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Sivo vohasidagi sahrodan Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabrining noumid faryodi

Sivo vohasidagi sahrodan Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabrining noumid faryodi


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Quyida arxeolog va yunon missiyasi direktori Liva Souvaltzining yozgan maqolasi keltirilgan, biz uni Siva vohasida Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabrini saqlagan yirik yodgorlik topilgani haqidagi tadqiqotlari haqida xabar berishga taklif qilganmiz. . Uning kashfiyoti haqidagi avvalgi maqoladan so'ng, biz avval o'qishni tavsiya qilamiz - Arxeologlarning ta'kidlashicha, Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabri allaqachon topilgan, ammo topilmalar "diplomatik aralashuv" bilan bloklangan. .

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Maqolani yozish haqidagi qarorni qabul qilish oson emas, chunki bu meni qattiq ranjitadi ... Mening maqsadim - jamoatchilikka bu noyob yodgorlikka qarshi 1996 yilgi siyosiy zamindan jinoyat bo'lganini tushunish imkoniyatini berish. bu kashfiyot va ilmiy ishlarga halokatli zarba berdi.

Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabrining topilishini tasodifiy hodisa deb hisoblash mumkin emas, lekin uzoq yillar davomida uning qabrini hech kim izlamagan olis hududda olib borilgan tadqiqotlar natijasidir.

Qabr joyining katta sirini hal qiladigan sehrli kalitni topish uchun taxminan yigirma yil o'rganish kerak edi; bu Iskandarning Ammon vohasida dafn qilinish istagi edi. Bu istak va xohish Aleksandr davrining tarixchilari, masalan, Kallistfen, Aristobul, Ptolomey va keyinchalik Diodor va Plutarx kabi yozuvchilarning matnlarida qayd etilgan.

Qanday qilib kimdir podshohning buyrug'ini bajarmasligi yoki "xudo" Aleksandrning xohishini bajarmasligi mumkin edi?

Qimmatli ma'lumotlar, shuningdek, vohadagi qabr borligi va Iskandarga xudo sifatida sig'inish, 4 -chi Abu Sisos singari, Ammon bilan birga, sahro astsetiklaridan ham olingan. th milodiy asr. 5 -dagi Tir episkopi Dorotey th miloddan avvalgi asr va 6 -asr tarixchisi Prokopiy th miloddan avvalgi asr, bu ma'lumotni ham eslatib o'ting.

Faqat jamoamiz tomonidan moliyalashtirilgan qazish ishlari 1989 yilda boshlangan va 1996 yilda ish to'xtatilgan.

Arxeologik joy Siva shahrida joylashgan Ammon ibodatxonasidan 15 kilometr g'arbda joylashgan. Qabr joylashgan hududga El Maraki nomi berilgan. Qabrlar majmuasi 12000 kvadrat metrlik ulkan maydonni egallaydi, shundan 5000 kvadrat metr qazilgan.

Uzunligi 51 m va tashqi kengligi 10,25 m bo'lgan qabrning kattaligidan ko'rinib turibdiki, uni faqat podshoh kabi o'ta muhim odamga sajda qilish uchun dafn marosimi sifatida ishlatish mumkin edi. .

Qabr tosh ustida o'tirgan, uning ostida g'arbiy sahroda birinchi topilgan ulkan oltin koni yotadi. U kirish, koridor va uchta kameradan iborat.

Burchak trigliflarining mavjudligi yodgorlikning yunon tabiatini aks ettiradi. Uch kamerali va koridorli hududda topilgan me'moriy xususiyatlar koridorning ichki tomondan qurilgani va gumbaz bilan o'ralganligini, uchinchi palataning tomi piramidaga o'xshash shaklga ega bo'lishi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi. uning tepasida ulkan sher turardi.

Syva vohasidagi yodgorlikdan burchakli triglif topilgan. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

Yodgorlikning dekorativ haykallari noyob va klassik yunon san'atining ajoyib namunasidir. Astragal, tuxum va dart, sakkiz bargli rozet, bargga o'xshash bo'laklar, ochiq va yopiq antimiya kabi klassik klassik mavzular mavjud edi.

Qabr dafn xonasidagi lintel, Makedoniya qirolligining ramzi bo'lgan sakkiz bargli rozetni ko'rsatadi. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

Gologlif sherlar, sakkizta nurli yulduz, ilonlar bilan disk, o'rmon daraxti va makedon qalqonlari kabi Iskandarni ko'rsatuvchi maxsus belgilar ham bor edi.

Arslon boshi qabr ichidan topilgan. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

Muhim nuqta shundaki, topilgan ko'plab me'moriy xususiyatlar, masalan, triflif va gorizontal kornişlar bilan mutulalar (triglif ustidagi to'rtburchaklar blok) asl ranglarini saqlab qolgan - bu holda ko'k. Ba'zi metoplar (Dor frizidagi ikkita triglif orasidagi bo'shliqlar) terakota rangini saqlab qolgan. Yo'lak ichidan saqlangan frizlarning bir nechta bo'lagi oq fonda lotus gullariga o'xshash yashil barglar va antimiya ko'k ranglarini saqlab qoldi.

Qabr koridori bir nechta yangi elementlarni ochib berdi. Yo'lakdan topilgan ramzlar va tantanali narsalar koridor maydoni teleserion (boshlanish zali) ekanligini ko'rsatadi, bu erda "xudo" Aleksandr sharafiga sirli muqaddas va yopiq marosimlar o'tkaziladi.

Qabrning asosiy kirish qismidagi darvozalardan 31,32 m va eni 7 m bo'lgan yopiq uzun yo'lak. Yo'lakda diametri qarama-qarshi bo'lgan uchta eshik bor edi, ularning hammasi o'rnatilgan, balandligi 31 sm va nafasi 13 sm bo'lgan past parapet bor edi, bu koridorni uchta zonaga ajratib turardi, u erda turli xil ramzlar va emblemalar tarqatilgan edi. Yo'lakning markaziy maydoni, kengligi 2,3 m, asosiy o'tish joyi bo'lib, uchta kameraga kiraverishda T shaklida tugagan. Bu markaziy hududdagi ramzlar Quyosh va olov ko'zidir. Yo'lakning o'ng va chap qismida darvoza oldida ikkita hunisi bo'lgan qurbongohlar bor edi.

Qabrga olib boradigan yo'lakni tozalash. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

Janubi -sharqiy darvoza (3 -sonli eshik), kentavr turkumining ramzi (hozirgi janubiy xoch) va qurbongohni o'z ichiga oladi. Yo'lak kiraverishining o'ng va chap tomonida ikkita kichik ziyoratgoh bor edi va ularning orasidagi joy diametri qarama -qarshi bo'lgan ikkita eshik bilan o'ralgan edi, ularning ostonalari va tagliklari saqlanib qolgan. Bu maydonning uzunligi 3,24 m, kengligi 2,08 m edi.

Qabrda topilgan ramzlar turidan va ularning mistik ma'nosini o'rganib, biz aniq marosimlar Aleksandr sharafiga qilingan degan xulosaga keldik.

Nihoyat, biz yunon bosh harflari bilan yozilgan uch xil faxriy yozuvni topdik. Birinchi yozuv uning matnidan miloddan avvalgi 290 va 284 yillarga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin. Yozuvning birinchi qatorida ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ ΑΜΜΩΝΟΣ ΡΑ (ALEXANDER AMMON RA) nomi berilgan.

Ikkinchi yozuv miloddan avvalgi 108 - 115 yillar orasida yozilgan bo'lishi mumkin va bu faxriy yozuv bo'lib, uni imperator Traianus xudo sifatida hurmat qilgan va hurmat qilgan Aleksandr sharafiga qo'ygan.

Uchinchi yozuv - Aleksandr Makedonskiyning shoh qabrini qo'riqlash uchun tayinlangan harbiy kuchlarning bir qismi bo'lgan voha va armiya aholisi sonini ko'rsatuvchi parcha.

Bu yozuvlar va ularning ma'nosi kashf etilgani 1995 yil 15 noyabrda Rimda o'tgan Italiya -Misr Kongressi paytida e'lon qilindi.

Arxeolog o'z nomidagi yozuvlarni topganda, bu shubhaga o'rin qoldirmaydi - Aleksandr o'zining sevimli ilohiy vohasida, xohlaganicha, "ilohiy otasi" Ammon Zevsning yoniga dafn etilgan.

Qabr ichidan topilgan Ammon Ra ramzi, kobra bilan quyosh. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

O'sha davr Yunon hukumatining talabiga binoan, Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabri joylashgan Yunon missiyasi ishi to'xtatilganidan beri o'tgan barcha dahshatli yillar, yodgorlik va uning ko'pgina noyob yodgorliklarining vayron bo'lishiga olib keldi. va bebaho topilmalar.

Bugun qabr va uning atrofidagi vaziyatni qabul qilib bo'lmaydi. U axlatxonaga aylantirildi va er osti suvlari er yuzasiga ancha yaqinlashib, yodgorlikni buzdi.

Asosiy qabrning sharqiy va g'arbiy devorining katta qismi qulab tushdi va koridorda juda yaxshi holatda bo'lgan yo'laklar, shuningdek, koridorni uch qismga ajratgan toshlar ham butunlay vayron bo'ldi. turli marosimlarda foydalanish.

Har bir kirish eshigi oldidagi qurbongohlar ham vayron qilingan. Propilonning sharqiy va g'arbiy qismidagi ikkita ma'bad katta darajada egilgan. Sharqiy ma'badning pollari va ichki bezaklari ham vayron qilingan.

Aleksandr qabrini buzish uchun yana nima qo'shish kerak? Buni yozib, men yuragimning tubida og'riqni his qilyapman va qabrdan MENI QUTQARING degan ovozni eshitayapman.

Vayronagarchilik, shuningdek, ajoyib haykallar bilan bezatilgan ajoyib lintellarga va qabrning barcha me'moriy xususiyatlariga ham taalluqli.

Qabr xonasidan lintel. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi

Nega bu yodgorlikka bunday nafrat? Men buni tushuna olmayapman, hatto odamlar Iskandar Zulqarnaynning qabri Siwa vohasida joylashganligini qabul qilishni xohlamasalar ham, bu yunon yodgorligining halokatli taqdir qo'lida qolishiga biron sabab bormi?

Men hayotim davomida Aleksandr qabridagi ishimiz uchun qattiq kurashdim va kurashishda davom etaman, chunki bu axloqiy va hissiy jihatdan o'tmishimiz, tariximiz va afsonalarimizning bir qismi.

1995 yil 29 yanvarda Misr hukumati Iskandar qabrining Misrda, Siva vohasida topilganini e'lon qilgan kunni hech qachon unutmaymiz. O'sha kun hammamiz uchun tabassumli yuzlar va hissiyotlarga to'la baxtli xotira bo'lib qoldi. rejalarini tayyorlayotganlar qorong'u yuzlarsiz qolmagan.

O'sha kun vohada ko'plab o'zgarishlarning boshlanishini ko'rsatdi. Siva vohasi qorong'u qorong'u yoshdan yangi davrga kira boshladi va dunyo xaritasidagi bu kichik nuqta butun dunyo diqqat markazida edi.

Yillar davomida voha o'zgardi, sirli va qadimiy shaklini abadiy yo'qotdi. Bu zamonaviy sayyohlik do'konlari va ko'plab hashamatli mehmonxonalari bo'lgan zamonaviy vohadir, bularning barchasi tsivilizatsiya va moliyaviy farovonlik uchun.

Biz ham qum donasiga aylanganimizda, ehtimol, bizning ruhimiz vohaning go'zal va jasur dunyosi atrofida bo'lib, Ammon va Iskandar vohasida abadiy yo'qolgan fazilatlarni hurmat qiladi.

Tanlangan rasm: Siva vohasidagi yodgorlik qanday ko'rinishda bo'lishini qayta tiklash. Kredit: Liana Souvaltzi.

Muallif: Liana Souvaltzi


E'lon qilingan: 16.09.2014 18:39 EDT Yangilangan: 16.09.2014 18:59 EDT

Yaqinda Gretsiyadagi Makedoniya Amfipolisida noyob dafn yodgorligining topilishi barchani, ehtimol, bu Aleksandr Makedonskiyning uzoq vaqtdan beri yo'qolgan qabridir, deb o'ylashga majbur qilgan. Buyuk fathchi va yarim xudoning qoldiqlarini ko'pchilikka oshkor qilish, Aleksandr, butun dunyodagi arxeologlar va tarixchilar uchun orzu-kashfiyotdan boshqa narsa emas.

Iskandar Zulqarnayn o'z davrining barcha mashhur dunyosini zabt etgach, miloddan avvalgi 323 yil 10 -iyun kuni Bobilda vafot etdi. Afsonada aytilishicha, shuhratparast yosh podsho zabt etish uchun boshqa erlar yo'qligini bilganida yig'lagan.

Garchi Aleksandrning o'zi Siva vohasidagi Zevs Ammon ibodatxonasiga dafn qilinish istagini bildirgan bo'lsa -da, uning jasadi Iskandariyadagi Ptolomey tomonidan topshirilgan. Keyinchalik uning jasadi yo'qoladi, shuning uchun uni hech kim topa olmaydi.

Shoh uchun mos joy

Iskandariya Nil deltasi, O'rta er dengizi va Mariout ko'li o'rtasida joylashgan (qadimgi davrlarda Mareotis). Sharqiy dengiz porti yaqinida Brucheum deb nomlanuvchi hudud bor. Bu erda saroylar bor edi, shu jumladan Ptolomeylar qirollik saroyi, bog'lar, ibodatxonalar va hayvonot bog'i. U shaharning shimoliy va markaziy qismini katta qismini egallagan va aniq Iskandariyaning eng go'zal qismi bo'lgan.

Bu erda mashhur kutubxonasi, Polytehneio va Herophilus tibbiyot maktabi bo'lgan Musaeum (Universitet) ni topish mumkin. Bu erda, shuningdek, Ptolomey I Soter tomonidan shaharga olib kelingan va ajoyib oltin tobutga solingan Aleksandrning qabrini Semani yoki Somani (tanani) topish mumkin. Bir muncha vaqt o'tgach, pul taqchil bo'lganda, oltin tobut o'rniga Ptolomey IX alabaster qo'yildi.

Bu erda miloddan avvalgi 30 -yilda Oktavian Avgust aslida ma'badning muqaddas joyidan olib kelingan Aleksandrning jasadini ko'zlari bilan ko'rgan. Oktavian buyuk odamga hurmat ko'rsatib, boshiga oltin diadem va tanasiga gullar qo'ydi. Ptolomeyning jasadini ko'rishni xohlaysizmi, deb so'rashganida, u o'z xohishi murdalarni emas, balki qirolni ko'rish ekanligini aytgan. (Suetonius, II, XVIII kitob).

Mamlakat Antoniy va Kleopatra tarafini olgani uchun, Oktavian Misrni reytingini pasaytirib, uni Rim imperiyasining provinsiyasi deb e'lon qildi. Keyinchalik, milodiy 200 yilda Misr avvalgi maqomini qaytaradi va imperator Septimius Severus hukmronligi ostida yana o'zini o'zi boshqaradi.

1931 yildan 211 yilgacha hukmronlik qilgan Septimius Severus (222 yildan 235 yilgacha hukmronlik qilgan Aleksandr Severus bilan adashmaslik kerak) Sharqda parfiyaliklarga qarshi g'alabali kampaniyadan so'ng Aleksandriyaga tashrif buyurdi. Unga rafiqasi Yuliya Domna, senator va tarixchi Kassius Dio, do'st va maslahatchi, Yuliya kotibi, sofist Flavius ​​Filostrat hamrohlik qilgan.

Nil bo'ylab sayohat

Severus tashrifi davomida Nil daryosi bo'ylab sayohat qilishni xohlardi, chunki uning oldiga maxsus vazifa qo'yilgan edi. Yunon tilida yozgan Dio Kassiusning tarixiy hisobi bo'lmaganida, biz bu g'alati sayohat haqida hech narsa bilmas edik, bu insoniyat taqdirini muhrlab qo'ydi, desak mubolag'a bo'lmaydi. G'alati narsa shu vaqtgacha arxeologlar va tarixchilarning e'tiboridan chetda qolgan. Dio Kassiy Misrda sodir bo'lgan voqealarni shunday ta'riflaydi (Rim tarixi, LXXVI kitob, 13, 2, Loeb klassik kutubxonasi):

(Xatra shahrini) yigirma kun qamal qilib, keyin Falastinga yo'l oldi va u erda Pompey ruhiga qurbonlik qildi. U Nil daryosidan o'tib, yuqori Misrga suzib ketdi va butun mamlakatni ko'rdi, masalan, Efiopiya chegarasidan o'ta ololmadi. U hamma narsani, shu jumladan, juda yashirin narsalarni ham o'rganib chiqdi, chunki u odam yoki ilohiy, hech narsani tekshirilmasdan qoldiradigan odam edi. Shunga ko'ra, u deyarli barcha ma'badlardan har qanday maxfiy ma'lumotni o'z ichiga olgan kitoblarni olib qo'ydi va Aleksandr qabrini qulflab qo'ydi, shuning uchun kelajakda hech kim Aleksandrning jasadini ko'rmasligi yoki nima o'qilganini o'qmasligi kerak edi. yuqorida aytilgan kitoblarda yozilgan.

Dio bizga aytadiki, Severus va uning kompaniyasi Nil daryosi bo'yidagi joylarga tashrif buyurishgan, bu erda qadimgi davrlarda Misr ruhoniylari muqaddas sirlarni olib borishgan. Birinchi palapartishlik yaqinidagi Heliopolis, Sais, Abidos kabi joylar, Memfis va Fiva va Filaning er osti kriptlari (Nil daryosi oroli).

Severus shuning uchun qadimgi zamonlardan kelgan barcha muqaddas bilimlarning yozma materiallarini to'plab, Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabrining ichiga ishonchli tarzda muhrlab qo'ydi, shunda u noma'qullar va bilmaslarning qo'liga tushmasin. Xabar qilinishicha, bu kitoblardan biri “Toth kitobi ” bo'lib, unda o'lmaslik sirini topish mumkin.

Dio so'zlaridan, shuningdek, Aleksandr Makedonskiyning jasadi Ma'bad tubidan olib kelinganligi haqidagi Suetonius hisobidan Avgust ko'rish uchun biz Makedoniya podshohining qabri umumiy bo'lmagan degan xulosaga keldik. Masalan, Qizil maydonda Lenin maqbarasi. Buning o'rniga, bu ’ ning joylashuvi sir saqlandi va hech kim tashrif buyurishi mumkin emas edi.

Aynan mana shu maxfiy joyda Severus qadimgi bilimlar xavfsiz ekanligiga ishonch hosil qilgan. Buning sababi shundaki, na qabrning joyi ma'lum edi, na hech kim tasodifan u erga bora olmadi. Balki bu labirint edi va#8212, axir, Misr er osti tunnellari bilan mashhur bo'lib, yuzlab kilometr pastda cho'zilgan edi.

Bir davrning oxiri
Severus davrida (milodiy 200) qadimgi dunyoning tanazzuli deyarli yakunlandi. Bu besh yuz yil oldin, Aleksandr Makedonskiy vafotidan ko'p o'tmay boshlangan va tarixchilarga ma'lum bo'lgan "III asr inqirozi" va "8221 yil" bilan tugagan. Bu Rim imperiyasining qulashiga va qorong'u asrlarning tug'ilishiga olib keladi.

Shunday qilib, o'tgan yillardan farqli o'laroq, endi nomzodlarga kosmogoniya va tabiat sirlarini tushuntira oladigan ierofantlar yo'q edi. Haqiqiy tasavvuflar kamdan -kam uchraydi va xuddi hozirgi kabi, marosimlar ma'nosiz marosimni taqlid qilishdan boshqa narsa emas edi. Sirlar yo yo'qolgan, yoki endi tushunib bo'lmaydigan edi.

Tarix Severusga sirlarni yashirish va haqiqiy bilimlarni odamlarning idroklari, xurofotlari va yolg'onlari tufayli asta -sekin buzilishdan himoya qilishning g'alati taqdirini saqlab qolgan.

Iskandar Zulqarnaynning qabri, eng zo'r yashiringanga o'xshaydi, chunki u o'zi yashiringan. Va nihoyat, hamma odamlarni umuminsoniy g'oya ostida birlashtirishga harakat qilgan Aristotel shogirdidan boshqa yana kim bu qimmatli bilimning qo'riqchisi bo'lishi mumkin?


Iskandar Zulqarnayn davridan qolgan qabrlar Gretsiyaning shimolida topilgan

So'nggi ikki yil davomida arxeologlar Gretsiyaning Makedoniya shimolidagi qadimiy Amfipolis shahri yaqinidagi ulkan qabriston kompleksini qazishdi. Seshanba kuni Gretsiya bosh vaziri Afinadan 370 mil shimolda joylashgan arxeologik ob'ektga tashrif buyurdi va Aleksandr Makedonskiy davriga oid "o'ta muhim" kashfiyot deb e'lon qildi, bu Aleksandrning harbiy qo'mondonlaridan biri yoki uning oila a'zolaridan biri ekanligi haqidagi taxminlarga sabab bo'ldi. ichiga ko'milgan.

Xotini va hukumat amaldorlari bilan Kasta tepaligidagi arxeologik joyni aylanib chiqqanidan so'ng, Yunoniston bosh vaziri Antonis Samaras jurnalistlarga: "Biz o'ta muhim topilma oldida turganimiz aniq", dedi. Samarasning so'zlariga ko'ra, arxeologlar 2012 yilda qazish ishlarini boshlaganlaridan beri, ular yaqinidagi Tasos orolidan olib kelingan oq marmardan qurilgan, balandligi 1600 fut, balandligi 10 fut bo'lgan dumaloq devor bilan o'ralgan ulkan qabristonni topdilar. Kengligi besh hovli bo'lgan yo'l qabrning kirish qismiga olib boradi, uni ikkita boshsiz sfenks qo'riqlaydi. Marmar bezaklar va freskali devorlar qabrni bezatadi, u Yunonistonning Rim istilosi paytida qisman vayron bo'lgan, ammo 2000 yildan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida talon -taroj qilinmagan. Arxeologlarning fikricha, 1912 yilda Strimonas daryosi tubidan bir necha mil uzoqlikda topilgan 16 metr balandlikdagi marmar Amfipolis Arslonlari bir paytlar ulkan qabrni tojlagan.

Etakchi arxeolog Katerina Peristeri dafn qabrini miloddan avvalgi 325 yillarga to'g'ri keladi. va miloddan avvalgi 300-yillar, Aleksandr Makedonskiy hukmronligining oxirida, Yunonistonning shimoli-sharqidagi erdan ko'tarilib, uchta qit'aga tegib, Dunay daryosidan Hindistongacha cho'zilgan qadimiy imperiyani barpo etgan Makedoniya jangchi shohi. "Bu o'sha davrning mashhur makedoniyalik qabriga o'xshaydi", dedi Reuters agentligiga madaniyat vazirligi xodimi. Yangi topilgan qabriston, Vergina kichik shaharchasida, Amfipolisdan 100 kilometr uzoqlikda dafn etilgan, Aleksandrning otasi Filipp II, shu jumladan Makedoniya qirolliklari yashagan, Yunonistonda topilgan eng katta qadimiy qabr hisoblanadi.

Hali kimning qabri ekanligi javobsiz qolmoqda. "Asosiy savolga kelsak, qazish ishlari marhumning kimligini ochib beradi", dedi Samaras. "Qabr aniq Aleksandr Makedonskiy vafotidan keyingi davrga tegishli, ammo biz uning kimga tegishli ekanligini ayta olmaymiz", dedi Peristeri Agence France-Presse agentligiga.

Bu qabr miloddan avvalgi 323 yilda Bobilda, zamonaviy Iroqda vafot etgan Aleksandr Makedonskiyning joyi emas. Uning jasadi sobiq generallaridan biri Ptolomey tomonidan vataniga ketayotganda o'g'irlanganidan keyin Misrda dafn etilgan deb ishonilgan. Ba'zilar taxmin qilishicha, Amfipolis qabri dastlab Aleksandrning jasadini ushlab turish uchun qurilgan bo'lishi mumkin.

Ehtimol, tushuntirish shundaki, ulug'vor qabr Iskandar qo'mondonlaridan biri yoki oila a'zolari uchun qurilgan. Iskandar tomonidan tuzilgan imperiya tezda uning o'limidan so'ng bir -biriga qarama -qarshi guruhlarga bo'linib ketdi va Makedoniyaning qurg'oq tepaliklarini qon to'kishidan qon to'kdi. Miloddan avvalgi 357 yilda Filipp II tomonidan bosib olingan Afinaning sobiq koloniyasi bo'lgan Amfipolis zo'ravonliklardan qochib qutula olmadi. Bu erda Aleksandrning rafiqasi Roxana va uning o'g'li va taxtning qonuniy vorisi 12 yoshli Aleksandr IV miloddan avvalgi 311 yilda makedoniyalik general Kassander tomonidan o'ldirilgan. Ehtimol, qabr ikkalasiga ham, ikkalasiga ham qurilgan.

Yana bir nazariya shundaki, ulkan qabr Ispaniyaning Amfipolis atrofida yashagan ko'plab generallari va admirallaridan biriga tegishli. Arslon yodgorliklari ko'pincha o'lik askarlarni xotirlash uchun ishlatilgan va ba'zilar nazariyasiga ko'ra, Amfipolis Arsli bir paytlar podshoh vafotidan keyin Suriyani boshqargan Aleksandr harbiy qo'mondonlaridan biri Midillian Laomedon qabrini belgilagan.

"Qazish ishlari topilmalar va ilmiy etika talab qiladigan tezlikda davom etadi", dedi Gretsiya bosh vaziri, lekin arxeologlar avgust oyining oxirigacha qabrga kirib, kim aniq kim dafn etilganini aniqlashga umid qilishmoqda. Arxeologik ishlar politsiya qo'riqchilari ostida davom etmoqda.

"Makedoniya erlari bizni qimirlatishda va hayratda qoldirishda davom etmoqda va o'zining noyob xazinalarini ochib beradi, ular Yunon tarixining noyob mozaikasini yaratadi, bu bilan hamma yunonlar g'ururlanishadi", dedi Samaras. Arxeologlar umid qilmoqdalarki, Makedoniyaning qadimiy zamini hech bo'lmaganda yana bir kutilmagan hodisaga ega bo'lib, yaqin orada oshkor bo'ladi.


Kuraklar, nasoslar va qat'iyatlilik

Tarixiy topilma haqidagi umid Papakostani qazish ishlarini davom ettiradi, qadimgi hisoblar va Aleksandriyaning 19 -asr xaritasi gullab -yashnashidan oldin. Shuningdek, u qayerda qazishni aniqlash uchun zamonaviy rezistentlik tomografiyasi (ERT) kabi zamonaviy texnologiyalardan foydalanadi. ERT qarshilikni o'lchash va er osti ob'ektlarini aniqlash uchun tuproqqa elektr tokini o'tkazadi. Hozircha uning jamoasi er osti inshootlari bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan 14 ta anomaliyani aniqladi.

Papakosta bu va boshqa usullardan foydalanib, shaharning qadimiy qirollik kvartalini, shu jumladan Rim yo'lini va Aleksandrning qabrini ko'rsatadigan ulkan jamoat binosining qoldiqlarini kashf etmoqda.

Ammo har bir kashfiyot qiyin. "Men suv ostiga birinchi bor kelganimda taslim bo'lmagani uchun baxtliman", deydi Papakosta, u erni qazish uchun etarlicha quruq saqlash uchun nasoslar va shlanglarning murakkab tizimini ishlab chiqishi kerak edi. "Men qat'iy bo'ldim va davom etdim. Men davom etaman. "

Gibertning aytishicha, bu ko'p yillik sekin va loyqa ish, Papakostani bir -biridan ajratib turadi. "Mening tajribamda kamdan -kam hollarda, bitta joyda 21 yil qolib ketgan odamni topishim mumkin." U Papakostani yiqilib tushgan, keyin changni yutib, ringga qaytgan bokschiga o'xshatadi. "U to'liq to'qqiz raundni o'tkazadi."

Yillar o'tib, Papakosta Aleksandrning yo'qolgan qabrini yopayotganiga tobora ishonch hosil qila boshladi. U realizmning sog'lom dozasi bilan optimizmni tinchlantiradi.

"Albatta, uni topish oson emas", deydi u. "Ammo men, albatta, Iskandariya markazida, qirol kvartalidaman va bu imkoniyatlarning hammasi mening foydamga."


Yunon ekspertlari bu qabr Iskandar Zulqarnaynniki ekanligini da'vo qiladilar

1995-02-06 04:00:00 PDT Qohira -Gretsiya hukumatining yuqori darajali arxeologik guruhi, Aleksandr Makedonskiyning qabri Misrning g'arbiy cho'lidan topilgani haqidagi da'volarni o'rganib, kecha bu erga tashrif buyurdi va qabr topilganiga hech qanday dalil ko'rmaganliklarini aytishdi.

Arxeolog Liana Souvaltzi o'tgan hafta qabrni Siwa vohasi tashqarisida topganini, makedoniya uslubida qurilganini va bu erda topilgan uchta planshet arxeologik dalil ekanligini aytdi.

Ammo Madaniyat vazirligi bosh kotibi Jorj Tomas boshchiligidagi Gretsiya jamoasi, bu tuzilma hatto qabrmi yoki yo'qmi aniq emasligini aytdi.

U va jamoa a'zolari majmuaning uslubi makedoncha emasligini aytishdi va ular ko'rsatgan planshetlar bo'laklari Souvaltzining kashfiyoti isboti sifatida berilgan tarjimalarning hech birini qo'llab -quvvatlamasligini qo'shimcha qilishdi.

Jamoa a'zolari, shuningdek, ular ko'rgan parchalar miloddan avvalgi 323 yilda Aleksandr vafotidan 300 yil o'tgach, Rim davriga tegishli ekanligini aytishgan.

"Biz bu majmuaning qabr yoki ma'bad ekanligiga ishonchimiz komil emas", dedi Yunon hukumati uchun antik davrlar direktori Yanni Tzedakis, "vayronalar ichida ellin davrining elementlari bor bo'lsa -da. Ammo, ko'rinib turibdiki, keyingi davr ».

Souvaltsi tashrif buyurgan guruhga uning qazish ishlari haqidagi hisobotini o'qishga ruxsat bermadi. Shuningdek, u o'z ishi haqida jamoaga ma'lumot berishdan bosh tortdi.

Afina universitetining arxeologik diplomiga ega bo'lgan Souvaltsi so'nggi to'rt yil davomida Liviya chegarasidan 50 mil sharqda joylashgan Siva atrofida qazish ishlarini olib bordi.


Jamoa G'arbiy Misrdan Aleksandr qabrini topishga da'vo qilmoqda

Yunon arxeologik guruhi rahbari bugun olimlar Liviya chegarasiga yaqin, Sivo vohasi yaqinida, Misrning G'arbiy cho'lidan Aleksandr Makedonskiyning qabri topilganiga ishonishini aytdi.

& quot; Biz aminmiz, & quot; Liana Souvaltzi, 1989 yildan buyon bu yerda qazish ishlari olib borayotgan guruh boshlig'i. & quot; Bizda noyob yodgorlik bor. Butun Misrda, hatto Gretsiyada ham bunday yodgorlik yo'q. Bu royalti, bu haqiqatan ham makedoniyalik. & Quot

Jamoa Makedoniya qirollarining tojlarida taqilgan o'yilgan eman barglarini va o'yilgan sakkiz qirrali yulduzni-Aleksandr va#x27sning ramzini topdi.

Yunonistondan Hindistongacha bo'lgan qadimgi dunyoning ko'p qismini bosib olgan 20 yoshli podshoh Aleksandr miloddan avvalgi 323 yilda Bobilda vafot etgan. da 33. U qaerda dafn etilgan bo'lsa -da, 2300 yildan oshiqroq sir bo'lib kelgan.

Zamonaviy hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, dafn marosimining ajoyib aravasida jasadi bilan ketayotgan kortej, uni Iskandardan keyin shoh bo'lgan Misrdagi leytenant Ptolomey kutib olgan. Bir versiyaga ko'ra, jasad Aleksandr asos solgan O'rta er dengizi porti Aleksandriyada ko'milgan.

"Men hayotimda hech qachon Aleksandr Aleksandriyada dafn etilganiga ishonmaganman", dedi 47 yoshli Souvaltzi xonim. & quot; U Sivaga dafn qilinmoqchi edi. Bu erda bizda dalillar bor

Suvaltsi xonimning aytishicha, muhim topilmalar yunon tilida yozilgan uchta singan ohaktoshli planshet bo'lib, ular taxminan uch yard chuqurlikdagi qabr darvozasi darvozasi oldida ochilgan.

Ulardan birini Ptolomey yozgan. Kichikroq planshet asrlar o'tib bu erga tashrif buyurgan Rim imperatori Trayan tomonidan buyurtma qilingan. Boshqa parcha - muallifi va sanasi noma'lum.

Ptolomeyning planshetida aytilishicha, u Sivaga o'z xo'jayinining jasadini olib kelgan, bu juda engil edi va bu murdani mumiyalangan deb taxmin qilish mumkin.

Arxeologlar dafn qilish xonasiga olib boradigan tunnel qazishni boshladilar, lekin suv oqishi ularni vaqtincha to'xtatishga majbur qildi. Ular bugun boshlangan musulmonlarning muqaddas Ramazon oyidan keyin qayta tiklanishini kutishmoqda.

& quot; Albatta, biz jasadni topamiz. & quot; Ko'p ming yillar o'tgach, biz jasadni qanday holatda topamiz, ayta olmayman. & quot


Misrning yutug'i: mutaxassis tomonidan Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabri aniq joyi aniqlangan

Havola nusxa ko'chirildi

Aleksandr Makedonskiy: Misrshunos uning qabri joylashgan joy

Siz obuna bo'lganingizda, biz sizga ushbu axborot byulletenlarini yuborish uchun taqdim etgan ma'lumotlardan foydalanamiz. Ba'zan ular biz taklif qilayotgan boshqa axborot byulletenlari yoki xizmatlari uchun tavsiyalarni o'z ichiga oladi. Maxfiylik xabarnomasi sizning ma'lumotlaringizdan qanday foydalanishimiz va sizning huquqlaringiz haqida ko'proq ma'lumot beradi. Istalgan vaqtda obunani bekor qilishingiz mumkin.

Aleksandr Makedonskiy qadimgi Yunoniston Makedoniya podshohi va Argead sulolasining a'zosi bo'lib, tarix va eng muvaffaqiyatli harbiy qo'mondonlardan biri hisoblanadi. U hukmronlik yillarining ko'p qismini Osiyo va shimoli -sharqiy Afrika bo'ylab misli ko'rilmagan harbiy kampaniyada o'tkazdi va 30 yoshida u Yunonistondan Hindistonning shimoli -g'arbiyigacha bo'lgan qadimgi dunyoning eng yirik imperiyalaridan birini yaratdi. Miloddan avvalgi 332 yilda, atigi 24 yoshida, Aleksandr Memfisda fir'avn tojini kiydi va Misrning G'arbiy cho'lidagi Amun Oracle ibodatxonasiga tashrif buyurdi va Amun xudosining o'g'li deb e'lon qilindi.

Tegishli maqolalar

Misrshunos Kris Nauntonning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu tajriba Aleksandrning hayotini o'zgartirib yubordi, u o'z shahriga dafn qilinadi.

Fevral oyida Dan Snow & rsquos History Hit podkasti haqida gapirganda, janob Naunton shunday dedi: & ldquoFaronik tarix tugagandan so'ng, 30 -chi sulola oxiridan keyin, ehtimol, qadimgi dunyoning istalgan joyidan kelgan eng mashhur shaxslardan ikkitasi nafaqat Misr va ndash, balki biz ham qila olamiz. ular Misrda dafn etilganiga ishonch hosil qiling va Aleksandr Buyuk va Kleopatra ndash.

Menimcha, ikkalasi ham Iskandariyada dafn etilgan, ammo bizda ta'rif va ndashdan boshqa hech narsa yo'q, aslida ularning ikkalasi uchun ham arxeologik dalillar.

O'ylaymanki, bu erda hamma narsani qiyinlashtiradigan ikkita omil bor: miloddan avvalgi IV asrda zilzila bo'lib, u qirg'oqdagi shaharlarga katta miqdordagi dengiz suvini olib keldi.

Aleksandr Makedonskiy qabri hali ham Misrda bo'lishi mumkin (Tasvir: GETTY)

Aleksandr Makedonskiy Misr fir'avniga aylandi (Tasvir: GETTY)

Bizning fikrimizcha, ehtimol, Aleksandr Memfisda dafn etilgan va aniq manzil Saqarrada bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Kris Naunton

& ldquoBu Iskandariya qirg'oqlarini doimiy ravishda suv bosdi, bu erda biz bilamizki, ko'plab qirollik yodgorliklari, ehtimol Kleopatra va Aleksandrni o'z ichiga oladi. & rdquo

Ikki yillik fir'avnlik davrida Aleksandr Iskandariya va ndash shahriga asos solgan va hozirda Misrda ikkinchi o'rinda turadi.

Janob Nauntonning fikricha, zamonaviy aholi punkti ostida tonna qadimiy qabrlar yashiringan.

U qo'shimcha qildi: & Ldquo Klassik matnlar bizga maqbara hamma uchun qurilganligini aytadi va biz Kleopatra hukmronligiga qadar shunday bo'lgan deb taxmin qilishimiz mumkin.

& LdquoBu maqbara hech qachon joylashmagan va u holda, ehtimol uning joylashgan joyi zamonaviy shahar ostida joylashgan.

Buyuk Aleksandr imperiyasi (Tasvir: WIKI)

Tegishli maqolalar

& ldquoAlexandriya zamonaviy binolar tomonidan zamonaviy asrning so'nggi o'n yilliklariga qadar hech kim yuklamagan, bu odamlar bu imkoniyatdan uyg'onishni boshlagan payt, lekin sizda birdaniga urbanizatsiya paydo bo'ldi.

& ldquoAmmo bu erda hali ham ko'pchilik bor, men bunga aminman. & rdquo

Janob Naunton nima uchun Aleksandr bu erga dafn qilishni so'ragan bo'lardi, deb o'yladi.

U qo'shib qo'ydi: & ldquoAlexander fors va rsquos imperiyasini ta'qib qilish doirasida Misrga tashrif buyurdi.

U Memfisga tashrif buyurdi va o'z xudolariga hurmat bilan qabul qilindi va u dindor odam edi.

Uning jasadi Sakkaraga dafn etilgan bo'lishi mumkin (Tasvir: GETTY)

Zamonaviy Iskandariya shahri ko'p sirlarni yashirishi mumkin edi (Tasvir: GETTY)

U juda chuqur diniy e'tiqod tuyg'usi bilan majburlandi va uni Siwa vohasidagi Omin xudosining orakaliga tashrif buyurishga undadi va u erdagi ma'bad ruhoniysi "sen xudo va rsquo" so'zlari bilan kutib oldi.

& ldquoAslida, biz bu noto'g'ri tarjima deb o'ylaymiz va Aleksandr ruhoniy aytmoqchi bo'lgan narsani noto'g'ri tushungan, lekin u bundan juda xursand bo'lgan.

&ldquoSo this convinces him that he is divine and although he left Egypt not long after this and died in Babylon about a decade later, his body was mummified.&rdquo

Mr Naunton even went on to give a &ldquoprecise location&rdquo to where he thought the original burial was.


The Mystery of the Tomb of Alexander the Great

The recent discovery of a unique burial monument in Amphipolis of Macedonia in Greece, has made everyone thinking that maybe this is the long lost tomb of Alexander the Great. The disclosure of the remains of the great conqueror and demigod to many, Alexander, is nothing less than a dream-discovery to the archaeologists and historians around the world.

After conquering all the known world of his time, Alexander the Great died in Babylon on the 10th of June 323 BC. The legend says that the ambitious young king wept when he realised there were no more lands to conquer.

Although Alexander himself had expressed his desire to be buried at the temple of Zeus Ammon at Siwa Oasis, his body was transferred by Ptolemy in Alexandria. Later, his body will disappear so that no man could ever find it.

A place fit for a king

Alexandria lies between the Nile delta, the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mariout (Mareotis in ancient times). Near the eastern seaport there is an area known as Brucheum. Here, were palaces --including the royal palace of the Ptolemies -- gardens, temples and a zoo. It occupied a large part of the northern and central area of the city and was clearly the most beautiful part of Alexandria.

One could find here the Musaeum (University) with its famous Library, the Polytehneio and the Herophilus Medical School. And one could also find here the Sema or Soma (Body), the tomb of Alexander, who's remains had been brought to the city by Ptolemy I Soter and were placed into a magnificent gold coffin. Some time later, when there was a shortage of money, the gold coffin was replaced by an alabaster one by Ptolemy IX.

It was here that in 30 BC, Octavian Augustus actually saw with his eyes the body of Alexander, which was brought to him from the sanctuary of the temple. Octavian paid his respect to the great man by placing a golden diadem upon his head and flowers on his body. When asked if he would like to see the body of Ptolemy, he replied that his desire was to see a king, not corpses. (Suetonius, Book II, XVIII).

Because the country had taken the side of Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian downgraded Egypt and declared it a province of the Roman Empire. Later, in 200 AD, Egypt will regain its previous status and be self-governed again under the reign of the Emperor Septimius Severus.

Septimius Severus who ruled from 193 to 211 (not to be confused with Alexander Severus who ruled from 222 to 235), visited Alexandria after the victorious campaign against the Parthians in the East. He was accompanied by his wife, Julia Domna, the senator and historian Cassius Dio, who was a friend and mentor, and the secretary of Julia, sophist Flavius Philostratus.

Journey down the Nile

During his visit, Severus wished to travel down the Nile, as he had a special task to complete. Without the historical account by Dio Cassius who wrote in Greek, we wouldn't know anything about this strange journey, which would not be an exaggeration to say that sealed the fate of mankind. And it's strange how it has so far escaped the attention of archaeologists and historians. This is how Dio Cassius describes the events that took place in Egypt (Roman History, Book LXXVI, 13, 2, Loeb Classical Library):

After conducting the siege (of Hatra) for twenty days, he then went to Palestine, where he sacrificed to the spirit of Pompey. Thence he sailed to Upper Egypt, passing up the Nile, and viewed the whole country with some few exceptions for instance, he was unable to pass the frontier of Ethiopia because of a pestilence. He enquired into everything, including things that were very carefully hidden for he was the kind of person to leave nothing, either human or divine, uninvestigated. Accordingly, he took away from practically all the sanctuaries all the books that he could find containing any secret lore, and he locked up the tomb of Alexander this was in order that no one in future should either view Alexander's body or read what was written in the above-mentioned books.

What Dio tells us is that Severus and his company visited those places along the Nile where in the old days the priests of Egypt conducted the sacred Mysteries. Places like Heliopolis, Sais, Abydos, the underground crypts of Memphis and Thebes and Philae (an island of the Nile river) near the first waterfall.

Severus therefore gathered all written material of the sacred knowledge from the remote antiquity and safely sealed it inside the tomb of Alexander the Great, so that it would not fall into the hands of the profane or the uninitiated. One of these books was reportedly the "Book of Thoth", where one can find the secret of immortality.

From Dio's words, but also from Suetonius' account that the body of Alexander the Great was brought "from the depths of the temple" for Augustus to see, we conclude that the tomb of the Macedonian king was not in common view, as the Mausoleum of Lenin in the Red Square, for instance. Instead, it's location was kept secret and no one could visit it.

It is in this secret place that Severus felt confident that the ancient knowledge was safe. This is because neither the location of the tomb was known nor one could go there by chance. Maybe it was a labyrinth -- Egypt, after all, was famous for its underground tunnels that stretched for hundreds of kilometers below the surface.

The end of an era
At the time of Severus (200 AD) the decline of the ancient world is almost complete. It had began five hundred years ago, shortly after the death of Alexander the Great, and ended with what is known to historians as the "crisis of the 3rd century". This will lead to the fall of the Roman Empire and the birth of the Dark Ages.

So, unlike previous years, there were no longer hierophants able to explain to the candidates the Mysteries of cosmogony and nature. Genuine mystics were rare and, just like today, the Sacraments were nothing more than mere imitation of a ritual without meaning. The Mysteries had either been lost or could no longer be understood.

History has reserved Severus the strange fate of concealing the Mysteries and protecting the true knowledge from the gradual deterioration caused by human perceptions, superstitions and falsehoods.

The tomb of Alexander the Great seems to be the perfect hiding place, since it is hidden itself. And, after all, who else could be a better guardian of this valuable knowledge, other than the pupil of Aristotle who tried to unite all people under a universal idea?


THE TOMB OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE COPTS I: INTRODUCTION

The tomb of Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC) has always been a matter of great interest to historians and archaeologists. Theories abound on the whereabouts of Alexander’s tomb. Alexander occupied spread his empire deep and wide, and in 332 BC he annexed Egypt. When in Mesopotamia he died in its capital Babylon in 323 BC at the young age of 32. There, Egyptian priests who were accompanying the Macedonian army, embalmed his body for posterity, and kept it in a coffin of “hammered gold” and as his generals fought in between themselves over his inheritance, they also fought over his body. Possessing Alexander’s corpse was a unique symbol of status and conferred much legitimacy upon its possessor.[1] Alexander had wanted his body to be buried at Siwa Oasis in Egypt, where at the temple of Amun an oracle allegedly had declared him a divine personage and the legitimate Pharaoh of Egypt, but some of his generals wanted it buried at Aegae (modern Vergina in Greece), the first capital of Macedonia. Eventually, in 321 BC, two years after Alexander’s death, it was decided that the body should be buried in the latter, and as the body was being transferred to Greece in its richly decorated canopy, Ptolemy (later, Ptolomy I Soter, d. 282 BC), who had secured Egypt for himself after Alexander’s death, hijacked it in Syria, and took it to Egypt, but rather than taking it to Siwa, he took it to Memphis where he displayed it there before it was finally moved probably by Ptolemy II Philadelphus (282 – 246 BC), the second of the dynasty, in v. 280 BC, during the Ptolemaic dynasty to Alexandria, the Ptolemaic glorious capital. Later Ptolemy IV Philopator (221 – 204 BC), the fourth in the dynasty, placed Alexander’s body in the Sema (Greek words meaning ‘tomb’ also sometimes called ‘Soma’, meaning ‘body’)[2], a temple and mausoleum where other Ptolemies were entombed, to be displayed there to visitors for hundreds of years to come. Notable visitors who have been reported to have visited the Sema and paid respect to Alexander the Great include: Julius Caesar (49 – 44 BC), Augustus Caesar (27 BC – 14 AD), Septimus Severus (193 – 211 AD) and Caracalla (211 – 217 AD). Thereafter, the tomb of Alexander the Great with his mummified body seem to have gone missing and its location became shrouded in myth. As Robin Lane Fox says in his Buyuk Aleksandr:

It will never be seen again. Despite fitful rumours, modern Alexandria has not revealed the site of its founder’s remains probably his corpse was last visited by Caracalla and was destroyed in the city riots of the late third century A.D.[3] [4]

The late third century in the Roman Empire, a period that extended from 235 to 284, was marked by widespread chaos, political instability and insecurity, riots, barbarian invasions (in Egypt, the Blemmyes), civil wars, increased taxation, frequent fighting between claimants to the throne, and severe natural disasters such as the plague and famine. The trouble is called The Crisis of the Third Century, and Alexandria was particularly affected, its governance suffered greatly and its population considerably declined, while the chaos and riots that ensued led to destruction of much of its edifice and monuments.[5] In 270 AD, the army of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra invaded Egypt, and Alexandria and Egypt was annexed to the Palmyrene Empire which had Syria, Judea and Arabia Petrae already in its grasp. Queen Zenobia thus became Queen of Egypt too. The fighting in Alexandria destroyed most of the Greek or Royal quarter, Brucheion, which contained the Sema. In her war against the Romans over Egypt, Zenobia was aided by the Blemmys. The Roman Empire did not regain Egypt again until 272, when Aurelian defeated Queen Zenobia. But Egypt’s woes did not end by the ascension to power of Diocletian in 284: in the period 297 – 299, in response to Diocletian’s new tax reforms, many cities in Egypt, including Alexandria, were destroyed and reduced to rubble.[6] What remained of the Brucheion was destroyed by Diocletian, who erected as a token of his victory the famous pillar wrongly known as Pompey’s Pillar in front of the Serapeum. The Greek or royal quarter of Alexandria, Brucheum, in particular was completely destroyed by Diocletian. It is during that period, called “The Crisis of the Third Century”, which in the case of Egypt must be extended to the end of the century, that the Soma was most probably destroyed or disappeared. Did the mummified body of Alexander the Great, and the treasures that were most probably buried with him, suffer the same fate? What can Coptic literature help us in answering the quest for Alexander the Great’s tomb? Ko'ramiz. But before that it will be good to explore the plan of Alexandria and its main streets and monuments, which is important in our further study. This, I will do in the next article.

[1] Robin Lane Fox, Buyuk Aleksandr (Penguin Books, 2004), p. 477.

[2] See: Egypt from Alexander to the Copts, Ed. by Roger S. Bagnall and Dominic W. Rathbone (London, The British Museum Press, 2004), p. 57.

[4] For more on Alexander’s tomb, see: Saunders, Nicholas, Alexander’s Tomb: The Two-Thousand Year Obsession to Find the Lost Conqueror (New York, 2007).

[5] Stephen Williams, Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (London, 1985), pp. 15 – 23.


The tomb was destroyed by Christian Fanatics

There is a rather pessimistic theory that claims that Alexander’s tomb was destroyed by Christian fanatics, because it was a pagan monument. It is widely known that religious fanatics were vandalizing Greek monuments because they considered them paganistic. It is also believed that these people had burned many ancient texts of famous philosophers for the same reason.

These were the main theories about Alexander’s tomb. I hope you liked this article. Bye bye guys!

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