila boshlashgan."

    King hujjatni Rimning La Sapienza universitetida va Papa Lateran universitetining Augustinianum institutida o'tkazilgan olti kunlik konferentsiyada taqdim etdi.

    Vatikan gazetasi va Vatikan radiosi tez -tez ilmiy anjumanlarni yoritib tursa -da, seshanba kuni Vatikan ommaviy axborot vositalarida Kingning kashfiyoti haqida hech narsa aytilmagan.

    Parcha anonim shaxsiy kollektsionerga tegishli bo'lib, u King bilan bog'lanib, uni tarjima qilish va tahlil qilishga yordam bergan. Kashfiyotning holati haqida hech narsa ma'lum emas, lekin King Misrdan kelganini aytdi. t qadim zamonlarda ishlatilgan skriptda yozilgan. King papirus parchasining haqiqiyligiga shubha borligini tan oldi. Ammo, deydi u, ular olimlarning uni o'rganishni davom ettirishiga to'sqinlik qilmasliklari kerak.

    Parchani dastlabki tekshirganlar orasida Nyu-Yorkda joylashgan Qadimgi dunyoni o'rganish instituti direktori, papirolog Rojer Bagnall va Yangi Ahd va Prinston universitetining ilk nasroniylik olimi AnneMari Luijendijk bor. .

    Ularning aytishicha, papirusni o'rganish, qo'l yozuvi va siyohning kimyoviy so'rilishi "bu qadimgi matn bo'lishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas", dedi King.

    Boshqa bir olim, Quddus ibroniy universiteti tilshunoslik professori va qibt tilining etakchi mutaxassisi Ariel Shisha-Haleviy matn tilini o'rganib chiqib, "qalbaki dalillarni keltirmagan" degan xulosaga keldi.

    King va Luijendijk bu parcha yangi kashf etilgan xushxabarning bir qismi ekanligiga ishonishlarini aytishdi. Ular buni "Isoning xotinining xushxabari" deb nomlashdi.

    Kingning aytishicha, u yozilgan vaqtni ikkinchi asrning ikkinchi yarmiga to'g'ri kelgan, chunki bu parcha o'sha paytda yozilgan boshqa yangi xushxabarlarga, xususan, Tomas Xushxabariga, Maryam va Filipp Xushxabariga yaqin aloqalarni ko'rsatgan.


    “ Isoning Xushxabari ’ Xotini ”, ehtimol zamonaviy soxta emas

    Kichkina papirus parchasi,   ozgina eskirgan hujjat misrlik kopt tilida yozilgan, uning qismlari yo'qolgan va siyohi oqarib ketgan va ko'p narsa demagan. Ammo nima deyilgan, deb yozgan Ariel Sabar Smitson jurnali ikki yil oldin 㺔 Bibliya stipendiyasi dunyosiga — va undan keyingi voqealarni yuborish uchun etarli edi. ”

    14 ta tugallanmagan satr bo'ylab tarqalgan 33 so'zdan iborat parcha talqin qilish uchun yaxshi imkoniyat beradi. Ammo King tahlilida va u Garvard ilohiyotshunoslik jurnalida bo'lajak maqolasida bahslashar ekan, Iso nazarda tutgan, ehtimol Magdalalik Maryamdir va Iso uni kimgadir, ehtimol erkaklardan biriga qarshi himoya qilayotgandek tuyuladi. shogirdlar.

    “U mening shogirdim bo'la oladi, ” Iso javob beradi. Keyin, ikki qatordan keyin, u shunday deydi: “ Men u bilan yashayman. ”

    Papirus hayratlanarli edi: qadim zamonlardan beri ma'lum bo'lgan birinchi va yagona matn, turmushga chiqqan Isoni tasvirlaydi.

    Yangi hujjatning o'tmishi qiziq edi. U Kingga anonim manba tomonidan berilgan va  as Sabar ta'kidlashicha, papirus tarixining ba'zi qismlari biroz qulayroq bo'lib tuyuldi. Ko'p o'tmay, yangi xushxabarni qalbakilashtirish haqidagi taklif paydo bo'ldi. (Darhaqiqat, bunday imkoniyat Kingga tegishli edi).

    Ammo, yangi tadqiqotlarga ko'ra, olimlar hozircha hujjatning zamonaviy soxtalashtiruvchi emas, balki dastlabki matnning haqiqiy qismi ekanligiga aniq ishonishadi. Murakkabning spektroskopik tahlili, deydi New York Times, matn ming yillar oldin yozilganligini aniqladi.

    “ Asosiysi, ko'rish edi, buni kimdir shifokor qilganmi? ” Doktor Svager intervyusida. “Va buning uchun hech qanday dalil yo'q. Bu juda qiyin bo'lardi, agar imkonsiz bo'lsa ham. ”

    Isoning xotinining Xushxabari, biz bilganimizdek, qadimiy matndir. Bu nimani anglatishi aniq emas. Sabarga ko'ra, Karen King “, odamlar tarixiy Iso uylanganiga dalil sifatida uning sarlavhalarini o'qib, uning qog'ozini noto'g'ri talqin qilishidan xavotirda edilar. Ammo "Isoning Xotini va Xushxabari" kitobi Iso vafotidan ancha keyin yozilgan va uning tarjimai holi hech qanday ahamiyatga ega emas. ”

    Agar matn eski bo'lsa ham, bu Iso uylangan degani emas. Bu shuni anglatadiki, uzoq vaqt oldin kimdir uni shunday deb yozgan.


    Garvardning "Isoning xotini" papirusi haqidagi da'vosiga shubha (yangilanish)

    Garvard ilohiylik maktabi professori Karen King Augustinianum instituti tashqarisida intervyu beradi, u erda 2012 yil 19 sentyabr, chorshanba, Rimda kopt tadqiqotlari bo'yicha xalqaro kongress o'tkaziladi. Garvard olimi, IV asrga tegishli papirus parchasi, ba'zi dastlabki masihiylar Iso uylanganiga ishonishining birinchi dalilini taqdim etganini aytdi. Karen King topilmani seshanba kuni Rimda kopt tadqiqotlari bo'yicha o'tkazilgan xalqaro kongressda e'lon qildi. Uning gazetasi va AQShning ba'zi gazetalarida birinchi sahifadagi e'tibor chorshanba kuni bo'lib o'tgan konferentsiyada qahva tanaffuslari davomida muhokama qilingan. (AP fotosurati/Gregorio Borgia)

    Papirus qoldiqlari Isoning xotini borligini tasdiqlaydimi?

    Chorshanba kuni olimlar, Garvard olimining 4-asrdagi papirus parchasi, ba'zi erta nasroniylar Iso uylanganiga ishonishining birinchi dalilidir, degan keng tarqalgan kashfiyotga shubha bilan qarashdi.

    Qonunbuzarliklarning noqonuniy savdosi bo'yicha mutaxassislar, shuningdek, hali isbotlanmagan topilma oshkor etilayotgani bois, hujjatning qiymati oshganini ta'kidlab, uning noma'lum egasining maqsadi haqida hayron bo'lishdi.

    Tegishli: Uylangan Isoning taklifi - Qadimgi papirus ba'zi erta masihiylar Garvard Ilohiylik maktabining erta nasroniylik professori Karen King bilan turmush qurganiga ishonishganini ko'rsatadi. Kopt tilida yozilgan va ehtimol 2 -asr yunon tilidan tarjima qilingan matnda Iso Maryam deb atagan "xotinim" haqida gapiradigan dialog mavjud.

    King gazetasi va AQShning ba'zi gazetalarida bu haqda oldindan xabar berilgan birinchi sahifadagi e'tibor chorshanba kuni anjumanda qizg'in suhbat mavzusi bo'ldi.

    Xristian urf -odatlari uzoq vaqtdan beri Iso turmushga chiqmagan deb hisoblaydi, garchi buni tasdiqlaydigan ishonchli tarixiy dalillar bo'lmasa ham, dedi King. Iso uylanganmi yoki shogird ayolmi, degan har qanday dalil, cherkovdagi ayollarning o'rni haqidagi munozaralarda dalgalanma ta'sir qilishi mumkin.

    2006 yildagi Yahudo Xushxabarining kashfiyotini ko'rib chiqqan xalqaro maslahatchilar guruhida bo'lgan Myenster universiteti koptologiya professori Stiven Emmelning so'zlariga ko'ra, matnda Isoning "mening xotinim" degan so'zlari to'g'ri keltirilgan. Ammo u hujjatning haqiqiyligiga shubha bilan qaradi.

    "Bu parchaning tashqi ko'rinishida, shuningdek, koptlarning grammatikasida nimadir borki, bu meni ishontirmaydi", dedi u konferentsiya chetidagi intervyusida.

    Kongressning yana bir ishtirokchisi, Gamburg universiteti papirologi Alin Suciu ochiqchasiga gapirdi.

    Garvard ilohiylik maktabi professori Karen King Augustinianum instituti tashqarisida intervyu beradi, u erda 2012 yil 19 sentyabr, chorshanba, Rimda kopt tadqiqotlari bo'yicha xalqaro kongress o'tkaziladi. Garvard olimi, IV asrga tegishli papirus parchasi, ba'zi dastlabki masihiylar Iso uylanganiga ishonishining birinchi dalilini taqdim etganini aytdi. Karen King topilmani seshanba kuni Rimda kopt tadqiqotlari bo'yicha o'tkazilgan xalqaro kongressda e'lon qildi. Uning gazetasi va AQShning ba'zi gazetalarida birinchi sahifadagi e'tibor chorshanba kuni bo'lib o'tgan konferentsiyada qahva tanaffuslari davomida muhokama qilingan. (AP fotosurati/Gregorio Borgia)

    "Men buni qalbaki deb ayta olaman. Skript haqiqiy ko'rinmaydi", dedi u IV asrga tegishli kopt papirus skriptining boshqa namunalari bilan solishtirganda.

    King chorshanba kuni parcha haqida savollar qolishini tan oldi va u hamkasblarining fikrlarini ma'qulladi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, u kimyoviy komponentlar antik davrda ishlatilganlarga mos keladimi yoki yo'qligini aniqlash uchun hujjatni siyoh sinovlariga o'tkazishni rejalashtirgan.

    "Bizda siyohni sinovdan o'tkazish va shunga o'xshash boshqa ishlar bor, lekin bu parchani hayajonga soladigan narsa shundaki, biz Iso Masihning xotini bor deb da'vo qilgan masihiylarning birinchi holati", dedi u.

    U ta'kidlaganidek, matn Iso haqiqatan ham turmush qurgani haqida hech qanday tarixiy dalil bermaydi, faqat vafotidan ikki asr o'tgach, ba'zi erta masihiylar uning xotini borligiga ishonishgan.

    Taniqli kopt tilshunosi Volf-Piter Funkning aytishicha, uning mazmunini baholashning iloji yo'q, chunki uning mazmuni yo'q. Bu qisman matn va kichik o'lchamli, o'lchamlari 4 santimetrdan 8 santimetrga (1,5 dyuymdan 3 dyuymgacha), kichik o'lchamdagi uyali telefonga o'xshaydi.

    2012 yil 5 sentyabrda Garvard universiteti tomonidan chop etilgan fotosuratda ilohiyot professori Karen L. King to'rtinchi asr papirus parchasini ushlab turibdi, u aytganidek, Isoning xotini borligini aniq ko'rsatgan yagona qadimiy matn. Xristianlik tarixining mutaxassisi Kingning aytishicha, matnda Iso Maryam deb atagan "xotinim" haqida gapirilgan dialog mavjud. Kingning aytishicha, kopt yozuvining bo'lagi, ehtimol, II asrda yunon tilida yozilgan xushxabarning nusxasi. (AP fotosurati/Garvard universiteti, Roz Linkoln)

    "Minglab papirus qoldiqlari bor, bu erda siz aql bovar qilmaydigan narsalarni topasiz", dedi Funk, Kvebekdagi Laval universiteti Nag Hammadi kopt kutubxonasini tahrir qilish loyihasining hamraisi. "Bu har qanday narsa bo'lishi mumkin."

    U, shuningdek, parchaning shakli "shubhali" ekanligini aytib, haqiqiyligiga shubha qildi.

    Qadimgi papirus parchalari ko'proq pul topmoqchi bo'lgan vijdonsiz dilerlar tomonidan tez -tez kesilgan.

    Anonim kollektsioner 2011 yil dekabr oyida Kingga parchani olib kelib, uni tarjima qilish va tushunishda yordam so'radi. Mart oyida u uni ikkita papirologga olib keldi, ular uning haqiqiyligini aniqladilar.

    Seshanba kuni Garvard ilohiylik maktabi kashfiyotni katta shov -shuv bilan e'lon qildi va Kingning hujjati yanvar oyida Garvard Theological Review jurnalida chop etilishini aytdi. Garvardning aytishicha, bu parcha katta ehtimol bilan Misrdan kelgan va uning dastlabki hujjatlari 1980-yillarning boshlariga to'g'ri keladi, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, Germaniyada vafot etgan professor buni Isoning uylanishi mumkinligidan dalolat beradi.

    Ba'zi arxeologlar Garvardning etikasini shubha ostiga qo'yib, bu parchaning aniq manbasi yoki qaerda bo'lganligi haqida hech qanday ma'lumotga ega emasligini va uning hozirgi egasi bu borada oshkor qilinishiga moliyaviy manfaatdor bo'lishi mumkinligini ta'kidladilar.

    Kingning aytishicha, egasi o'z kollektsiyasini Garvardga sotmoqchi.

    Kopt va katolik ruhoniy, o'ngda, Augustinianum instituti oldida yurishadi, u erda Rimda kopt tadqiqotlari bo'yicha xalqaro kongress bo'lib o'tadi, 2012 yil 19-sentabr, chorshanba. Olimlar Garvard tomonidan ko'pchilik tomonidan e'lon qilingan kashfiyotning haqiqiyligi va ahamiyatiga shubha qilishmoqda. IV asrga tegishli papirus parchasi, ba'zi erta masihiylar Iso uylanganiga ishonishining birinchi dalilini taqdim etganini aytgan olim. Garvard ilohiylik maktabi professori Karen King seshanba kuni Rimda koptshunoslik bo'yicha o'tkazilgan xalqaro kongressda o'z xulosasini e'lon qildi. (AP fotosurati/Gregorio Borgia)

    "Bu borada har xil xavfli narsalar bor", dedi Devid Gill, universitet kampusining arxeologik merosi professori, Suffolk universiteti va qadimiy buyumlarning noqonuniy savdosini yaqindan kuzatib boradigan Looting Matters blogining muallifi. "Menimcha, har qanday aqlli va mas'uliyatli akademik undan uzoqlashishi kerak."

    U ilmiy muhitda shubhali tarzda topilgan qadimiy buyumlar haqida maqolalar chop etish borasida davom etayotgan munozaralarni misol qilib keltirdi, bu esa noqonuniy bozorni kuchaytirishi mumkin edi.

    Masalan, Amerika Arxeologiya Instituti 1973 yilda YuNESKOning noqonuniy savdoga qarshi konventsiyasi kuchga kirganidan keyin olingan, tasdiqlanmagan holda, qadimiy buyumlar topilgani to'g'risida o'z jurnalida maqolalar chiqarmaydi.

    Xuddi shunday, ko'plab amerikalik muzeylar Italiya kabi mamlakatlar tomonidan o'g'irlangan xazinalarni qaytarib olish uchun qilingan sa'y -harakatlardan so'ng, qadimiy buyumlarni asossiz sotib olmaslik siyosatini qabul qilishgan.

    Arxeologlar, shuningdek, antik asarlarning talon -taroj qilinishi ularni tarixiy kontekstidan olib tashlab, olimlarni boy ma'lumotlardan mahrum qilishidan shikoyat qiladilar.

    Biroq, King papirusni tasdiqlash uchun maslahat bergan Prinston universiteti mutaxassisi AnneMari Luijendijkning aytishicha, bu parcha Xalqaro papirologlar assotsiatsiyasi tomonidan o'rnatilgan barcha qoidalar va mezonlarga mos keladi. Uning ta'kidlashicha, papirus parchalari ko'pincha o'z manbasiga ega emas, chunki ko'pchilik bunday muammolar tashvishga solmasdan oldin Misrdan olib tashlangan.

    U bunday qadimiy buyumlarni sotib olish muammosini tan oldi, lekin ular haqida maqola chop etishdan bosh tortish - bu boshqa masala.

    "Siz muhim yangi matnni bekor qilishiga yo'l qo'ymaysiz", dedi u.

    Qohiradagi koptlar muzeyi bosh direktori Xani Sadakning aytishicha, fragmentning mavjudligi Misr qadimiy yodgorliklari uchun bu haftadagi yangiliklarga qadar noma'lum edi.

    "Men, shaxsan, tadqiqotchi sifatida, qog'oz haqiqiy emas, deb o'ylayman, chunki u ilgari Misrda bo'lganida, biz bu haqda bilgan bo'lar edik va Misrni tark etishidan oldin eshitgan bo'lardik", dedi u.

    Mualliflik huquqi 2012 Associated Press. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Bu materialni nashr qilish, translyatsiya qilish, qayta yozish yoki qayta tarqatish mumkin emas.


    Shimoliy portda yashovchi Garvardni "Isoning xotini" papirusi bilan aldaganmi?

    NORTH PORT & ndash Isoning kelin bo'lgani, Viktor Gyugo va jurnalistik inspektor Javertning qat'iyatliligi bilan jurnalist va dunyodagi eng ko'zga ko'ringan akademik institutlarning qora ko'zlari bor-yo'qligi haqidagi 2000 yillik munozarasi Shimoliy Port aholisining markazida qoldi. Misr hukumati qalbakilashtirishdan ozod bo'lganidan so'ng, bu bo'ron qonuniy choralar ko'rishga va'da berdi.

    & ldquoI & rsquove -ga mening advokatim hozir ko'p gapirmaslikni maslahat bergan, & rdquo telefonda bergan qisqa intervyusida 55 yoshli Valter Frits deydi. Men kitobni o'qimaganman va o'qimayman. Lekin biz bunga yo'l qo'ymaymiz. & Rdquo

    Kitob & ndash & ldquoVeritas: Garvard professori, yolg'onchi va Isoning Xushxabari va rafiqasining xushxabari, Ariel Sabar va ndashning rdquo kitobi o'tgan oy nashr etilgan va Garvard Ilohiylik maktabi va uning ilk nasroniylik olimi tomonidan jimjitlik bilan kutib olingan. Universitet va nufuzli universitetga sazovor bo'lgan birinchi ayol, 299 yoshli Xollis ilohiyot professori Karen King ham, Garvard ham Sabar va rsquosning so'nggi xabarlariga munosabat bildirishmadi. Tushuntirish uchun Herald-Tribune & rsquos so'rovlariga hech kim javob bermadi.

    Agar Dan Braun va rsquos 2003 yilda eng ko'p sotilgan & Ldquo Da Vinchi kodi va rdquo Magdalalik Maryamga butun dunyo bo'ylab qiziqish uyg'otgan bo'lsa va rsquos Iso Masihning hayotidagi turmush o'rtog'i haqidagi farazni ilgari surgan bo'lsa, & ldquoVeritas & rdquo - bu uning antitezasi. Brown va rsquos -ning uydirma muqobil tarixi/sir/trillerining Sabar & rsquos dekonstruktsiyasi Uolter Fritsdagi Internet va rsquo kashshof pornograflarning birining ostonasiga olib keladi.

    2003 yilda & ldquoAmerica & rsquos #1 Slut Wife, & rdquo Fritzning ko'nikmalarini isbotlovchi veb-saytni ochish, sobiq turmush o'rtog'i Jenni Seemor (sahnaning ismi), Sabar tasvirlagan ishda bir nechta sheriklar bilan shug'ullangani haqida videolarni joylashtirdi. keyinchalik & ldquoVeritas, & rdquo ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, o'zini avtomatik ravishda yozish mashqlari farishtalardan xabar yuboradigan kvazististik onlayn shaxs sifatida qayta kashf etdi.

    & LdquoShunday qilib, u eri Karen Kingni jinsiy aloqa va Iso haqidagi papirusga qiziqtirmoqchi bo'lgan paytda, u payg'ambar ayolga aylanadi va hamma narsa shunga o'xshaydi. Xo'sh, & rdquo, deydi Sabar, & ldquot, hikoyada men ko'rganlarimga deyarli ishonmasdim. & rdquo

    G'alati narsaning markazida 2012 yilda xristianlik poydevorini buzish bilan tahdid qilgan vizitkaga o'xshash papirus qoldiqlari yotadi. Qirol Rimdagi seminarda o'zi chaqirgan narsaning ochilishini e'lon qilib, xalqaro shov-shuvga sabab bo'ldi. Iso va rsquos xotini. . & rdquo Shubhali kontekst: shogirdlar o'rtasida Maryam yoki Maryam ismli ayolning munosibligi haqida munozara.

    Smithsonian jurnaliga tayinlanganida, Sabar Vatikanning qarama -qarshi tomonida o'tkazilgan King & rsquos taqdimotida qatnashdi. Javob berilmagan savollarning eng asosiysi matnning kelib chiqishi edi: u qaerdan paydo bo'lgan? Oxir oqibat, bu tergov Sabar deb atagan Shimoliy Port va Uolter Fritsni ko'rsatdi va men uchrashgan eng qiziqarli odamlardan biri. & Rdquo

    G'arbiy Germaniyada tug'ilgan Frits bir necha yil oldin Floridaga ko'chib o'tdi va Germaniyalik Gans-Ulrix Laukamp transplantatsiyasi bilan Venetsiyadagi avtomobil qismlari biznesiga kirdi. Fritsning so'zlariga ko'ra, Laukamp 1963 yilda Sharqiy Germaniyaning Potsdam shahrida "Isoning Xushxabari va rsquos Xotinini" rdquo va boshqa besh kopt papirusi bilan birga sotib olgan. Fritz, o'z navbatida, Sabarga aytganda, u kopt matnlarining to'liq paketini 1999 yilda 1500 dollarga sotib olgan.

    Papaga papa haqida birinchi marta 2010 yilda anonim elektron pochta orqali murojaat qilgan Frits, Berlindagi Ozod universitetining misrshunosi Piter Munroga tegishli nusxa ko'chirilgan yozuvni ham o'z ichiga olgan. Munroning aytishicha, akademik hamkasbi Gerxard Fex, go'yoki, Yangi Ahd va "Yuhanno xushxabarining" bir qismi bo'lgan papiruslardan birini aniqlagan. Fext 2006 yilda vafot etdi. Munro 2009 yilda vafot etdi. Laukamp 2002 yilda vafot etdi.

    Garvard & rsquos King o'zining haqiqiyligi to'g'risida jiddiy ogohlantirishlarga qaramay, 2011 yilda Fritz va rsquos materiallarini ko'rib chiqishga rozi bo'ldi. Keyingi yili sarlavhalar e'lon qilinishidan bir necha hafta oldin, Fritz gospelofjesuswife.com domenini ro'yxatdan o'tkazdi.

    King & rsquos 2012 e'lonidan so'ng, Sabar Fritz & rsquos fonida to'liq sud matbuotini ishga tushirdi, buning uchun Evropaga sayohatlar va Germaniyadagi sobiq tanishlar va hamkasblar bilan suhbatlar kerak edi. Fritzning o'zi Sabarning rashkidan hayratda.

    & LdquoHatto men beshinchi sinfdan beri ko'rmagan odamga yaqinlashdi, va Fridz Herald-Tribunega aytadi. & Ldquo, dedim, buni qanday qilding? Va u shunday dedi: "Bu & rsquo chunki men buyuk jurnalistman. & Rsquo & rdquo"

    Bu taklifni bahslashadigan Sabar, Frits AQShga kelgunga qadar bir qancha shlyapa kiyganini va Berlindagi Misr muzeyi ekskursiyasi, Berlindagi Stasi muzeyining direktori va Ozod universiteti talabasi ekanligini aniqlagan bo'lardi. Shimoliy Portga joylashgandan so'ng, Sabar 2016 yilda "Atlantika" jurnali uchun "ldquoJesus & rsquos Wife" rdquo matnini tekshirganda yozganidek, Fritz & Ldquoon qog'ozi Shimoliy Port Sun muharririga xat yozgan, mahalliy shaharga o'xshardi. Bird Kiwanis klubi va jamoat yig'ilishlarida shahar komissarlari bilan bahslashdi.

    Ammo 2008 yildagi retsessiya 2010 yilga cho'zilganida, Sabar Fritz o'z uyini bozorga qo'yganini aniqladi va 349 ming dollarga xaridor topolmay, 229 ming dollarga tushdi. 2010 yil 8 -iyulda Frits gazeta maktubini yozib, shaharni xodimlarni ishdan bo'shatish va ish haqini 35 foizga qisqartirish orqali aholining moliyaviy dardlari bilan bo'lishishga chaqirdi. Ertasi kuni u Karen Kingga birinchi elektron maktubini yubordi. O'shandan beri Fritsning ta'kidlashicha, agar & ldquoJesus va rsquos xotini va rdquo papirusi qalbaki bo'lsa, uning bunga aloqasi yo'q.

    Sarasota okrugidagi maktablarga ishga joylashish uchun Fritz va rsquos arizalarini ko'rib chiqayotganda, Sabarning aytishicha, u & ldquohit paydirt. & Rdquo 2013 yilda ariza bilan Frits 1993 yilda Ozod universitetining Misrshunoslik bo'yicha magistrlik diplomini topshirgan.

    & LdquoFritz hech qachon diplom olmagan va u dasturdan chiqib ketgan va u buni birinchi bo'lib tan olgan, - deydi Sabar. & LdquoHozir u o'zini soxtalashtiruvchi emas deb da'vo qila olmaydi yoki hech bo'lmaganda u qalbakilashlar bilan yonma -yon ishlamaydi, chunki hozirda u hech qachon olmagan diplom bor. Diplomning pastki qismidagi professorlar va rsquo ismlari zamonaviy evropashunoslik kollejida edi, bu misrshunoslikka hech qanday aloqasi yo'q. & Rdquo

    Bundan tashqari, Sabar & ldquoVeritas-da yozadi va Fritz diplomining to'g'riligiga kafolat bergan sifat nazorati kompaniyasi bilan ikki marta tekshiradi. Fritz, Palm Beach Gardensning Educated Choices MChJdan, Sarasota maktab tizimiga arizalari bilan birga, maktub kiritgan edi.

    Men "Bilimli Tanlovlar" bilan gaplashganimda, Sabar aytadi: "Ludquothey," lsquoWow, biz tekshirmaganmiz, u haqiqiy ko'rinishga ega edi va biz unga rezina muhr bosdik. "

    Ko'rinishidan, Garvard ham xuddi shunday tuzoqqa tushib qolgan. Kopt olimlari, qirol e'lon qilinganidan keyin bir necha kun ichida Rimda o'z vahiylarini e'lon qilishidan oldin, matndagi grammatik xatolarga va shubhali harflarga qarshi turishni boshladilar.

    Shunga qaramay, ilmiy doiralarda tanqid davom etayotganiga qaramay, King oldinga intildi. Va 2014 yilda Garvard Theological Review uning matnini haqiqiy deb e'lon qilganini e'lon qildi.

    Sabar & rsquosning keyingi ishi Kolumbiya universitetida ikki olim va ndash o'rtasida ilgari oshkor qilinmagan shaxsiy manfaatlar to'qnashuvini aniqlaydi va Massachusets texnologiya instituti va ndash King papirusni laboratoriya sinovidan o'tkazishni buyuradi. U, shuningdek, noma'lum ikkita tengdosh sharhlovchini topdi, nomini aytdi va intervyu berdi, Garvardni nashrdan ogohlantirishda Kingning tadqiqotiga jiddiy tanqidlar berdi.

    Atlantika okeanida Sabar & rsquos 2016 fosh etildi, bu papirus va rsquo -ning haqiqiyligini yanada ochib yubordi, bu esa Kingni yo'nalishni teskari yo'nalishga undadi. & ldquoBu qalbakilashtirish balansini beradi, va u keyingi hikoyasida tan oldi. & ldquoMaqolangiz menga kelib chiqishi tekshirilishi mumkinligini ko'rishga yordam berdi.

    & ldquo Men bu yigit (Fritz) haqida hech qanday tasavvurga ega emas edim, aniqki, & rdquo King davom etdi. & ldquoU menga aldaydi. & rdquo

    Frits maktab tumaniga yuborgan rezyumeni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri murojaat qilishdan bosh tortadi, bundan tashqari & ldquoBu mening da'vo ishimning bir qismi bo'ladi.

    2019 yilning yozida Misr qadimiy yodgorliklar vazirligi AQSh Davlat departamenti bilan bog'lanib, uning milliy merosining parchalarini tiklash haqida savollar bilan murojaat qildi. Ichki xavfsizlik bo'limi material himoyalangan Garvardga tashrif buyurdi va Frits & rsquos ruxsati bilan tortishuvlarni o'z qo'liga oldi.

    Men hech qachon bu haqda hech narsa so'ramaganman va men buni ularga xursandchilik bilan qaytarib beraman, - deydi Frits. & ldquoI & rsquom kutaman va bu qanday ketishini ko'raman, va bo'lak Misrga qaytarilganda, bizda bu qalbaki emasligini isbotlashimiz mumkin va biz uning sudda qanday turishini ko'ramiz. & rdquo

    Fritz, Sabarni kimdir tomonidan yollanganlikda ayblaydi va u nashr qilishdan bosh tortadi va xristianlik uchun xavf tug'dirishi va papkada "ldquohit" va "rdquo" qilishdan bosh tortadi, ruhoniylarning turmush qurmaslik va cherkovdagi ayollarning o'rni haqidagi ta'limotlari. Sabar bu ayblovni rad etadi va Misrning Frits va rsquos materiallariga bo'lgan qiziqishi qat'iy proforma ekanligini aytadi.

    & LdquoEsipir uni hali qaytarishni talab qilmagan va u hali ham tergov qilinmoqda, lekin bu haqiqatan ham muhim emas, - deydi Sabar. & ldquoHatto papirus Misrdan kelgan bo'lsa ham, eng yaxshi olimlar bir ovozdan "parchani", "Yuhannoning xushxabari" va "rsquo" soxta. & rdquo

    Matnlar, asosan, cherkov tomonidan kanonik Xushxabar qabul qilingan to'rtinchi asr emas, balki milodiy 741 yilga to'g'ri keladi. King bu farqni papirus nazariyasiga asoslab, avvalgi asl matn nusxasi bo'lgan.

    & LdquoVeritas, & rdquo Fritz Sabarga Germaniyada o'sganida katolik ruhoniy tomonidan zo'rlanganini aytdi va Sabar Frits va rsquosning shikoyatlari cherkovga topshirilganini tasdiqladi. Sabar yangi Xushxabarni yaratishda potentsial rag'batlantiruvchi omil sifatida to'lovni qaytaradi.

    The takeaway from this eight-year odyssey, says Sabar, is larger than Walter Fritz and ancient writing.

    &ldquoIt&rsquos about all the shortcuts and corner-cutting that went on at one of the world&rsquos richest and most powerful universities to get this tiny piece of papyrus into the public eye,&rdquo he says. &ldquoYou can&rsquot tell whether something is authentic or not unless you do a very thorough investigation of provenance.

    &ldquoIf you haven&rsquot bent over backwards to thoroughly investigate that, if all your information comes from a single source, then you&rsquore in trouble.&rdquo

    Stephen Emmel, the Yale-trained expert on Gnostic manuscripts at Germany&rsquos University of Munster who called the &ldquoJesus&rsquos Wife&rdquo papyrus a &ldquoclumsy and labored&rdquo forgery for the Harvard Theological Review, advanced his own theory for King&rsquos otherwise gifted career of compelling insights into biblical history.

    &ldquoMy impression was she was doing everything she could to rescue this thing as authentic,&rdquo Emmel tells Sabar in the book. &ldquoShe was so interested in having it as a hook for the very interesting work she does on the status of women in Christianity that she was not keen to let it go . She could have written the bulk of her article without this text.&rdquo

    Karen King&rsquos webpage at Harvard has a brief reference to her current status: &ldquoOn leave.&rdquo


    Jesus May Have Had a Wife, Ancient Text Suggests

    Papyrus fragment makes first reference to Jesus' spouse.

    When he lived 2,000 years ago, could Jesus Christ have been married?

    That's the question that scholars are asking after a centuries-old scrap of papyrus surfaced with a reference to Jesus' wife—a subject of much speculation over the centuries but with no compelling evidence to back it up.

    The papyrus made international headlines when it was cited in a new paper by Harvard historian Karen King. Smaller than a business card, the fragment includes several lines of handwritten text, composed in Coptic language, which uses Christian symbols.

    The final line of text includes the words: "And Jesus said, My Wife. " while quoting Jesus.

    That sentence is cut off on the papyrus, which is thought to be a fragment from a larger piece of text. The incomplete sentence leaves a mystery about what might have been written—and who the wife may have been.

    Prior documents have made veiled references to a close companion of Jesus, but the presence of a wife has never been directly noted in written material from the first several centuries after Jesus' life.

    Papyrus Is Real, Early Evidence Suggests

    The date and authenticity of the papyrus are still being investigated. But early review by a handful of experts of early Christian history and documents suggest the papyrus is indeed real. Preliminary estimates have placed its origin between the second and fourth centuries after Jesus' death.

    "If the second century date of composition is correct, the fragment does provide direct evidence that claims about Jesus' marital status first arose over a century after the death of Jesus in the context of intra-Christian controversies over sexuality, marriage, and discipleship," King wrote in the paper with colleague AnneMarie Luijendijk, a professor of religion at Princeton University.

    "If it is what it purports to be, then it's the first of its kind to show up," said Bart Ehrman, a religious-studies expert and author at the University of North Carolina.

    "We certainly didn't have anything like that before."

    But Ehrman cautions that the reference in the text to Jesus' wife doesn't mean he actually had a wife.

    "This shows there was a follower in the second century who may have thought Jesus was married," said Ehrman. That revelation would help illuminate the development of early Christianity around a time when the primary gospels of Jesus' life were being written and revised.

    Papyrus Discovery a "Major Advance"

    Jitse Dijkstra, a Coptic and papyrology expert at the University of Ottawa, called the papyrus fragment a "major advance."

    King, the Harvard professor behind the discovery, told the New York Times that the papyrus was loaned to her by a private collector, who for reasons that have not been made public had kept it hidden for several decades. King traveled to Rome last week, where she shared the papyrus fragment with the International Congress of Coptic Studies.

    The last time a momentous piece of documentation captured the minds of Christian scholars was the surfacing of the Judas Gospel, a project revealed in the pages of National Geographic magazine.

    The National Geographic Society also committed to restoring and preserving the lengthy text, which suggested that the apostle Judas may not have betrayed Jesus as scholars and religious leaders have long thought, but instead that Judas was acting on specific instructions from Jesus.


    For the sake of argument I will set aside Christianity and the story of Jesus Christ as a whole. I must do this because there is no true historical record of Jesus existing, let alone having a wife. There are multiple instances where there is mention of Jesus having a wife, with the most recent discovery of such being October 13th, 2012! This was when researchers and scientists revealed the discovery of ancient papyrus in which Jesus is referring to "my wife". This only further builds the case, however, as there is writing to support both arguments. The undeniable truth comes in the painting entitled The Last Supper. Leonardo Da Vinci very distinctively paints a woman at the right arm of Jesus. Taking this VISUAL evidence along with the story in the Bible, it is very easy to conclude that Jesus was happily married, and that Christianity took away women's rights and values that were praised during his time. It's unfortunate that folks tell a different story on Sundays.

    This does not attack the religion of Christianity nor diminish the gospel of tolerance and nonviolence that Jesus preached. Biological evidence can be used to see if Jesus bloodline still exists if the shroud of turin is sequenced to extract DNA. It will show that a common person could actually have done the great things that Jesus did.


    More On This.

    The smoking gun

    All the grammatical anomalies in the Gospel of Jesus' Wife suggest the writer was not a native speaker or even an academic expert in Coptic — the ancient, dead language of early Christians living in Egypt. Instead, Bernhard says that the pattern of errors and suspiciously similar line breaks suggests an amateur might have forged the "patchwork" text using individual words and phrases taken from Michael Grondin's Interlinear Coptic-English Translation of the Gospel of Thomas. [Most European Languages Unlikely to Survive Online]

    "There's this general pattern in that everywhere the Gospel of Jesus' Wife could diverge from gospel of Thomas, it doesn't, and in places where it does [diverge], it appears it's following Mike's Interlinear," Bernhard told TechNewsDaily.

    One the most suspicious grammatical errors in the Gospel of Jesus' Wife appeared to be a direct copy of a typo in the PDF file version of the Interlinear translation — a connection that Grondin himself made when he was examining his translation. He shared that knowledge with Mark Goodacre, an associate professor of New Testament at Duke University, who had been writing up a blog post independently about the possibility of the "Jesus' Wife fragment" being a forgery.

    Goodacre and Bernhard eventually got in touch and agreed to coordinate the online publishing of their respective blog post and paper. Goodacre credits Bernhard with first making the connection between the Gospel of Jesus' Wife and the online version of the Gospel of Thomas.

    "I would have already put money on this thing being problematic, given the links between the fragment and the Coptic Gospel of Thomas," Goodacre explained. "But the link with the online Interlinear version of the Gospel of Thomas really makes, for me, the case of authenticity a very difficult one."

    Internet peer review

    Both Goodacre and Bernhard cautioned that any final proof of a forgery must come from Harvard University's chemistry tests of the fragment's ink and paper. But if the Gospel of Jesus' Wife is indeed a forgery, the scholars told TechNewsDaily that it would represent an eye-opening, first-time case where an amateur pulled off such a stunt — with more than a little help from the online Internet translation.

    "They were able to mimic the word usage and grammar of Coptic convincingly enough so that I think a lot of people could have been fooled, including some of the most capable scholars in the world," Bernhard said. "It's a strange scenario in a strange new world where an amateur can fool the highest levels of academic knowledge."

    The availability of the online translation of the Gospel of Thomas may have provided the unwitting tool for an amateur to fool the experts. But the Internet also allowed scholars from many different fields to combine forces and focus their collective attention on examining the Gospel of Jesus' Wife as soon as the news broke.

    "Some people are experts in Coptic language, some people who are experts in the literary relationship among ancient texts," Goodacre said. "It's a combination of different voices talking to one another — things just move a little bit more quickly now than 30 or 40 years ago."

    Similarly, Bernhard confessed to being amazed by how quickly scholars had mobilized online to analyze the Gospel of Jesus' wife. He wondered how anyone would have gathered all the Coptic experts in the world to do something similar just 20 years ago.

    "To write this paper, I had to go through e-lists, Facebook posts, blogs, online articles — there was something like instantaneous international peer review," Bernhard said. "It's clearly a new world of scholarship."

    Copyright 2012 TechNewsDaily, a TechMediaNetwork company. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Bu materialni nashr qilish, translyatsiya qilish, qayta yozish yoki qayta tarqatish mumkin emas.


    This scholar still thinks ‘Gospel of Jesus’s Wife’ is ‘hilarious’ and ‘patently fake’

    In 2012, when Harvard Divinity School historian Karen King introduced a three-inch piece of papyrus that contained the words, “Jesus said to them, ‘My wife…,” it was immediately questioned. Grammatical errors pockmarked the text, theologians said. It bore resemblance to other gospels, and there appeared to be inconsistencies with traditional Egyptian Coptic script.

    On Thursday, King pushed back, saying that the text was both ancient and legit. While stressing that it didn’t show that Jesus had a wife — a hotly-contested issue — she said the document is dated between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. Here’s the Post’s story.

    “I’m hoping now that we can turn away from the question of forgery and talk much, much more about the historical significance of the fragment and precisely how it fit into the history of Christianity and questions about family and marriage and sexuality and Jesus,” King explained.

    Many accepted this. NBC news headlined its report, “Scientific tests show ‘Gospel of Jesus’ Wife’ wasn’t faked.” “Ancient texts of ‘Jesus’s wife’ deemed authentic,” proclaimed Science World Report. Next up was the International Science Times: “‘Gospel of Jesus’ Wife’ shows no sign of forgery.”

    Not so fast, says Brown University professor Leo Depuydt, who wrote this dissenting opinion in April’s Harvard Theological Review. He maintains that the text is “hilarious” and “patently fake.”

    “It is out of the question that the so-called Gospel of Jesus’s Wife, also known as the Wife of Jesus Fragment, is an authentic source,” he seethes in his 19-page study, which will be published alongside King’s work. There is “not the slightest doubt that the document is a forgery, and not a very good one at that.”

    Calling the fragment a “modern creation,” he says the text’s use of bold letters are “almost hilarious.” There’s general consensus among theologians, says Religion News Service, that if a relic surfaces that appears to address a modern debate exactly — like women’s role in Christianity — it’s “too good to be true.”

    The Jesus’s wife fragment doesn’t just address the issue of Christ’s marital status, Depuydt says, but puts the matter in bold.

    “How could this not have been designed to some extent to convey a certain comic effect?” he asks, saying he’s never seen bold used in any other Coptic text. “The effect is something like: ‘My wife. Get it? MY wife. You heard that right.’ The papyrus fragment seems ripe for a Monty Python sketch…. If the forger had used italics in addition, one might be in danger of losing one’s composure.”

    He continues: The text “brings one to the surreal. I personally — and I am not sure whether I share this feeling with anyone — experience a certain incredulity pertaining to how something that is at first so patently fake could be so blown out of proportion. If this sounds too strong, please understand that I am just trying to find words to express my heartfelt opinion.”

    Critics say the fallacy of the document hinges on several difficult-to-reconcile issues.

    The dates don’t add up. King’s testing, according to Religion News Service, indicates that the text was constructed as recently as the year 859. That would make it at least 400 years younger than King first thought, and substantially later than when the New Testament was written.

    “Fatal grammatical errors.” Depuydt characterizes a blunder as “something done inadvertently by someone who wants to avoid detection by devious dissimulation.” In his analysis of the text, Depuydt says he found two such blunders that “cannot be condoned.”

    It’s too similar to another Gospel. “Every single one of the handful of phrases (and almost every single word) in the text is found almost exactly in the Gospel of Thomas. … It is clear that the text is not an independent literary composition at all.”

    The ink. Here, Depuydt speculates. The “analysis of the ink of the text is being awaited,” he said. Still, Depuydt does not put out of the realm of possibility that “a dealer touched up ancient faded ink with modern ink to make the artifact more attractive to potential buyers.”

    Xulosa. “The text is almost entirely a patchwork of words and phrases from the Gospel of Thomas … The fully inadequate knowledge of Coptic evidence when the author tries to strike out on his or her own only confirms the spurious nature of the text.”


    Contents

    After Professor Karen King's announcement of the existence of a papyrus fragment featuring the words "Jesus said to them, 'my wife. '" at the International Congress of Coptic Studies in Rome on September 18, 2012, [1] [2] scholarly publication of the text with commentary was slated for the Harvard Theological Review in January 2013. [8] On January 3, 2013, King and Kathryn Dodgson (director of communications for Harvard Divinity School) confirmed to CNN that publication was being delayed pending the results of (in Dodgson's words) "further testing and analysis of the fragment, including testing by independent laboratories with the resources and specific expertise necessary to produce and interpret reliable results." [9] A revised version of the article appeared in the Harvard Theological Review in April 2014, together with several scientific reports on the testing of the papyrus. [10]

    In response to Ariel Sabar's article in Atlantika okeani, the Harvard Theological Review issued a statement saying that it had never committed itself to the authenticity of the papyrus and refused to print a retraction of King's article. [11] Retraction Watch called the journal's decision "a cop-out of. Biblical proportions." [12]

    One side of the fragmentary text reads, word-for-word:

    . not [to] me. My mother gave me life. The disciples said to Jesus. deny. Mary is (not?) worthy of it. . Jesus said to them, "My wife. she is able to be my disciple. Let wicked people swell up. As for me, I am with her in order to. an image .

    The opposite side of the text reads, word-for-word:

    The next two lines of this side feature illegible ink traces. [4]

    The fragment is rectangular, approximately 4 by 8 centimetres (1.6 in × 3.1 in). According to reports, "the fragment has eight incomplete lines of writing on one side and is badly damaged on the other side, with only three faded words and a few letters of ink that are visible, even with the use of infrared photography and computer-aided enhancement." [13]

    King and AnneMarie Luijendijk, an associate professor of religion at Princeton University, named the fragment the "Gospel of Jesus's Wife" for reference purposes [14] but have since acknowledged that the name was inflammatory. Asked about her handling of the public disclosure of the fragment, King admitted that she had ". misjudged just how inflammatory that title would turn out to be". According to Tom Bartlett of The Chronicle of Higher Education, "she's been asking around for ideas on a new, less exciting name". [15] They further suggested the text was written by Egyptian Christians before AD 400 it is in the language they believed was used by those people at that time. They considered that the papyrus fragment comes from a codex, rather than a scroll, as text appears on both sides. [13] King has stated that the fragment should not be taken as proof that the historical Jesus got married. [8] Testing has dated the papyrus itself to somewhere between the seventh and ninth centuries, and Professor Christian Askeland of Indiana Wesleyan University has shown that the text is written in Lycopolitan, a Coptic dialect that fell out of use during or prior to the sixth century. [16]

    With reference to the speculative source of the text on the fragment, King and Luijendijk used the term "gospel" in a capacious sense, as it includes all early Christian writings about Jesus' career. [4]

    King told the International Congress of Coptic Studies that the text does not prove that Jesus had a wife. She noted that even as a translation of a 2nd-century AD Greek text, it would still have been written more than 100 years after the death of Jesus. According to King, the earliest and most reliable information about Jesus is silent on the question of his marital status. [17] King also said that the text (which she suggested is a fragment from a non-canonical gospel) showed that some early Christians believed that Jesus was married. [18] A Harvard News Office article reported that King dated the speculative Greek original to the second half of the second century because it shows close connections to other newly discovered gospels written at that time, particularly the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary, and the Gospel of Philip. [19]

    King later, in a 2012 television documentary, commented on the possible implication of the papyrus fragment:

    The question on many people's minds is whether this fragment should lead us to re-think whether Jesus was married. I think, however, what it leads us to do, is not to answer that question one way or the other, it should lead us to re-think how Christianity understood sexuality and marriage in a very positive way, and to recapture the pleasures of sexuality, the joyfulness and the beauties of human intimate relations. [20]

    Ben Witherington, Professor of New Testament Interpretation at the Asbury Theological Seminary, said that while the text might contribute to the study of Gnosticism in the 2nd or 4th century, it should not be considered significant for those studying Jesus in a 1st-century historical context. He further explained that, "during the rise of the monastic movement, you had quite a lot of monk-type folks and evangelists who travelled in the company of a sister-wife" and that the term "wife" was open to interpretation. [21]

    Father Henry Wansbrough echoed the same sentiments:

    It will not have a great deal of importance for the Christian church. It will show that there was a group who had these beliefs in the second century—Christians or semi-Christians—who perhaps had not reflected enough on the implications of the canonical scriptures - to see that Jesus could not have been married. It's a historical interest, rather than a faith interest. [20]

    Daniel B. Wallace of the Dallas Theological Seminary and others have suggested that the fragment appears to have been intentionally cut, most likely in modern times. They further suggest that this leads to the possibility that in context Jesus may not have even been speaking of a literal wife. [22]

    Links to conspiracy theories Edit

    The modern idea that Jesus was married is largely attributable to The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, a book by Baigent, Leigh, and Lincoln that is considered a work of pseudohistory that relies on conspiracy theories. [23] [24] Its thesis was that Jesus had been married to Mary Magdalene, and that the legends of the Holy Grail were symbolic accounts of his bloodline in Europe. This thesis became much more widely circulated after it was made the center of the plot of Da Vinchi kodi, a best-selling 2003 novel by author Dan Brown. [8] [25] [21] King rejected any link between Da Vinchi kodi and the Gospel of Jesus' Wife. [8]

    Other text Edit

    The fragment also includes the line, "she will be able to be my disciple". The New York Times states that debates over whether Jesus married Mary Magdalene or another woman, as well as debates over whether or not he had female disciples can be traced to the early centuries of Christianity. [8] King, however, contends that, prior to the recently published papyrus fragment, no texts exist which claim that Jesus was married, but that the canonical gospels clearly imply that Jesus had female disciples. [8]

    Until June 2016, nothing definite was known about the provenance of the papyrus. Before the appearance of Ariel Sabar's article, it was reported that an anonymous owner had acquired the fragment in 1997 as part of a cache of papyri and other documents. This cache was said to have been purchased from a German-American collector who, in turn, had acquired it in the 1960s in East Germany. [26] Among the other documents in that cache were: (a) a type-written letter dated July 15, 1982 addressed to one Hans-Ulrich Laukamp from Prof. Dr. Peter Munro (Ägyptologisches Seminar, Freie Universität Berlin) which only mentions one of the papyri, reporting that a colleague, Prof. Fecht, had identified it as a 2nd – 4th-century AD fragment of the Gospel of John in Coptic, and giving recommendations as to its preservation and (b) an undated and unsigned hand-written note in German and seemingly referring to the Gospel of Jesus' Wife fragment. According to this note, "Professor Fecht" believed it to be the only instance of a text in which Jesus uses direct speech to refer to a wife. Professor Gerhard Fecht was on the faculty of Egyptology at the Free University of Berlin. Laukamp died in 2001, Fecht in 2006 and Munro in 2009. [26]

    In June 2016, journalist Ariel Sabar published an article in Atlantika okeani which identified the owner of the Gospel of Jesus' Wife papyrus as Walter Fritz, a German immigrant living in Florida. The article discredited the story that Fritz told King about the fragment's history, including its alleged former ownership by Laukamp (who relatives and associates say never had such a papyrus) and the "1982" letter from Dr. Peter Munro (which appears to be a forgery). Sabar's article also provided further evidence for supposing that the papyrus was a forgery. [5] Fritz initially denied being the papyrus' owner, but later admitted to it. [27] Fritz was a former Egyptology student who dropped out of the Free University of Berlin in the early 1990s after the chairman of its Egyptology Institute accused him of intellectual plagiarism. Fritz acknowledged studying Coptic, the language in which the papyrus is composed. Later, Fritz left his job as director of the Stasi Museum in Berlin after items from the museum went missing. [27] After moving to Florida, he ran successful "hotwife" pornography websites featuring his wife, an American who believes that she can channel God and Michael the Archangel she had even published a book of sayings that she believes God transmitted through her. Atlantika okeani speculated that Fritz may have been motivated to forge the text by financial issues, a desire to make Da Vinchi kodi a reality, or to embarrass an academic establishment that had spurned his ambitions. In addition, Fritz claimed to have been sexually abused by a Catholic priest while growing up in southern Germany. Fritz denied that he forged the Gospel of Jesus' Wife, but admitted that he might have been able to do so had he tried. Fritz also stressed to Sabar that he never once claimed that the Gospel of Jesus' Wife was a genuinely ancient text. [5] In his 2020 book Veritas: A Harvard Professor, a Con Man and the Gospel of Jesus's Wife, Sabar reports discovering a modern forgery that Fritz submitted with his job applications in 2013 to the Sarasota County (FL) Schools: a fake master's degree in Egyptology from the Free University of Berlin. When asked about it, Fritz declined comment. [28]

    Initial evaluations Edit

    Before King published the discovery of the fragment, she asked AnneMarie Luijendijk and fellow papyrologist Roger S. Bagnall of the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University to review the fragment. They determined that it was likely authentic, both because of the skills which would have been required to forge the fragment and because the papyrus seemed to have been in a collection for many years without having been announced. Luijendijk and Bagnall both doubted that the text was forged. [8] Giovanni Maria Vian, the editor of L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, dismissed the fragment as fake. [25]

    Immediately after King's presentation of the fragment in Rome, doubts began to be expressed about its authenticity. Further investigation of the language and the script and comparison with the clearly forged Gospel of John belonging to the same group of papyri corroborated the initial doubts. By the end of 2014, there was a general consensus that the papyrus was a fake. [7] Eventually, Ariel Sabar's tracing of the provenance to Walter Fritz in 2016 provided the final proof, and King conceded that the evidence "presse[d] in the direction of forgery." [6]

    Others noted that the handwriting, grammar, shape of the papyrus, and the ink's color and quality made it suspect. [29] Professor Francis Watson of Durham University published a paper on the papyrus fragment suggesting that the text was a "patchwork of texts" from the Gospel of Thomas which had been copied and assembled in a different order. [30] In the summer of 2015 Professor Watson edited and introduced six articles in the journal New Testament Studies, all arguing against authenticity of the text these articles have been put online by Professor Mark Goodacre of Duke University. [31]

    In defense of the text's authenticity, Ariel Shisha-Halevy, Professor of Linguistics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a leading expert on the Coptic language, concluded that the language itself offered no evidence of forgery. King also found examples from a new discovery in Egypt that has the same kind of grammar, showing that at least one unusual case is not unique. While some experts continue to disagree about the other case, King notes that newly discovered texts often feature grammatical or spelling oddities which expand our understanding of the Coptic language. [32]

    Scientific testing Edit

    Though two out of the three peer reviewers consulted by the Harvard Theological Review in mid-2012 believed that the papyrus was a probable fake, King declined to carry out scientific testing of the fragment before going public, in September 2012, at the academic conference in Rome. The omission of laboratory testing was a departure from customary practice for blockbuster manuscript finds, most recently the Gospel of Judas, which had undergone a battery of tests before National Geographic announced it in 2006.

    King commissioned the first laboratory tests of the Jesus' Wife papyrus only after her 2012 announcement, amid sharp doubts about the authenticity from leading experts in Coptic language, early Christian manuscripts, and paleography. A radiocarbon dating analysis of the papyrus by Harvard University and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution found a mean date of AD 741. [33] This early medieval date upended King's and Bagnall's claims that the papyrus likely dated to the fourth century AD.Though King sought to claim that the eighth-century radiocarbon date was still evidence of probable authenticity, the date was historically problematic: By the eighth century AD, Egypt was in the early Islamic era and Coptic Christianity was orthodox, making it unclear why anyone in that period would be copying a previously unknown "heretical" text about a married Jesus. A Raman spectroscopy analysis at Columbia University found that the ink was carbon-based and in some respects consistent with inks on papyri in the Columbia library dating from 400 BC to AD 700–800. But more advanced, subsequent testing of the ink by the Columbia team would find similarities to modern inks and differences from genuinely ancient ones.

    In a presentation at the Society of Biblical Literature's annual conference in San Antonio, Texas, in November 2016, the Columbia scientific team would declare its findings about the Gospel of Jesus' Wife "consistent with manuscript as forgery." [34] Taken together, the various scientific findings are consistent with the scholarly community's prevailing theory that a modern forger took a blank scrap of old papyrus and wrote the Gospel of Jesus' Wife text on top of it, using a simple, carbon-based ink as easy to make today as it was in antiquity. In his 2020 book Veritas, Ariel Sabar reported that two of the lead scientists King had commissioned to make the case for authenticity had no prior experience with archaeological objects and that both of the scientists had undisclosed conflicts of interest: one was a family friend of King's from childhood, the other the brother-in-law of the only other senior scholar to initially believe the papyrus was authentic. Those interpersonal relationships weren't disclosed to the public or to the editors of the Harvard Theological Review, which published the scientific reports in April 2014. [35]

    Analysis of text Edit

    However, while the papyrus itself is medieval in origin, further analysis has suggested that the text itself includes additional errors that suggest it is not authentic. [16] [36] [37] [38]

    In October 2012, Andrew Bernhard observed that there is a close resemblance between Grondin's Interlinear of the Gospel of Thomas and the text that the forger appeared to have used to compose the text of the Gospel. Karen King has now made available the interlinear translation provided to her by the owner of the papyrus, and Bernhard has shown that every line shows evidence of copying from Grondin's Interlinear. [39]

    Given the extraordinary similarities between the two different texts, it seems highly probable that Gos. Jes. Wife is indeed a "patchwork" of Gos. Thom. Most likely, it was composed after 1997 when Grondin's Interlinear was first posted online. [39]

    Leo Depuydt of Brown University found it ridiculous that in the Gospel of Jesus' Wife, the word "my" in the phrase "my wife" is written in bold, as if to stress the idea that Jesus was married. Depuydt also said that he had never seen bold writing used in a single Coptic text before. He wrote: "The effect is something like: 'My wife. Get it? MY wife. You heard that right.' The papyrus fragment seems ripe for a Monty Python sketch…. If the forger had used italics in addition, one might be in danger of losing one's composure." [40] Christian Askeland's linguistic analysis of the text shows that it is in a dialect which fell out of use well before AD 741. He concluded that the text must have been written on a fragment of medieval papyrus by a modern forger. [16] Dr. Askeland also found it suspicious that the author of the fragment wrote the same letter in different ways. [37] In addition, Askeland showed that the fragment is "a match for a papyrus fragment that is clearly a forgery." This second fragment, containing part of the Gospel of John, belongs to the same anonymous owner, and is now overwhelmingly considered a fake. This is because that fragment of the Gospel of John appeared to have been copied from every second line of an online translation of John's Gospel in an ancient Coptic dialect called Lycopolitan also, the Lycopolitan language died out prior to the sixth century, and the John fragment was carbon-da ted to somewhere between the seventh and ninth centuries. Askeland argues that the John fragment was written by the same person, in the same ink, and with the same instrument as the Gospel of Jesus' Wife. [16] [38] Professor King felt that these concerns were legitimate, but that there was still a chance that the gospel was authentic. [37] Atlantika okeani reported that despite King's reservations, the text was widely considered a fake. [7] King later conceded, saying that evidence suggests that the Gospel of Jesus' Wife is a forgery. [6]


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