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Martin Baltimor II uchadi

Martin Baltimor II uchadi


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Martin Baltimor II uchadi

Martin Baltimor II sahro aerodromidan uchib, orqasida qumni qoldirdi.


  • Sarlavha: Glenn L. Martin 2 -sonli Aviakompaniya zavodi, 2800 Sharqiy bulvar, O'rta daryo, Baltimor okrugi, MD
  • Boshqa sarlavha: O'rta daryo GSA deposi
  • Ijodkor (lar): tarixiy Amerika muhandislik rekordi, ijodkor
  • Tegishli ismlar:
      va#160 Kan, Albert
        Martin, Glenn L.
  • Yaratilgan/nashr qilingan sana: 1968 yildan keyin tuzilgan hujjatlar
  • O'rta: rasm (lar): 3
    Ma'lumotlar sahifasi: 5
    Surat taglavhasi sahifalari: 1
  • Qayta ishlab chiqarish raqami: ---
  • Huquqlar bo'yicha maslahat: AQSh hukumati boshqa manbalardan nusxa ko'chirgan tasvirlarga ma'lum cheklovlar qo'yilishi mumkin emas. (http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/114_habs.html)
  • Qo'ng'iroq raqami: HAER MD-136
  • Ma'lumotlar ombori: Kongress kutubxonasi bosma va fotosuratlar bo'limi Vashington, D.C. 20540 AQSh http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
  • Eslatmalar:
    • Ahamiyat: 2 -sonli zavod 1941 yilda qurilgan va kashshof arxitektura va muhandislik firmasi Albert Kan va Associates of Detroit tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan. Bu O'rta daryodagi Glenn L. Martin aviakompaniyasi imkoniyatlarining kengayishi edi. 1-sonli zavod O'rta daryoda keng ko'lamli samolyotlarni qurish uchun Kahn ’s kashshof sanoat dizaynining eng birinchi namunasi bo'lsa-da, 2-sonli zavod ham xuddi shu formulaga amal qiladi va juda buzilmagan. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi uchun sanoat safarbarligining bir qismi, B-26 Armiya bombardimonchi samolyotlari 2-sonli zavodda ishlab chiqarilgan va qo'shni temir yo'l liniyasida Baltimorga osongina tashilgan. Yaqin vaqtgacha 2 -sonli zavod umumiy xizmatlar boshqarmasiga qarashli bo'lib, bir qator davlat idoralari omborxonasi sifatida ishlatilgan. 50 akrlik maydon, shu jumladan 1,9 million kvadrat metrlik tarixiy zavod majmuasi, noma'lum ishtirokchiga 2006 yil sentyabr oyida onlayn -auksionda 37,5 million dollarga sotilgan. Merilend tarixiy joylar reestriga kiritilgan va tegishli bo'lgan binolarning holati. Tarixiy joylarning milliy reestri uchun kelajakda saytni qayta qurish noaniq.
    • So'rov raqami: HAER MD-136
    • Bino/qurilish sanasi: 1941 yil
    • sanoat ob'ektlari
    • samolyot sanoati
    • urush (Ikkinchi jahon urushi)
    • Merilend - Baltimor okrugi - O'rta daryo
    • Tarixiy Amerika binolari tadqiqotlari/Tarixiy Amerika muhandislik rekordlari/Tarixiy Amerika landshaftlari tadqiqotlari

    Kongress kutubxonasi odatda o'z to'plamlaridagi materiallarga huquqlarga ega emas va shuning uchun materialni nashr etish yoki boshqa yo'l bilan tarqatishga ruxsat bera olmaydi yoki rad eta olmaydi. Huquqlar haqida qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun quyida "Huquqlar to'g'risida ma'lumot" va huquqlar va cheklovlar to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlar sahifasiga qarang (http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/rights.html).

    • Huquqlar bo'yicha maslahatchi: Boshqa manbalardan nusxa ko'chirilgan AQSh hukumati tasvirlari uchun ma'lum cheklovlar cheklanishi mumkin emas. http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/114_habs.html
    • Qayta ishlab chiqarish raqami: ---
    • Qo'ng'iroq raqami: HAER MD-136
    • O'rta: Rasm (lar): 3
      Ma'lumotlar sahifasi: 5
      Surat taglavhasi sahifalari: 1

    Agar raqamli tasvirlar ko'rsatilsa

    Onlayn rasmlarni o'zingiz yuklab olishingiz mumkin. Shu bilan bir qatorda, har xil turdagi nusxalarni Kongress kutubxonasi nusxa ko'chirish xizmatlari orqali sotib olishingiz mumkin.

    HABS/HAER/HALS materiallari odatda ko'p nashr qilish uchun mos bo'lgan yuqori aniqlikda skanerdan o'tkaziladi (Raqamli tasvirlar haqida batafsil ma'lumot olish uchun To'plamni raqamlashtirishga qarang).

    • Ko'p rasmli displeyda (masalan, HAER, NY, 52-BRIG, 4-2) fotosurat ostida ko'rsatilgan qo'ng'iroq raqami va element raqamiga e'tibor bering.
    • Iloji bo'lsa, fotosuratning nashrini qo'shing.
    • Chizmaning chetida joylashgan so'rovnoma raqami (masalan, HAER NY - 143) va varaq raqami (masalan, "4dan 1 -varaq") ga e'tibor bering. (QAYD: Bu raqamlar Tiff & quotReference Image & quot displeyida ko'rinadi.)
    • Iloji bo'lsa, chizilgan rasmini kiriting.

    Agar raqamli tasvirlar ko'rsatilmasa

    Kamdan kam hollarda, HABS/HAER/HALS hujjatlari uchun raqamli tasvir Internetda ko'rsatilmasa, takrorlash uchun quyidagi usullardan birini tanlang:

    • Yuqorida ko'rsatilgan qo'ng'iroq raqamiga e'tibor bering.
    • Yuqoridagi Medium maydoniga qarang. Agar u bir nechta elementlarni ro'yxatlasa:
      • Butun guruhga nusxa ko'chirish yoki yuqori sifatli nusxa sifatida buyurtma berish mumkin.
      • Muayyan muhitdagi barcha narsalarni (masalan, barcha chizmalar, barcha fotosuratlar) nusxa ko'chirish yoki yuqori sifatli nusxa sifatida buyurtma qilish mumkin.

      Iltimos, asl nusxa (lar) ni ko'rish uchun "Bosma va fotosuratlar" o'qish xonasida qo'ng'iroq varaqasini to'ldirish kerakligini aniqlash uchun quyidagi amallardan foydalaning. Ba'zi hollarda surrogat (o'rnini bosuvchi tasvir), ko'pincha raqamli tasvir, nusxa ko'chirish yoki mikrofilm ko'rinishida bo'ladi.

      Ha, mahsulot raqamlashtirilgan. Iltimos, asl nusxani so'rashdan ko'ra, raqamli tasvirdan foydalaning. Kongress kutubxonasidagi har qanday o'qish zalida bo'lganingizda, barcha tasvirlarni katta hajmda ko'rish mumkin. Ba'zi hollarda, Kongress kutubxonasidan tashqarida bo'lganingizda, faqat kichik rasmlar (kichik) tasvirlar mavjud, chunki ob'ekt huquqlari cheklangan yoki huquq cheklovlari uchun baholanmagan.

      Saqlash chorasi sifatida, odatda, raqamli tasvir mavjud bo'lganda, biz asl mahsulotga xizmat ko'rsatmaymiz. Agar sizda asl nusxani ko'rish uchun jiddiy sabab bo'lsa, ma'lumotnoma kutubxonachisi bilan maslahatlashing. (Ba'zida asl nusxa xizmat ko'rsatish uchun juda mo'rt bo'ladi. Masalan, shisha va plyonkali fotografik negativlarga, ayniqsa, zarar etkaziladi. Internetda ko'rish ham oson, ular ijobiy rasm sifatida taqdim etiladi.)

      Yo'q, mahsulot raqamlashtirilmagan. Iltimos, #2 ga o'ting.

      Ha, boshqa surrogat mavjud. Malumot xodimlari sizni ushbu surrogatga yo'naltirishlari mumkin.

      Yo'q, boshqa surrogat yo'q. Iltimos, №3 ga o'ting.

      Agar siz eskiz tasvirini yoki boshqa surrogatga havolani ko'rmasangiz, "Chop etish va fotosuratlar" o'qish xonasida qo'ng'iroq varaqasini to'ldiring. Ko'p hollarda asl nusxalarga bir necha daqiqada xizmat ko'rsatish mumkin. Boshqa materiallar o'sha kuni yoki kelajakda uchrashuvlarni talab qiladi. Malumot xodimlari sizga qo'ng'iroq varaqasini qanday to'ldirish kerakligi va qachon xizmat ko'rsatilishi mumkinligi haqida maslahat berishi mumkin.

      Chop etish va fotosuratlar o'qish zalida ma'lumotnoma xodimlari bilan bog'lanish uchun kutubxonachidan so'rash xizmatidan foydalaning yoki 202-707-6394 raqamli soat 8:30 dan 5:00 gacha o'qish zaliga qo'ng'iroq qiling va 3 tugmasini bosing.


      Merilend aviatsiya muzeyi

      1886 yilda Ayova shtatining Macksburg shahrida tug'ilgan va ldquo The Flying Dude & rdquo - Glenn L. Martin va rsquos laqabi, 1909 yildagi kashshof parvozidan ko'p o'tmay. 1911 yilga kelib, u aka -uka Raytlar va Glenn Kurtislar bilan bir qatorda amerikalik va kuchli parvozlarning sayyohlaridan biri sifatida tilga olingan. .

      1912 yilda Glen Martin Martin Kaliforniyadan Katalina oroliga va orqaga sayohat qilib, suv ustida jahon rekordini o'rnatdi. Qaytib kelganida, u birinchi bo'lib pochta yubordi.

      U aviatsiya sanoatining eng taniqli odamlarini ishga tushirdi. (O'ngdagi ro'yxatga qarang.)

      U birinchi samolyotini Kaliforniya shtatining Santa -Ana shahridagi tashlandiq cherkovda qurdi, Los -Anjelesga ko'chib o'tdi, keyin Klivlendga jo'natildi. 1929 yilda Baltimor tashqarisidagi 1260 gektar maydonni sotib olgach, o'z biznesini O'rta daryoga o'tkazdi. U o'z davrining eng zamonaviy inshootini qurdi va oxir -oqibat 11 mingdan ortiq samolyot ishlab chiqardi. Glenn L. Martin kompaniyasida Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida 50 mingdan ortiq ishchi ishlagan. Glenn L. Martin O'rta daryo hududiga katta va doimiy ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Glenn L. Martin kompaniyasi va O'rta daryo hamjamiyati uchun shu erni bosing.

      Glenn Martin 1955 yilda vafot etdi.

      1995 yilda Martin Marietta va Lockheedning birlashishi texnologiya bo'yicha jahon kompaniyalaridan biri bo'lgan Lockheed Martin Corpora & shytionni ishlab chiqardi.

      Martin kompaniyasida Amerika aerokosmik sanoatining ko'plab asoschilari va bosh muhandislari ishlagan, jumladan:


      Goucher ’ ning siri ‘ kodli qizlar ’ Ikkinchi jahon urushini tugatishga yordam berdi

      Men 1942 yilda, Baltimor markazidagi binoning yuqori qismidagi qulflangan xonada, 10 yosh ayol Pulitser mukofoti sovrindori va dengiz floti ofitseri nazorati ostida kriptologiyani o'rgangan. Bino Goucher Hall edi, o'sha paytlarda kollej shahar markazida joylashgan edi va Pulitser g'olibi professor Ola Uinslou edi, u 1941 yilda 18-asr teologi Jonatan Edvardsning tarjimai holi bilan tanilgan.

      1942 yildagi Goucher kolleji sinfining a'zolari bo'lgan ayollar WAVES - ixtiyoriy favqulodda xizmatga qabul qilingan ayollarning qisqartmasi sifatida tanilgan va bu Goucher talabalarining ko'pchiligi, 1943 -yilgi tanlangan talabalar bilan birga, ishlashda davom etishgan. Germaniyaning Enigma kodli murakkab mashinasini dekodlashning eng maxfiy vazifasi. Ularning ishi Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida Ittifoqchilarning Evropadagi g'alabasiga bevosita hissa qo'shdi.

      "Goucher ayollari tanlangani men uchun ajablanarli emas", dedi prezident Xose Antonio Bowen. "Goucher munosabatining bir qismi har doim ayollarning erkaklar kabi qobiliyatli bo'lishidir."

      O'sha paytda, 40 -yillarning boshlarida, talabalar dekani Kopernik nazariyasi olimi Doroti Stimson edi. U fan doktori ilmiy darajasini oldi. 1917 yilda Kolumbiya universitetini tamomlagan va 1921 yilda Goucherda dekan bo'lgan.

      Uning amakivachchasi urush kotibi Genri Stimson edi. Pearl -Harbordan keyin, deb yozgan kitob muallifi Liza Mandi Code Girls: Ikkinchi jahon urushining amerikalik ayol kodeksining buzilmagan hikoyasi"Goucherdan" u urush harakatlariga yordam berish uchun Din Stimsonning eng yaxshi qizlaridan so'radi "dedi.

      U o'z kitobining tadqiqot jarayonini boshlaganida, Mundi Milliy xavfsizlik agentligi va Milliy kriptologik muzeyda kriptograflar va tarixchilar bilan yaqindan ishlagan. U materiallarni o'rganib chiqqach, 40-yillarning o'rtalarida ko'plab kriptograflar kollej talabalari bo'lganini va Goucherni yangi bitirganlari u duch kelgan birinchi maktablardan biri ekanligini bilib oldi.

      "Goucher, ehtimol, ayollar va ish haqida eng yaxshi yozuvlarga ega", dedi Mundi, "Ko'p maktablar bu tarix va ularning o'z rollari haqida bilishmaydi. Goucherga bu tarixni yozib olish va ayollarni hurmat qilish va e'tirof etish uchun qilgan sa'y -harakatlari uchun rahmat! "

      Darhaqiqat, tarix davomida Goucher talabalari jasorat bilan, qiyinchiliklarga dosh berishgan va ularni engib o'tishgan va Goucher WAVES Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidagi "Kodli qizlar" bu ruhni puxta o'zida mujassam etgan.

      Ular orasida lotincha mayor bor edi Janice Martin Benario '43, Baltimorlik, ULTRA operatsiyasi deb nomlanuvchi Harbiy-dengiz flotining Enigma kodini buzish guruhida ishlagan.

      2013 yilda Benario, o'sha paytdagi doktor Janice Martin Benario, Atlanta, GA shtatidagi Paideia maktabining ettinchi va sakkizinchi sinf o'quvchilari bilan gaplashdi.

      "Mening hayotim maxfiylik asosida o'tdi", dedi u, Baltimor aksenti Atlanta shahrida 40 yildan ko'proq vaqt o'tgandan keyin ham ko'rinib turibdi. "Biz ofisga kelganimizdan keyin nima qilayotganimiz haqida bir og'iz ham nafas olmasligimiz kerak edi. Urush paytida, agar biron bir gap chiqsa, bu xiyonat deb hisoblangan bo'lardi ».

      2010 yil ma'lumotlariga ko'ra Kriptologiya maqola, urush tugagach, Janice Martin AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining Falls cherkovidagi tibbiyot va jarrohlik byurosida faol vazifasini bajargan, VA. 1946 yilda u kichik leytenant unvonini oldi. U magistrlik va fan nomzodi ilmiy darajasini oldi. Jons Xopkins universitetida diplom olgan, u erda u bo'lajak eri Herbert Benario bilan uchrashgan.

      Benarioning sir saqlash qobiliyati. Herbert, turmushining 25 yiligacha, urush paytida xotinining dengiz kriptologiyasida xizmat qilgani haqida hech qachon bilmagan. Albatta, ma'lumotlarning aksariyati 90 -yillarning oxirigacha tasniflangan. Benario 2002 yilda o'z tajribasi haqida ochiq gapira boshladi.

      Nihoyat, to'lqinlarga e'tibor qaratish imkoniyati paydo bo'lganda, Goucherning maxsus to'plamlar va arxivlar bo'yicha kuratori Tara Olivero Mundiga unga ilmiy yordam ko'rsatdi. Qizlar kodi kitob, unga Goucher tarixi bilan tanishishga yordam beradi.

      Ikkinchi jahon urushining dastlabki kunlarida kollej "Mudofaa dasturi" deb nomlangan urush dasturini ishlab chiqdi.

      "Ular xizmat va jamiyatga qo'ng'iroq qilishdi", dedi Olivero.

      Talabalar qo'mitalari o'qitishga bag'ishlangan - hamshiralik va mexanikadan ta'lim, himoya va jamoat ishlariga qadar. O'quv dasturi qayta tuzildi. Maktab qog'ozida harbiy mashg'ulotlarda qatnashish haqidagi e'lonlar, o'quvchilarning mashg'ulotlari yoki boshqa ijtimoiy tashvishlar haqidagi videolar joylashtirilgan.

      "Bu ishchi kuchida ayollar uchun birinchi marta bo'ldi", dedi Olivero. "Biz kollej faqat ayollarga er topish uchun kerak degan fikrdan voz kechdik."

      "Bu Amerika tarixida kamdan -kam uchraydigan lahza edi, - deb yozadi Mundi, - misli ko'rilmagan, o'qimishli ayollarni nafaqat qidirishgan, balki raqobatlashishgan."

      Erkaklar chet elda jang qilganda, ayollar mantiyani shunchaki bezashni emas, balki mantiyani olishlari kerak edi. Muhandislik va kimyo firmalari, Strategik xizmatlar idorasi va FTB MIT, Uellesli, Vassar va Goucher kabi eng yaxshi maktablarga talaba ayollarni yollashni boshladilar.

      Bu, albatta, jinsiy aloqa hali ham markazda emasligini anglatmaydi.

      "Urushdan keyin qo'limizda bo'lishini xohlamasligimiz uchun, go'zallarini tanlang", deb yozadi Mundy Goucherga 20 nafar muhandis ayolga bergan so'rovida.

      Talabalar aqlli, sodiq va irodali edilar, lekin ular mashg'ulotlarning uzoq soatlari va yuqori talablariga bardosh berib, qat'iyatli bo'lishlarini isbotlashlari kerak edi.

      Yarim tundan sakkizgacha tungi smenada ishlash biologiya mutaxassisligi edi Frensis Stin, 42 yoshda. Vatan oldidagi burch Stinning oilaviy an'analarining bir qismi edi. Uning ukasi Egil, Dengiz akademiyasi bitiruvchisi, Shimoliy Atlantika karvonida xizmat qilar edi va oila o'z imkoniyatlari boricha o'z hissasini qo'shishga harakat qildi, hatto bomba uchun glitserin ishlab chiqarish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan cho'chqa yog'ini tejadi. Stinning maqsadi shifokor bo'lish edi. "Ular dengiz flotining chaqirig'iga javob berish uchun o'z rejalarini bir chetga surib qo'yishdi", dedi Mandi. "Ish juda og'ir edi, ular hayotini saqlab qolmoqchi bo'lgan odamlarni bilishardi."

      1944 yilga kelib Stin leytenant unvonini oldi. U bir yil davomida "Qasos" operatsiyasini tuzishda yordam bergan kodni tiklashda bir yil o'tkazdi, 1943 yildagi harbiy operatsiya, Yaponiya admirali Isoroku Yamamoto, Yaponiya Imperial dengiz floti bosh qo'mondoni va Pearl-Harborni boshqaruvchilaridan biri. . Stin endi nemis shifrlarini dekodlaydigan Enigma zanjirining bir qismi edi.

      Bir soat davomida ukasi kapitan bo'lgan kema kamikadze reydini nishonga olgani haqida xabar keldi. Ilg'or ma'lumotlarga qaramay, hujumni oldini olish uchun hech narsa qilinmadi. Qayiq cho'kib ketdi va Egil Stin tirik qolgan bir nechta odamlardan biri edi.

      Kodni buzish fikrlash uslubi Stinni hech qachon tark etmagan. "Uning fikrlash jarayonlari juda analitik edi va ko'pchiliknikidan farq qilar edi", dedi uning o'g'li Jeyms "Jed" Suddet Jr. Mundiga.

      2004 yilda kontr -admiral (Ret.) Devid Shimp Frensis Stin Suddet Jozefsonni Dengiz kriptologik faxriylari uyushmasi tomonidan taqdirlanishini uyushtirdi. AQSh dengiz suv osti kemasida xizmat qilgan Sudet qisqa va samimiy hurmatini bildirdi:

      "Amerika fuqarosi sifatida, biz barcha erkinliklarga ega bo'lgan holda, dengiz ofitseri sifatida sizga rahmat aytaman, sizni tabriklayman va o'g'lim sifatida men sizni yaxshi ko'raman."

      Stin 2007 yilda, tabiiy sabablarga ko'ra, 86 yoshida vafot etdi.

      U, Janice Martin Benario va Goucherning Code Code qizlari kollejning dadil xizmat qilish va to'siqlarni buzish an'anasining bir qismidir.

      "Kodli qizlar bitta misol", dedi prezident Bouen. "Bizda boshqa ko'plab misollar bor. AQSh armiyasida birinchi ayol shifokor sil kasalligi testini ixtiro qilgani kabi Goucher bitiruvchisi bo'lgan. Qo'rqmaslik - bu qat'iyatlilik, yaxshi ish qilish, hatto diqqat markazida bo'lmasa ham, sizga va yaqinlaringizga foyda keltiradi. Biz aytmoqchi bo'lgan ko'p narsa - bu potentsialni topish. Bu ham katta, ham kichik tarzda sodir bo'ladi. ”

      U davom etdi: "Biz kelajakni o'tmish bilan bog'laymiz. Biz o'zgarishlarga moslashib, oldinga siljiy olsak ham, biz o'z tariximizning jasoratli ruhiga sodiq qolamiz ".


      AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) O'rta Sharqiy trening

      Sotuvchi: jkenned4 ✉ ️ (37,040) 99,9%, Manzil: San -Diego, Kaliforniya, Kema: Dunyo bo'ylab, Mahsulot: 402835022003 AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) YAQIN SHARQ SHARQI. Yetkazib berish AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMOR Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) O'rta Sharqiy O'qitish AZUR 1/72 MARTIN BALTIMORE Mk.I/II WW2 RAF KIT A025 (1997) O'RTA SHARQ TARBIYASI SQUADRON OCHIQ KUTOBTI KUTI. Agar sizda biron bir savol yoki xavotir bo'lsa, 100% TAM TURLI SINGLI YARIShA SINGLI YARIShA BILAN SIZNI 100% QANIQ QILISHINI BILAN MENI SAVOL BILAN BO'LSIN. (YOQINCHI MUVOFATDA KUTILADI) MENI BILISHINGIZ VA MEN BARCHASINI Yagona yuklamaga birlashtiraman va sizning manzilingizga mavjud bo'lgan eng iqtisodiy jo'natish usulini aks ettirish uchun yakuniy hisob-fakturani sozlayman. -------------------------------- Internet ensiklopediyasidan qo'shimcha ma'lumotlar Martin 187 Baltimor-ikkita dvigatelli engil hujumli bombardimonchi. AQShdagi Glenn L. Martin kompaniyasi tomonidan A-30 sifatida. Model dastlab frantsuzlar tomonidan 1940 yil may oyida oldingi Merilend shtatining davomi sifatida buyurtma qilingan, keyin Frantsiyada xizmat ko'rsatgan. Frantsiya qulashi bilan, ishlab chiqarish seriyasi Buyuk Britaniyaga yo'naltirildi va 1941 yil o'rtalaridan keyin AQSh tomonidan Lend Lease uskunasi sifatida etkazib berildi. Baltimorning rivojlanishiga bir qator muammolar to'sqinlik qildi, garchi u oxir -oqibat ko'p qirrali jangovar samolyotga aylandi. Ko'p miqdorda ishlab chiqarilgan Baltimor Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari qurolli kuchlari tomonidan ishlatilmadi, lekin oxir -oqibat Britaniya, Kanada, Avstraliya, Janubiy Afrika, Yunon va Italiya havo kuchlari bilan xizmat qildi. keyinchalik u deyarli faqat Ikkinchi jahon urushi O'rta er dengizi va Yaqin Sharq teatrida ishlatilgan. Dizayn va ishlab chiqish Dastlab A-23 (Merilend shtatining A-22 Martin 167 dizaynidan olingan) deb nomlangan Model 187 (kompaniya nomi) chuqurroq korpusli va kuchli dvigatellarga ega edi. Model 187 Angliya-Frantsiya Xarid qilish Komissiyasi tomonidan 1940 yil may oyida qo'shma loyiha sifatida buyurtma qilingan engil-o'rta bombardimonchi samolyotga bo'lgan ehtiyojni qondirdi. Frantsiya Harbiy-havo kuchlari avvalroq buyurtma qilingan Merilend 400 samolyotini almashtirishga harakat qildi. Frantsiya qulashi bilan Qirollik havo kuchlari (RAF) buyurtmani o'z zimmasiga oldi va unga Baltimor xizmat nomini berdi. Samolyotni Lend-Lizing to'g'risidagi qonunga binoan inglizlarga etkazib berish uchun Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy havo kuchlarining A-30 markasi ajratilgan. Qarzni ijaraga berish to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilingandan so'ng, RAFga 575 va undan keyin 600 ta yana ikkita partiya berildi. Operatsion tarixi Birinchi Britaniya samolyotlari 1941 yil oxirida Operatsion o'quv bo'linmalarini jihozlash uchun etkazib berildi. RAF faqat O'rta er dengizi teatrida va Shimoliy Afrikada Baltimorlardan foydalangan. Ko'p foydalanuvchilar Baltimor Bristol Blenxaym kabi eski samolyotlardan taklif qilinganidan hayratda qolishdi. Baltimor va Martin uchuvchilari Benjamin R. Uollesning foydalanuvchilari samolyotni og'ir qurollanishi, konstruktiv kuchi, manevr qobiliyati, bombardimonlik aniqligi va nisbatan yuqori ko'rsatkichlari uchun maqtashdi, lekin ekipajlar Merilend shtatining oldingi bombardimonchilariga o'xshash sharoitlardan shikoyat qilishdi. Qisqa korpus korpusi, agar yaralangan bo'lsa, ekipaj a'zolarining pozitsiyalarini o'zgartirishni deyarli imkonsiz qilib qo'ydi (samolyotning ichki tuzilishi uchuvchi va kuzatuvchini simsiz operator va orqa o'q otuvchi qurilmadan ajratib turardi, bu xususiyat o'sha davrning engil va o'rta bombardimonchi dizaynlari bilan, masalan, Handley) Page Xampden, Duglas Boston va Blenxaym). Ekipajlar, shuningdek, samolyotni yerga olib chiqishdagi qiyinchiliklardan shikoyat qilishdi. Uchish paytida, uchuvchi burun burilib ketmasligi yoki yomonlashmasligi uchun gaz kelebeğini mukammal muvofiqlashtirishi kerak edi. Rommelning oldinga siljishini to'xtatib, Baltimor past darajali hujum samolyoti sifatida ishlatilganda katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldi, ayniqsa, cho'l urushining betartibligida, aksariyat missiyalar kuzatilmay qoldi. O'rta balandlikda qiruvchi eskortlari bilan ish olib borgan Baltimorda yo'qotish darajasi juda past edi, aksariyat yo'qotishlar operatsion baxtsiz hodisalardan kelib chiqqan. Yaqin Sharq, O'rta er dengizi va Evropa teatrlarida turli topshiriqlarni bajargan holda, Baltimor rollariga razvedka, nishonga tortish, dengiz patrulligi, tungi bosqinchi va hatto juda noqulay tezkor transport vazifasini bajargan. Baltimor 1944 yilda eskadronni jihozlash uchun O'rta er dengizidagi RAFdan uzatilgan samolyotlar bilan cheklangan Fleet Air Arm xizmatini ko'rdi. Urush paytida suv osti kemalariga qarshi rol o'ynagan Baltimor o'rtacha muvaffaqiyatga erishdi va sakkizta qayiqqa cho'kdi. RAF samolyotlarini O'rta er dengizi hududidagi boshqa ittifoqchilarga ham topshirdi. Baltimor 1943 yilda Italiya taslim bo'lganidan keyin ittifoqchi kuchlarni oldinga siljitish uchun Rimga yo'lni tozalash uchun Italiya kampaniyasida faol ishlatilgan. Italiya va ittifoqchilar qurolli kuchlari o'rtasida sulh tuzilganidan so'ng, 28-bombardimon qanoti bilan jihozlangan. sobiq RAF Baltimor, jangchi Stormo Baltimorga aylandi. Italiyaliklar Baltimordagi mashg'ulot bosqichida katta yo'qotishlarga duch kelishdi. Baxtsiz hodisalarning aksariyati samolyotning yuqori qanot yuklanishi, yaqinlashish tezligi va uchish paytida yo'nalishning barqarorligi muammolari tufayli uchish va qo'nish paytida sodir bo'lgan. Italiyaliklar Baltimorni taxminan olti oy boshqargan. Bu operatsiyalarning aksariyati Yugoslaviya va Gretsiyada bo'lib, partizan kuchlariga havodan yordam berib yoki etkazib berishni to'xtatdi. Baltimorlarning ko'pchiligi urushdan ko'p o'tmay yo'q qilindi, garchi bitta RAF eskadroni Keniyada 1948 yilgacha havo xaritasi va chigirtkalarga qarshi kurashda ishlatilgan turini ishlatishni davom ettirdi. Urushdan keyingi xizmatda Baltimor Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining asbob-uskunalarida va ovoz to'sig'ini buzish uchun sirt sinovlarini boshqaring. Quvvatli dvigatellari va yengil, ammo mustahkam konstruktsiyasi bilan samolyot yuqori tezlikda sho'ng'idi va sinovlarda Mach .74 ga yetdi. 1949 yil oxirigacha barcha Baltimor xizmatdan chetlatildi, oxirgi nafaqasi 1949 yil 23 dekabrda nafaqaga chiqdi. Baltimor B. III Baltimor GR.IIIA varianti inglizlarga Lend-Lizing dasturi bo'yicha etkazib berildi. Bu variant Martin dorsal o'rnatilgan minora turkumli .50 kalibrli M2 pulemyotlari bilan jihozlangan. O'zgartirilgan Mk II konstruktsiyali mudofaa qurollari 7,7 mm qurolga 14 tadan 0,303 taga etkazildi va Buyuk Britaniyada Boulton Pol tomonidan 4 ta Browning pulemyoti bilan ta'minlangan gidravlik quvvatli dorsal minorasi bilan yaxshilandi. 250 ta samolyot ishlab chiqarilgan. Baltimor B. IIIa (A-30-MA) USAAF tomonidan buyurtma qilingan va RAFga Lend-lizing asosida berilgan, Martin tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan elektr quvvatli dorsal minorasida 0,50 dyuymli (12,7 mm) ikkita avtomat. 281 ta samolyot ishlab chiqarilgan. Baltimor B. IV (A-30A-MA) USAAF buyurtmasi, RAFga qarz berish. Qanotlarda 0,303 dyuymli to'rtta Brownings avtomatlari. 294 ta samolyot ishlab chiqarilgan. Baltimor B. V (A-30A-MA) USAAF buyurtmasi-ikkita 1,700 ot kuchiga ega (1,268 kVt) Wright R-2600-29 radial pistonli dvigatellari, 0,50 dyuymli (12,7 mm) pulemyotlari bilan jihozlangan. 600 ta samolyot ishlab chiqarilgan. Operatorlar Avstraliya Qirollik Avstraliya Harbiy havo kuchlarining 454 -sonli RAAF (Baltimor III, IV, V) eskadroni (Shimoliy Afrika, Peskara Italiyasi: 1943 yil 14 -avgust, 1945 yil) 459 -sonli RAAF (Baltimor IV V) eskadroni (O'rta er dengizi: 1944 yil mart, 1945 yil) Kanada Qirollik Kanada Harbiy havo kuchlari Baltimor B. III FA187 "Baltimor" RAF Feribot qo'mondonligi tomonidan "maxsus" loyiha vazifalari uchun RCAFga qarzga olingan (1942) Bepul Frantsiya Bepul Frantsiya Havo Kuchlari GB 1/17 Gretsiya Qirollik Yunoniston Harbiy havo kuchlari RHAF 13 engil bombardimonchi. Eskadron (Baltimor II, IV) (Shimoliy Afrika Gambuti, Biferno Peskara Italiya, Bolqon: 19431945) Italiya Qirolligi Italiya Birlashgan Harbiy-havo kuchlari 49 samolyoti [7] 28 ° Gruppo (Stormo Baltimor) (1945 yil fevral, 1948) 132 ° Gruppo 254 Qanot RAF Italiya Italiya Harbiy havo kuchlari 1947 yilgacha 49 ta samolyotda ishlagan [8] Janubiy Afrika Respublikasi Janubiy Afrika Harbiy havo kuchlari 15 -sonli SAAF (Baltimor IIIa V) (O'rta er dengizi: 19431945) 21 -sonli SAAF eskadroni. (Baltimor III IV) (Shimoliy Afrika, Italiya: 19421944) 60 -sonli SAAF eskadroni (Baltimor II III) (Shimoliy Afrika: 19421943) Turkiya Turkiya Harbiy havo kuchlari 1 -bombardimon polki Buyuk Britaniya Qirollik havo kuchlari 1 -Yaqin Sharq o'quv eskadroni 13 -sonli eskadron RAF (Baltimor IV V) (Italiya: 1944) 52 -sonli RAF (Baltimor IIIa V) (Tunis, Italiya: 1942 yil fevral, 1943 yil fevral) 55 -sonli RAF (Baltimor IV) (Liviya, Tunis, Italiya: 19421944) Yo'q 69 Eskadron RAF (Baltimor I IV) (O'rta er dengizi: 19421944) 162 -sonli RAF (Baltimor III) (Liviya: 19431944) 203 -sonli RAF (Baltimor I, II, IIIa, V) (Shimoliy Afrika: 19421943) Yo'q 223 Squadron RAF (Baltimor IV) (Shimoliy Afrika, Italiya: Aprel 1941 yil 12 avgust 1944 y.) 249-sonli RAF (Baltimor IV V) (Janubi-Sharqiy Evropa: 1945 yil oktyabr, 1946 yil) 500-sonli RAF (Baltimor IV V) ) (Italiya: 19441945) 680 -sonli RAF eskadroni (Baltimor III, V) (Italiya: 1944) Harbiy -havo kuchlari 728 -dengiz havo eskadroni (Baltimor GR IV V) (Malta: 1944 yil sentyabr, 1946 yil noyabr) Shi pping & Handling Top US yuk tashish Iltimos, eBay & aposs Yuk tashish va to'lov yorlig'ini tekshiring USPS Birinchi darajali Mail® Xalqaro etkazib berish Iltimos, eBay va aposs Yuk tashish va to'lov yorlig'ini tekshiring USPS Birinchi darajali pochta xalqaro (Dunyo bo'ylab) USPS Birinchi darajali pochta xalqaro (Kanada) BEPUL rejalashtirish. rasmlar va shablonlar. Vendio Sotuvlar menejerini oling. Vendio -ning BEPUL andozalari bilan ro'yxatingizni ajralib tursin! BEPUL rejalashtirish, o'lchamli rasmlar va shablonlar. Vendio savdo menejerini oling. 100,000,000 dan ortiq xizmat ko'rsatiladi. Bugun Vendio -dan BEPUL hisoblagichlarni oling! Vaziyat: Ishlatilgan, Vaziyat: To'liq yig'iladigan to'plam. Ochiq quti qurilmagan plastik modellar to'plami - 100% tayyor. Ilova qilingan rasmlarda siz ko'rib turgan narsa, men qutining yuqori qismini skanerlaganimda, siz oladigan narsadir. Har qanday buzilish selofan o'rashga bog'liq. Ko'rsatmalar va deklaratsiyalarni o'z ichiga oladi. , Qaytish yukini to'lash: Xaridor, Barcha qaytarishlar qabul qilinadi: Qaytish qabul qilindi, Ob'ekt quyidagicha qaytarilishi kerak: 30 kun, Qaytarish quyidagicha amalga oshiriladi: Pulni qaytarish Ko'proq ko'rish


      Sinov sanalari va hisobot berish sanalari

      Ochiladigan ro'yxatdagi Praxis ® testini tanlang, so'ng chapdagi taqvimdan sinov sanasini tanlang. Siz tanlagandan so'ng, o'ng taqvimda hisobot sanasi ko'rsatiladi. Ballar soat 17:00 dan keyin e'lon qilinadi. ET ko'rsatilgan sanada.

      Eslatma: Ballar ETS ta'tiliga to'g'ri keladigan dushanba yoki juma kunlari e'lon qilinishi rejalashtirilgan bo'lsa, ular navbatdagi juma va seshanba kunlari xabar qilinadi.

      Menga uyda etkazib berish sanalarini ko'rsating.

      Testga yozilish uchun Praxis hisobingizga kiring.


      Kit 4139 va ndash Britaniya

      Mk. I, AG 724, & ldquoP & rdquo of 223 Squadron, Iyul 1942. Samolyot Qorong'u Yerda, O'rta toshda va O'rta er dengizi ko'k rangida tasvirlangan. Bu samolyot dastlab Dark Green Dark Earth va Sky Grey ranglarida bo'lib, O'rta er dengizida bo'yalgan bo'lishi mumkin.

      Mk. V, FW418, & ldquoA va rdquo of 13 eskadroni. Qorong'u Yer, O'rta tosh va O`rtacha O`rta dengiz.

      Mk. V, FW287, & ldquoA & rdquo 55 Squadron, Cecina, Italiya, 1944. Umumiy yarim porloq qora rangdagi eksperimental tungi kamuflyaj sxemasi.

      Mk. IV, FA654 va ldquoX va rdquo. Ushbu samolyot qirg'oq qo'mondonligi sxemasida Oq va Qo'shimcha Qorong'i kulrang. Burun ustida & ldquo & Epsilon & Lambda & Lambda & Eta & rdquo (& ldquoHellay & rdquo / Gretsiya) nomi yunoncha harflar bilan yozilgan. Menimcha, bu samolyot O'rta er dengizidagi RAFning 13 & ldquoHellenic & rdquo eskadroni bilan xizmat qilgan.

      Kit 4140 va ndash Chet el

      Mk. V, FW821, & ldquoGrappa 10 & rdquo of 132 & deg Gruppo, Italiya bilan birgalikda jangovar havo kuchlari, 1944. Qorong'u Yer, To'q Yashil, O'rta Er dengizi ko'k (yoki ehtimol Azure). Samolyotning burunida & ldquoFiorelino & rdquo (kichik gul) nomi bor, markazida oq gul bor, bu uchuvchining shaxsiy emblemasi edi. Roberto Krespi. Bundan tashqari, finda Stellina so'zli yulduz bor edi, bu oldingi uchuvchi S.Tenning belgisi edi. Rolandi.

      Mk. V, FW695, & ldquo5348 va rdquo, Turkiya havo kuchlari. O'rta tosh, Qorong'u Yer va Yengil O'rta er dengizi.

      Mk. V, 13 eskadron qirollik yunon havo kuchlari, 1944. To'q yashil (O'rta tosh rasmining ustidan), Qorong'u Yer va ochiq O'rta er dengizi ko'klari. RHAF dumaloq va fin flaş.

      Mk. V, FW565, & ldquoQ & rdquo of GB 1/17 & ldquoPicardie & rdquo, Free Frantsiya havo kuchlari, Rayak, Suriya, taxminan 1945. To'q yashil, qorong'u Yer va ochiq O'rta dengiz ko'klari. Belgilash yo'riqnomasida ta'kidlanganidek, qanotning pastki qismida Lotaringiya korslaridan foydalanish munozara uchun ochiq. Agar siz ularni ishlatishga qaror qilsangiz, qanot ostidagi belgilar uchun to'plamda etiketkalar mavjud.

      Xulosa

      Garchi ba'zi xavotirlar bo'lsa -da, 1/48 Baltimorning chiqarilishi Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining unchalik mashhur bo'lmagan samolyotlarida muhim bo'shliqni to'ldiradi. Bu kichik model emas va taxminan A-20 o'lchamiga ega, lekin juda ko'p narsa. Bu kollektsiyalarga ta'sirchan qo'shimcha bo'ladi.

      Ishonchim komilki, ba'zilari muammoga duch kelishadi, lekin modellashtirish qiziqishim nuqtai nazaridan men Baltimorning klassik Airframes -ni tavsiya qilaman.

      Martin 187 Baltimor Kshishtof Yanovich va Adam Jarski AJ-Press 2005.

      Martin Baltimor va ndash Ali Straniere Italiyada Marko Gueli La Bacarella Aeronautica va ndashTorino 2004.

      Air Arsenal Shimoliy Amerika Fil Butler va Den Xededorn Midlend 2004 yil.

      Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Britaniya samolyotlari nashr. Daniel J. March Aerospace Publishing Limited 1998 yil.


      Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Glenn Martin Martin samolyot fabrikasi yo'qoldi va#8212

      603 -chi kamuflyaj injener -bataloni qo'riqchisi ostida hali arvoh armiyasiga tayinlanmagan, butun samolyot zavodi Merilend sohilidan - hech bo'lmaganda havodan g'oyib bo'ldi.

      Merilend shtatining O'rta daryosidagi Glenn L. Martin samolyot zavodi ana shunday joylardan biri edi. Zavod bombardimonchilarni (eng mashhuri B-26 Marauder) va ittifoqchi kuchlar hujum samolyotlarini chiqarib yubordi. 1942 yilda 603 -chi kamuflyaj muhandisi batalyoni zavodni yo'q qilishga yordam berdi. 603 -chi faxriy Ned Xarris zavodda ishlagan va "Bizning kiyimimiz havodan, qishloqqa o'xshaganini yashirish uchun mas'ul ekanini" ta'kidlab o'tdi.

      O'qishni davom ettiring “Glenn L. Martin samolyot fabrikasi Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi paytida yo'qoladi — Havodan ” "Arvoh armiyasi" da.


      Jamoat turar joylari

      Bu davrda jamoat turar joylariga teng huquqli kirish juda tortishuvli masala bo'lib qolaverdi. Baltimorning qora tanli aholisi o'sib borayotgan qora tanlilar uchun ochiq bo'lgan cheklangan parklar va dam olish maskanlaridan ko'proq narsani talab qildi. Qolaversa, Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida va undan keyin qora tanli amerikaliklar uchun teng huquqlar borasida umidlar oshdi, chunki iste'molchilar teatrlar, do'konlar va restoranlarni norozilik namoyishlariga aylantirdilar. Talabalar guruhlari, ayniqsa Morgan shtati kolleji, shahar markazidagi do'konlar va tushlik peshtaxtalarini ajratishga harakat qilishdi. 1960 -yillarning boshlariga kelib, jamoatchilik bosimi, sud jarayonlari va qonunchilik jamoat plyajlari va istirohat bog'lari, shuningdek, do'konlar va teatrlarni ajratishga olib keldi. O'zgarishlar Merilend shtatida 1963 yilda turar joylarni ajratish to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qilganidan keyin tarqaldi.

      Jamoat bog'lari va dam olish maskanlari: 1930-1950 yillar

      1930-1940 -yillarda Baltimordagi jamoat bog'lari va dam olish maskanlarida segregatsiyaga qarshi kurashish uchun bir qancha mashhur kampaniyalar o'tkazildi. 102 Masalan, 1934 yil sentyabrda, qora tanli golfchilarning doimiy so'rovlaridan so'ng, Carroll Park (B-4609) golf maydonchasi ularga maydondan foydalanishga ruxsat berishni boshladi, lekin ularni oq golfchilardan ajratib, ularni haftaning ma'lum kunlari bilan cheklab qo'ydi. 1938 yilda ikki qora tanli golfchi, Dallas Nikolas va Uilyam I. Gosnell, Baltimor -Siti -ni bu siyosatni bekor qilishga urinish uchun sudga berishdi, ammo ular muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lishdi. 103

      Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin yoshlar boshlagan bir qancha norozilik namoyishlari muvaffaqiyatli o'tdi. 1947 yil 17 -dekabrda bir guruh oq va qora tanli yoshlar Garrison o'rta maktabida yoshlarning mahalliy dam olishida bo'linishga norozilik bildirish uchun birlashtirilgan yoshlar basketbol o'yinini uyushtirdilar. Yana bir millatlararo norozilik namoyishi 1948 yil 11-iyulda bir guruh qora tanli va oq tanli tennischilar Druid Xill Parkidagi tennis kortlarida o'yin uyushtirishgan (B-56). Bu norozilik shahar ustidan sudga olib keldi. Boyer va Garret (1949), natijada sud shahar parklarida irqiy bo'linish siyosatini bekor qildi. 104

      In 1950, a group of Black activists attempted to purchase tickets for the beach at Fort Smallwood Park (AA-898), a popular recreational park owned and managed by Baltimore City but located in Anne Arundel County. When park workers refused to sell tickets to the activists, they sued the city initiating a prolonged legal action. Eventually, in 1955, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals found in favor of the activists in Mayor and City Council of Baltimore City v. Dawson, linking the jigarrang decision to the necessity of integrating public facilities, writing:

      It is obvious that racial segregation in recreational activities can no longer be sustained as a proper exercise of the police power of the State for if that power cannot be invoked to sustain racial segregation in the schools, where attendance is compulsory…it cannot be sustained with respect to public beach and bathhouse facilities, the use of which is entirely optional. 105

      In November 1955, the US Supreme Court ended the debate by upholding the decision by the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals without even issuing a separate opinion. 106

      The critical importance of equal access to parks and recreational facilities was tragically demonstrated in 1953 when a Black boy died while swimming with friends in the Patapsco River. The only swimming pool open to Black residents was Pool No. 2 located in Druid Hill Park. Arguing the boy would not have died if the public pool in his southwest Baltimore allowed Black swimmers, the Baltimore NAACP filed suit against the city to force the desegregation of Baltimore’s public swimming pools. The NAACP won their case and the city’s newly desegregated pools opened on June 23, 1956. 107

      Theaters, Department Stores and Restaurants: 1938–1960s

      In many American cities, including Baltimore, downtown department stores had special significance. Historian Paul Kramer called the stores “some of Baltimore’s most prominent sites of civic culture and modernity.” 108 The combination of prominence and prejudice made these stores a key target for protests over an extended period from the late 1930s through the 1960s. The discrimination African Americans faced in public accommodations was not just one of simple exclusion. Historian Paul A. Kramer notes that the discriminatory “racial practices” at Baltimore’s downtown department stores included three main aspects:

      Refusing to serve Black customers at lunch counters

      Prohibiting Black customers from trying on or returning clothing, and

      Discriminating against Black workers by only hiring Black people as maintenance or stockroom workers, elevator operators, porters, and restroom attendants.

      The prohibition on returns from Black customers (known as the “final sale” policy) reveals one of the fundamental motivations behind racial segregation—“anxieties and fears about physical contact between whites and blacks.” Kramer continues to explain:

      For most whites, blacks represented sources of unspecified physical and moral pollution … Black and white bodies might “touch” in the exchange of forks and plates at store lunch-counters. Even more threatening to whites was the possibility that the clothes they tried on or purchased might bear an invisible taint of black physical contact. 109

      Notably, in early 1943, when the Baltimore NAACP sought to overturn the state’s Jim Crow laws, the repeal bill they supported was sent to state legislature Hygiene Committee rather than the Judiciary Committee for consideration. 110

      Some of the earliest efforts to change store policies started between 1938 and 1940 when the Baltimore Urban League and NAACP met for private negotiations with downtown department store owners and urged them to end their discriminatory policies against Black shoppers. Local Black activists met again with a representative of the Retail Merchants Association in February 1943, but no policy changes followed. A more public protest started in 1945 when the Afro-American newspaper began their “Orchids and Onions” campaign to celebrate stores that did not discriminate against Black shoppers (“Orchids”) and to shame downtown department stores with discriminatory policies (“Onions”). 111

      One early challenge to these segregationist policies came from an interracial group of activists affiliated with the local chapter of CORE who used public pressure and sit-ins to protest segregated lunch counters—a strategy used previously in New York City in 1939 and by CORE members in Chicago in 1942. Afro-American columnist Mrs. Elizabeth Murphy Phillips noted their success on November 7, 1953:

      Thanks to the Committee on Racial Equality, (CORE), the Urban league, and the Americans for Democratic Action, (ADA), more stores in the 200 block W. Lexington St. are realizing there is no color line in the dollars you spend. Lunch counters and restaurants in the Kresge and Woolworth Five and Ten have been serving all customers for several weeks. McCrory’s has just reversed its policy and will serve all comers […] Schulte United in the 200 block Lexington is still acting silly. 112

      The scope of such campaigns was limited in comparison to the overall challenge for Black residents in the 1950s. For example, one 1955 survey found that 91% of 191 randomly selected Baltimore businesses reported either the “exclusion” or “segregation” of Black customers. 113 In January 1955, CORE’s campaign against segregated lunch counters on Lexington Street ended with the successful desegregation of the Read’s Drug Store chain.

      As Phillips alludes in her column, the issue of public accommodation was often presented in terms of consumer politics. This made the issue personal for middle-class Black activists like Madeline W. Murphy who wrote to the Vice President of Hochschild Kohn in 1956 to say, “not only [do I] feel equal to the average Hochschild Kohn’s consumers but I feel superior to them.” Such emphasis on racial equality as individual access made the desegregation of public accommodations “less of a challenge to traditional notions of racial equality,” in contrast to education, employment, and voting rights, which were to be granted en masse, and helped secure the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 114

      Black theater-goers faced similar policies of exclusion and discrimination at local theaters. In addition, theaters often refused to book Black musicians and performers. In February 1948 the Baltimore police arrested a group of Morgan State College students for picketing Ford’s Theatre on Fayette Street for its discriminatory policies. The students and other activists soon returned and continued a five-year campaign at Ford’s Theatre to end segregated seating, a policy the theater finally ended in 1953. After the Lyric Theatre (B-106) on Mount Royal Avenue refused to allow singer and activist Marian Anderson to perform, Baltimore’s Commission on Human Relations intervened and persuaded the theater owners to allow Marian Anderson to appear in January 1954. Despite this progress, however, most hotels and restaurants remained segregated, so after the performance, Sidney Hollander Sr. hosted an afternoon reception with Anderson at his home.

      Discrimination and segregation made travel difficult. To aid Black travelers, Victor Green, a US postal employee, published the Negro Motorist Green Book, which listed sites welcoming Black customers. The first edition covered businesses in metropolitan New York, but later editions included sites all over the country. Baltimore businesses first appear in the 1938 edition, and include both the YMCA and YWCA—both sites associated with local civil rights organizing. Other listings through the years include the Smith Hotel and others in west Baltimore, as well as several restaurants on Pennsylvania Avenue. Jack’s Garage, listed in the book’s 1947 edition, later, around 1958, became Temple No. 6 (later known as Mosque Six) at 514 Wilson Street, for local members of the Nation of Islam. The 1956 edition of the Green Book lists the Sphinx Restaurant, later known as the Sphinx Club, at 2107 Pennsylvania Avenue. The last edition was published in 1964, coinciding with the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act. 115

      In October 1957, Walter T. Dixon, Democratic City Council member from the Fourth District and then the only Black member of the City Council, introduced a bill to "prohibit discrimination in hotels, restaurants, taverns, stores, theaters, amusement establishments and other places of public accommodation.” 116 While the bill won support from the Baltimore Commission on Human Relations, opposition from the Maryland Hotel Association and Maryland and Baltimore Restaurant Association helped delay the bill for years. By 1958, the Quyosh noted: “Despite organized demands, the City Council on several occasions has shown its reluctance to enact an ordinance to compel the owners of public accommodations to open their doors to Negroes.” 117

      Biroq, Quyosh continued to point to a March 1958 report from the Maryland Commission on Interracial Problems and Relations as evidence that “business men in Baltimore gradually have been lowering their racial bars.” 118 The paper’s enthusiasm for voluntary desegregation elides the very limited changes that had taken place so far. While a number of hotels no longer excluded Black people from their dining rooms, only three—the Lord Baltimore (B-3720), the Congress Hotel (B-2250), and the Sheraton–Belvedere (B-980)—had nondiscrimination policies in place for guest accommodations. While most downtown theaters had ended the exclusion of Black patrons, many restaurants and lunch counters continued to exclude Black customers.

      A new movement of students took up the cause of discrimination at department store restaurants on March 26, 1960, when Black student activists from Morgan State College attempted to purchase food at the Northwood Shopping Center and at downtown establishments in a coordinated effort to test their discriminatory policies. Downtown, they succeeded at Hochschild Kohn (B-2280) at 200–208 N. Howard Street Stewart’s (B-2290), at 226–232 W. Lexington Street, shut their food counters to all customers, white and black and, Hutzler’s (B-2278, B-2279, B-2285), at 210–228 N. Howard Street and 309 W. Saratoga Street, refused to serve a group of 20 students who waited for three hours before leaving.

      The sit-ins continued through April 17, 1960, Easter Sunday, when the Quyosh reported that Albert D. Hutzler met with Furman Templeton from the Baltimore Urban League, along with activists David Glenn and Robert B. Watts. After the meeting, Hutzler announced: “We have lifted restrictions. Negroes will be served in our restaurants.” Hecht-May (B-3673), at 118 N. Howard Street, and other downtown stores followed Hochschild Kohn and Hutzler’s with the change.

      A large collection of letters sent to Hochschild Kohn after their policy change in late March 1960 documented varied attitudes to desegregation in the period. Interestingly, there are 10 times the number of letters in support of integration, likely because activists recognized both the importance of integration and the fact that the change remained “frighteningly reversible.” Some opponents of desegregation described a rationale of “consumer choice,” as one woman wrote: “Do you realize that by so doing [integrating], you are taking from the White Race any choice they had of segregation or integration when dining outside of their homes?” 119

      Others threatened to stay away from the downtown store, now that the policy of segregation had been abandoned. These threats reflected the racialized geography of the Baltimore metropolitan region as segregated white suburbs quickly expanded after World War II. Historian Paul Kramer notes that

      more than one of the racist critics wrote as self-conscious suburbanites, warning the downtown that integration would further provoke the flight of white residences and businesses. In the process, they revealed the extent to which the suburbs were imagined as racial islands still free of black “invasion”: downtown segregation was the only remaining draw that could pull whites in from their comfortable, newly-designed racial enclaves. 120

      Notably, department stores had their own role in the suburban exodus with the first suburban location for Hutzler’s established in Towson in 1952. They quickly continued their suburban expansion with new stores at Eastpoint Mall (1956) in Dundalk and Westview Mall (1958) near Catonsville. Hochschild Kohn expanded within the city including a new location at the Edmondson Village Shopping Center (B-4223) at the city’s western edge in 1947 and in a modern new store at York Road and Belvedere Avenue (B-1349) in 1948. Hochschild Kohn’s later suburban growth included Harundale Mall (1958), The Mall in Columbia (1971), and Security Square Mall (1972) in Woodlawn.

      Black Baltimoreans also saw the important role of suburbanization in reshaping the debate over segregated public accommodations in downtown Baltimore. For example, in August 1957, the Afro-American’s “If You Ask Me” columnist Elizabeth Murphy Phillips, remarked: “The big downtown stores and business have not welcomed colored people in the past… Their white only customers have moved to the suburbs and the colored customers they spurned are moving out too. So, the heart of the city is no longer Lexington and Howard Sts.” 121

      On May 1, 1962, local leaders of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Civic Interest Group (CIG) held a joint meeting voicing their frustration with the long delay in securing a public accommodation law, remarking: “Both organizations are sick and tired of stalling tactics and phony excuses by certain members of the City Council and other so-called supporters of a public accommodations bill for the city.” Leo Burroughs, speaking for CIG, said the groups were “likely to stage demonstrations in the city without notice at any time.” A few weeks later, activists from around the country came to Baltimore for a three-day conference on civil rights, organized by CORE, CIG, and the Nonviolent Action Group, with meetings in the churches around Lafayette Square. 122

      Under pressure from activists, in June 1962, Baltimore passed a public accommodations bill, while still exempting any business where revenue from alcoholic beverages exceeded revenue from food sales. Maryland finally followed with a new state law in January 1963. 123 Maryland may have preceded many other Southern states but the national push for public accommodations legislation secured laws in Wilmington, Delaware St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri and El Paso, Texas all around the same time. 124 In late February 1964, the local NAACP helped secure the passage of the Baltimore City Public Accommodations and Fair Employment Practice Ordinances strengthening the 1962 ordinance with a guarantee to end “lawful discrimination in ‘employment practices, educational institutions, places of public accommodation, resort or amusement, and health and welfare agencies.’” 125


      19 thoughts on &ldquo “Over Lincoln’s dead body” … the bizarre story &rdquo

      I got to know Abe Lincoln when I was just a boy by means of books, movies and stories. To think how much a role he played for the goodness of mankind, it’s no wonder why he is so steeped in tradition. And yes, his death was something I also remember, but to loose his son Willie back in 1862 was something I could not get over, especially knowing his father could not except his death until a week or two of his passing.
      Abe’s passing did in fact leave something for us all to behold, but now that his family and him are finally buried in a peaceful setting, let’s hope that the man above will indeed say ” Lincoln Did His Best in times of war and during the best of times.

      Although I was aware of much of this information (not all), it was great to read it all in one well-written article. After I read it, I looked at the signatures of Robt Lincoln and John Stuart that are framed together on one of my walls with greater appreciation.

      I’ve heard that LIFE Magazine published photos of Lincoln before he was buried for the final time. Anyone know?

      Early in 1963, LIFE magazine did print an article on the burial of Lincoln in 1901 with photos of the event. Check on the web for additional photos of the event that were not used with the article. Alan Leake

      Thanks Alan…I’ll check that out!

      DR. ABRAHAM LINCOLN IS THE GREATEST AMERICAN WHO EVER LIVED. IT SEEMS THAT THE ONLY PEACE HE EVER ACHIEVED IS WHEN HE IS IN ETERNAL REST. GOD BLESS DR. ABRAHAM LINCOLN!

      I saw this story on the History Channel some time ago. I was amazed how this great man was treated in death. Rahmat.

      The only thing missing to this excellent account is the fact that the photograph was not discovered for some 87 years until I found it on July 20, 1952 and I was acquainted with Fleetwood Lindley–two teen-agers who contributed to the Lincoln Story. Fleetwood was 13 years old when he accompanied his father to the final burial. And I was 14 years old when he discovered this last photo taken of President Lincoln–in death.

      Why, do you suppose, Lincoln’s body is so important compared to so many other dead presidents? The civil war? It seems like there is something more to it…

      Dang, the best US President ever didn’t get to rest his bodily remains in peace for a da*m long time.

      I grew up in Petersburg and spent my youth visiting New Salem for their events and then also after I move to Springfield taking all of my relatives, over the following decades, to all of the Lincoln places. However, I still had not realized that his body had been moved so many times. This is a very informative and interesting article. Thank you and I’ll have more to tell when I give free tours !

      Salom! I read this story several times before but enjoyed reading it again. Liked your way of narration a lot. By the way, your alias is fantastic! I am a lover of both ‘history’ and ‘mystery’ myself and glad to see how you combined them. Any kind of history has some element of mystery about it, isn’t it?
      Regards.

      Don, having not heard this story, I was amazed at how it took so many years to settle the President’s remains into a final, safe resting place.

      Hi Ellen. Thanks for taking the time to read it…much appreciated. Can’t believe all that happened to Lincoln, after his death.

      I appreciate reading a part of history that is very good that Lincoln’s body is finally resting and won’t be disturbed any more. Lincoln was a good man and president I don’t why people would dig up a dead body and steal it that is so wrong. Than you for writing this.

      I’ve waited for this story to appear since we discussed it in July at Iowa. Very interesting as usual!

      Thanks Terry…I enjoyed writing it. As always, I appreciate your input. See you at Daytona!

      Absolutely fascinating! Thank you so much for this story.

      Thanks Sue…appreciate you taking the time to read it!

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      Videoni tomosha qiling: September 30, 2021 (Fevral 2023).

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