Yangi

Yuguruvchilar

Yuguruvchilar

Britaniya armiyasi ba'zi odamlarni yuguruvchi sifatida ishlashga o'rgatdi. Bu erkaklar chap bilak atrofidagi qizil bantlar bilan aniqlangan. Yuguruvchilar xabar yuborish bilan bir qatorda, o'z batalyonlari front chizig'iga ko'tarilishidan oldin, hududni tekshirishga mas'ul edilar. Yuguruvchilar murakkab xandaq xaritalarini to'g'ri o'qish qobiliyatiga muhtoj edilar.


Yuguruvchilar - tarix

Jons Xopkinsning ushbu maqolasida yugurish tarixi qisqacha ko'rib chiqiladi va vaqt o'tishi bilan u dam olish sportiga aylandi.

Qandaydir tarzda, men yugurishni boshlash yaxshi degan fikrni boshimga oldim. Bilasizmi, sog'lom bo'ling, baquvvat bo'ling, jurnallar doim menga aytadigan ishlarni bajaring. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, bu dahshatli fikr edi. Endi belim og'riyapti, men o'zimni har qachongidan ham qarigan kabi his qilyapman.

Hatto yugurish harakati ham achinarli. Yiliga bir marta kiyiladigan sport kiyimlarini kiyib, asta -sekin o'tib ketayotganingizda, odamlar sizga qaraydilar. Kontseptsiya o'z -o'zidan g'alati. Nega o'yin uchun yugurish kerak? Bu g'oya yugurishning tarixiy ma'nosiga ega bo'lgan juda ko'p salbiy ma'nolarga mutlaqo ziddir: asosan biz buni yomon narsadan qochish uchun qilamiz.

Ma'lum bo'lishicha, yugurish anchadan beri g'ayrioddiy bo'lib kelgan. Sportga yugurish bo'yicha birinchi rekord Irlandiyadan keladi.

Miloddan avvalgi 1829 yilda Irlandiya ma'budasi va malika Tailtning o'limini xotirlash uchun jismoniy va ruhiy tayyorgarlikka qarshi kurashadigan bir qancha tadbirlarni o'z ichiga olgan festival o'tkazildi. Ular orasida otish, aktyorlik va albatta yugurish bor edi. O'yinlar miloddan avvalgi 1117 yildagi Norman bosqiniga qadar davom etdi, lekin keyinchalik ular 1924 yilda xuddi shu voqealar aks etgan.

Bir necha ming yil o'tgach, sakrash va o'tish, Fidippidlarning tarixiy yugurishi 1896 yilda birinchi zamonaviy Olimpiada paytida taqdim etilgan marafon tadbiriga ilhom berdi.

Afsonaning to'g'riligi to'g'risida juda ko'p bahs -munozaralar mavjud bo'lsa -da, hikoya shuni ko'rsatadiki, Fidippid Afinadan Spartaga, taxminan 240 km (150 milya) masofada yugurib, Forsning Marafon bosqiniga qarshi yordam so'ragan. U bu masofani atigi ikki kunda bosib o'tdi va yo'lda afsonaviy xudo Panga duch keldi. Xudo afina xalqi unga e'tibor bermaganidan xafa bo'ldi, bu xabarni Fidippid yordam so'rovi bilan birga etkazdi. Keyinchalik afinaliklar Panga ziyoratgoh quradilar va xudo ularga forslarga qarshi kurashda yordam beradi.

Marafon jangida g'alaba qozonganidan so'ng, Pheidippidesga bu safar Afinaga xabar yetkazish vazifasi yuklandi. U 40 km (25 mil) yugurdi, bir kunda afinaliklarga "G'alaba" (lekin yunon tilida) aytdi va keyin darhol o'ldi.

Uning sharafiga, Olimpiada rejalashtiruvchilari odamlarni 100 yildan ortiq shu mashaqqatli yugurish bilan shug'ullanishga majbur qilishdi.

Ammo qachon yugurish shunchalik mashhur bo'lib ketdi? Yugurish bu xavfsizlik yoki sport uchun emas, balki sog'lom turmushning noaniq tushunchasi. Moda siz o'ylagandek eski emas, yopiq yugurish yo'lakchasida yugurish biroz uzoqroq bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, ochiq yugurish faqat 1960 -yillarda mashhur bo'lgan.

Aslida, bu vaqtga qadar, yugurish yo'lakchalari odatda qamoqxonada o'tirganlarni jazolash va og'ir mehnat sifatida ishlatilgan. Mashhur, Oskar Uayld soddalik uchun ikki yillik qamoq jazosida yugurishga majbur bo'lgan. Men aytmoqchimanki, besh millik masofamdan besh daqiqa o'tib "Bu qiynoq" deb baqirganimda, umuman xato qilmaganman.

Xo'sh, qanday qilib siz bugun o'tib keta olmasligingiz kerak?

Muvaffaqiyatning bir qismi, yugurishni sog'liqni saqlash chorasi sifatida targ'ib qilgan kitob, boshqa qismi esa kapitalizm tufayli. Siz poyabzal kompaniyasi (yoki Pheidippidesning oxirgi so'zlari) deb bilishingiz mumkin bo'lgan Nike sportning mashhurligini oshirishda ishtirok etdi. Yugurishni rag'batlantirish orqali ular poyabzal va kiyim sotishni ko'paytirdilar.

Mana, ketasiz, aftidan, men buzoqlarim, o'pkam va orqam kuygani uchun Nike aybdorman.

Umid qilamanki, bu tarixning barchasi sizni va menni sevimli mashg'ulotlarini tanlashga ilhomlantiradi. Katta ehtimol bilan, men ertaga o'zimni Oreos qutisining yarmida topaman va o'zimga boshqa kunga yugurish uchun boraman deb aytaman.

EnMotive-ning hamma narsani o'z ichiga olgan yuguruvchi manbasi. Yuguruvchilar real vaqt rejimida poyga natijalari va fotosuratlaridan foydalanishlari mumkin. HUB mashg'ulotlar, ovqatlanish, jihozlar, mahalliy hikoyalar va boshqa maqolalar, shuningdek bo'lajak voqealar haqida ma'lumot beradi.


Moonshine yuguruvchilari, tarix va ularning mashinalari

Poygardagi stendlaridagi eski zotli nasllar singari, Villi Kley-Callning qarish oylarida ishlaydigan mashinalari uyining yonida, Shimoliy Karolina shtatining Uilkes okrugidagi Appalachian etaklaridagi uyning yonida tayyor holda o'tirishadi. Ularning orqa süspansiyonları juda qattiq va 100 gallondan ortiq oq chaqmoqning og'irligini yashirishga qodir, bu mashinalar tog 'etagidan Uinston-Salem, Leksington yoki sharqning boshqa nuqtalariga olib chiqiladi.

Ular hech qachon mavjud bo'lmagan daryo bo'yidagi gazaklardan hech qachon kelmaydigan yuklarni kutishadi. Mijozlar ham yo'qoldi. Moonshine madaniyati o'lik-huquqni muhofaza qilish organlarining qat'iyatliligi bilan emas, balki avval qurib qolgan janubi-sharqiy shtatlarda qonuniy ichimliklar va ABC do'konlarining tarqalishi bilan o'ldirilgan. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari tashkil etilishidan oldingi urf -odatlar hanuzgacha Appalachilar janubidagi jarlik va bo'shliqlardan butunlay yo'q bo'lib ketdi.

Yo'qolib ketish arafasida, mustamlakachilik davridan buyon gullab-yashnaganidan so'ng, ularning tijoriy ishi boshqa mashhur Amerika odati-"issiq tayoq" ga qo'shilish natijasida tug'ilgan shon-sharaf va haqiqiy hayotiy dramaga aylandi. Katta yuklar, tezkor mashinalar va qattiq qonunlarning barchasi 50-60-yillarda yuqori tezlikda quvish, yo'l to'siqlari, yovvoyi manzaralar, avariyalar-va kamdan-kam hollarda-o'q otish musobaqasida birlashdi.

- Dadam oyda uchuvchi edi, mening bobomda ham bor edi. --Villi Kley qo'ng'iroq qiladi

Eski sayohatchilarning ko'pchiligi hozir ko'p yillar davomida o'sha erda. Qo'ng'iroq 65. Hisifning eski do'sti Junior Jonson 74 yoshda. Ular hali ham ifpushni tortib olishlari mumkin edi, lekin aroqdan aroq tayyorlash - bu odam qila oladigan eng og'ir ish. Bozor hali ham mavjud bo'lgan taqdirda ham, ular uzoq vaqtdan beri bezovtalanish zarurligini yo'qotdilar. Ammo ular, er osti biznesida, o'zlari uchun juda yaxshi ish qilishdi, garchi musodara qilingan mashinalar, osmonda uchib ketgan joylar va umrining bir qismi umr ko'rish muddatini yo'qotsa ham.

Har qanday yaxshi ishbilarmonlar singari, moonshiners ham har xil. Spirtli ichimliklar vafot etgach, uning o'rnini to'ldirish uchun boshqa bir farovon hayot - tovuqchilik ham keldi. Ko'pchilik sobiq sayohatchilar hozirda Shimoliy Uilkesborodagi Taysonni qayta ishlash zavodining xo'jayinlari hisoblanadi. Hech kim oq chaqmoqni xohlamaydi yoki kerak emas.

Amerikaning oy nurli poytaxti Uilkes okrugidagi Call uyining orqasida joylashgan katta garajda V-8 samolyotli oltita "Ford", 426 Xemiyali "66 Dodge Coronet 440" va "61Chrysler New Yorker" mavjud.

Bu nusxalar emas. "Men bu mashinalarning barchasini yuk tashish uchun ishlatardim",-deydi Callsays. Call -da boshqa garajda 14 ta "40 Ford" va boshqa turli xil transport vositalari mavjud. Bu mashinalar uning tarqatish savdosining quroli edi va o'sha savdo kunlari tugagach, u mashinalarni saqlab qoldi.

'66 Dodge - ular tanishtirilganda buyurgan uchtadan biri. 60-yillarda Detroytdan chiqayotgan mashinalar, xuddi samolyotchilar uchun maxsus tayyorlanganidek, tobora kuchliroq bo'la boshladi. "Ular bu dvigatel bilan 40 dona ishlab chiqarishmagan", deydi Call. "Men uchtasini sotib oldim, hozir menda bir yarim bor."

U bittasini sotdi. Ikkinchisini sotib olganidan ko'p o'tmay, u quvg'inda yutqazdi. Uning haydovchilaridan biri "uni Konkorddagi hovuzga haydab yuborganida, haydovchilar uni olib ketishgan", deydi u. "Oxir -oqibat, men avtoulovni oldim. Bir necha yil o'tdi, lekin men tushundim. Ular mashinadan dvigatelni tortib olib, omborda saqlashdi. Menda o'sha erda ishlagan yigit bor edi va u men uchun oldi". U buni qanday oldi? "Bilmayman", deydi Call. "Reckonhe uni sotib oldi yoki o'g'irladi, bitta."

Nyu-Yorklik katta-qanotli, kichkina ko'k bola-bu HOT RODning ashyosi emas. Bu shifokor yoki advokat boshqaradigan mashina edi va bu uning eng samarali, eng yaxshi boshqariladigan moonshine avtomobili edi. Bu u birinchi va tez -tez gapiradigan mashina. "Chrysler davom etadi", deydi Call. "Men bu erda ko'p marta yugurganman. Lekin bu erda hech qanday musobaqa bo'lmaydi. U yuklangan yoki tushirilgan, tepaga yoki pastga 180 milya soat yugurgan bo'lardi-bu muhim emas edi. magistralga tushgan har qanday mashina. "

Nyu -Yorker Call'sfoot yoki boshqa haydovchining boshqaruvi ostida 300 ming kilometrdan ko'proq masofani bosib o'tdi va o'z tanasidan bir nechta o'q teshiklarini oldi. "Men buni taxminan etti -sakkiz yil oldin chizgan edim", deydi Call Men aytdim, yo'q, aniq emas. Men ularning qaerdan kelganini bildim, bu 80 -yillarda edi.

"Junior bir tormozli g'ildirakli issiq yo'lakka ega bo'lgan yigit sifatida obro'ga ega edi. U yo'lda ketishi mumkin edi va tormozni bosib, katta yo'lning bir bo'lagida burilib, boshqa tomonga katta tezlikda qaytishi mumkin edi." --ATU agenti Jo Karter

Boshqaruv paneli ishlab chiqarishdir, faqat bitta kichik modifikatsiyadan tashqari. Junior rulda ustunining chap tomonidagi bir nechta o'tish tugmachalarini bog'lab qo'ydi, ular o'girilganda tormoz chiroqlarini yoki orqa faralarni yoki orbitalni kesib tashladilar. Bir nechta ta'qib qilingan huquqshunos, Qo'ng'iroqning dumida egri chiziqdan o'tib, yo'l chetidagi chuqurga tushib qoldi.

"Siz yukni yuklamaguningizcha, bu mashinani yo'lda hech qachon ko'rmagansiz", deydi Callsays. "Men uni na uyning atrofida, na hech qanday joyda saqlamaganman. Yashirib qo'yganman".

Qo'ng'iroq mashinalari siz ko'rmagan eng zo'r tayoqlar bo'lmasligi mumkin, lekin ularning Amerika avtomobil madaniyatidagi vakolatlari xavfsizdir. Samolyotchilarning hayoti nafaqat avtomobilsoz va haydovchining mahorati va tasavvuriga bog'liq edi, balki ularning erkinligi ham bunga bog'liq edi.

"Poyga poygasida siz kimnidir mag'lub qila olmaysiz",-dedi Jonson. "Katta yo'lda, siz o'z hayotingiz uchun qochasiz."

Junior Jonsonning qishloq uyida na kubok, na NASCAR poygasidagi 50 ta g'alabadagi g'alabasi uning uchun "Ular menga hech qachon a-haulin qo'lga olishmagan" degan g'ururidan ko'ra muhimroqdir.

Jonson sizga to'g'ridan-to'g'ri, o'lik darajadagi ko'rinish bilan aytadiki, Stock Carracing faqat yuridik tahdid tufayli emas, balki yugurayotgan moonshine bilan taqqoslaganda komedown edi. "Menda tez yugurish mashinalari bor edi, lekin men har doim katta yo'lda bo'lgani kabi tez yuguraman", deydi Jonson. "Biz yo'lda yugurgan mashinalar, siz ularni tepaga o'zgartirishingiz mumkin edi. Bundan tashqari, ular zaryadlangan va turbo zaryadlangan edi. Biz xohlagan narsani qila olardik. Poyga mashinalarida biz xohlagan narsani qila oladigan payt bo'lmagan. hatto modifikatsiyalanganlar. NASCAR turbochargerlar yoki super zaryadlovchilar yoki shunga o'xshash narsalarni emrun qilishga ruxsat bermaydi. Superchargeror turbocharger bu dvigatelda shunchalik ko'p kuch to'playdi, bu aql bovar qilmas. Va bizda kubik dyuym cheklovlari yo'q edi. Biz ko'p vaqt davomida 500 kub dyuym yugurardik ".

Clay Call hech qachon birinchi Stock Car poygasida qatnashmagan, lekin 60 -yillarning birida, u o'zining super zaryadlangan '55 Ford'ini Shimoliy Vilkesboro Speedway yo'lida olib chiqdi, u erda NASCARning Oltin bolasi Fred Lorenzen mashq qilardi. Qo'ng'iroqda aytilishicha, u turdan keyin Lorenzenni ortda qoldirgan.

"Biz ularni tezroq qilish uchun qo'limizdan kelganini qilmadik", deydi Jonson. "Sizda super zaryadlovchi bilan hech qanday yuqori chegara yo'q edi. Bu narsa faqat ko'tarilishni davom ettirar edi. Yo'l shunchalik tor bo'lganida, uni olib ketish kuchiga ega edi, siz bu narsaning qanchalik tezligini tasavvur qila olmaysiz. '. "

G'aznachilar va boshqa huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari xodimlari boshqarayotgan mashinalar samolyotchilarning mashinalariga to'g'ri kelmasdi. "Men hukumat bizga bergan mashinalarni" mexanik tushishlar "deb atadim", deydi Alkogolli ichimliklar bo'yicha soliq idorasining sobiq agenti Jo Karter, 1956 yilda otasining suratida Jonsonni oyoqdan ushlagan yigit. "Ammo keyin bizda boshqa komponent yo'q edi. Haydovchilar. Bu bolalar siz ishonmagan mashinani haydashlari mumkin edi, ular 14 yoshga to'lganlarida men bilgan har qanday ofitserni haydab keta olishmasdi. qilyapti ».

Mashinada poygachi va jamoa xo'jayini sifatida shuhrat qozonganiga qaramay, Jonson o'zini hech qachon boshqa samolyot haydovchilaridan yaxshiroq deb hisoblamagan. "Viski tashiganlarning ko'pchiligi yaxshi haydovchilar edi", deydi Jonson. "Ko'p yigitlar men yo'lda bo'lgani kabi yaxshi edi. Ammo poyga paytida va mashina faqat chapga o'rnatilgan bo'lsa, siz burchakka tezligingizni ikki baravar oshirishingiz mumkin." Bu Jonson tomonidan amalga oshirilgan maxsus mahoratni talab qildi.

Turshun Braun bir necha yil oldin Shimoliy Karolinada katta qo'shiq bilan ketayotganida Junior bilan minish qanchalik qiyin bo'lganini tushuntirdi. "Junior va men Winston-Salem orqali qaytib keldik, ertalab soat 3 larda, aload va do'zaxni tushirgandan so'ng, u faqat yonboshlab ketayotgan edi. Kichik eski pochta qutilari va gazeta qutilari, yaxshi, Junior shunchaki klip edi" Men aytdim: "Junior, sen qonunga ega bo'lasan. Menimcha, bu uni aqldan ozdirdi". Biz bu erda yukladikmi?

"Men bilardimki, biz ularni yuklagan yoki bo'sh qoldirganimizdan oldin yugurishimiz mumkin edi, lekin men bundan qo'rqardim. Junior mashinaga qamchi urdi. Mashina undan qo'rqib ketdi. U uni boshqardi. Ammo u erga boshqa tarafga joylashish qiyin edi" Yo'lning o'ng tomonida u boshqa mashinadan o'tib ketar edi, havo to'la o't va o't bilan to'lgan bo'lardi, orqa chorak paneli esa o'rmonda, la'nat va shunga o'xshash tepaliklarda bo'lardi. , "Oh, keling. U erga etib kelganimizda u erda bo'ladi."

Eski 40-Ford, tekis boshli V-8 dvigatellari bilan, 50-yillarga qadar yorqin sahnada hukmronlik qilgan. Tez-tez ishlatib turadigan modifikatsiya V-8 tekis boshli mashinasini tezyurar mashinalarida topilgan eng katta Cadillac dvigateliga almashtirish edi. Jonson va Kall Cadillacambulances auktsionlarini ta'qib qilar, dvigatelni yengib, zerikib, silab, dyuymli dyuymga ega bo'lardi va supercharyadlovchiga urardilar. Ular WilkesCountyda aytganidek, eski Ford davom etadi.

40-50 -chi yosh yigitlar sifatida, moonshiners ham Janubiy Kaliforniyadagi qaynab turgan tayoq sahnasini ko'rishdi.

"Biz boshlashimiz kerak edi", deydi Jonson. "Biz Offenhauser va Edelbrock silindr boshlari kabi narsalarni, kranklar, pistonlar, tayoqlar va boshqa narsalarni sotib olar edik. Ammo ko'p o'tmay biz hamma narsani o'zimiz qilardik. So'ngra, biz" 60 -yillarda "kuchga kirganimizda, Kaliforniya bunday qilmadi. bizda bo'lgani kabi yaxshi narsalar yo'q. "

Yo'lda hech qachon ushlanmagan bo'lsa -da, Jonson, Qo'ng'iroq va boshqa ko'plab oy ishchilari qonunning qattiqligini sezishgan. 20-asrning o'rtalarida, Uilkes okrugida oy nurlari shu qadar ochiq ediki, federal hukumat Shimoliy Uilkesboroda barcha jinoyat ishlarini ko'rib chiqish uchun kichik sud binosi qurdi. Bu zavodga aylanib, spirtli ichimliklar uchun zarur bo'lgan federal to'lovlarni to'lamaganliklari uchun qaroqchilarni oddiy mahbuslarga aylantirdi.

Moonshinerlar, odatda, o'zlariga qo'yilgan ayblovlar bo'yicha o'zlarini aybdor deb topdilar, ular o'zlarini halol deb aytishdi, ularga qamoqxona avtobusi haqida xabar berilgandan keyin aytilgan va keyin uylariga jo'natilgan. Har doimgidek, avtobus bir necha kundan keyin kelganida, samolyotchilar ularni qamoqqa olishni kutishardi.

Jonsonning o'zi 1956-1957 yillarda 11 oyu 3 kunini federal jazoni ijro etish muassasasida o'tkazgan, otasi hibsga olingandan so'ng, Stock Car poygachisi sifatida. U o'z aybini tan oldi. Ammo 1959 yilda, Junior boshqa ishda aybdor deb topilmadi, chunki NASCAR rasmiylari uni musobaqada qatnashayotganini isbotlashga yordam berishdi. 1960 yilda, oqlanishidan to'qqiz oy o'tgach, Jonson faoliyatidagi eng yirik poygada g'olib chiqdi-Daytona 500. O'sha yili poygada yaxshi qatnashgan va ovdan charchagan Jonson oy ishini tashlab ketdi.

Qo'ng'iroq, shu bilan birga, bir necha avtomobillarini federatsiyalarga, shuningdek, umrining etti oyini yo'qotdi. U 1960 yilda Ogayo shtati Chillicothe federal jazoni jo'natgan Jonsondan farqli o'laroq, fitna ayblovi bilan hukm qilingan, Call o'z vaqtini Donaldson Harbiy -havo kuchlari Greensvil, Janubiy Karolina shtatida tashkil etilgan qamoqda o'tkazgan.

"Men u erga ketishni yomon ko'rardim", deydi u. "Agar menda ish haqi bo'lsa, men qolaman. Menga bu juda yoqdi. Jahannam, bu Harbiy -havo bazasi edi. Ular shu erda yaxshi ovqatlanar edilar. Menda mashinam bor edi va bazada xohlagan joyimga bordim. Va men tanladim. Men ikki yoki uchta yaxshi mijozni topdim ".

Qo'ng'iroq birinchi marta HOT ROD tashrifi chog'ida 80 -yillarga kelib noqonuniy ichimlik ishlab chiqarishni va tashishni to'xtatganini tan oldi. Bugungi kunda u madaniyatning bir kishilik arxivi, shu jumladan, unga tegishli samolyot mashinalari parki, 40 dan ortiq uy qurilishi mis pishirgichlari va WilkesCounty o'rmonlarida saqlanayotgan erlarida yashiringan "masxara".

Jonson ham, Call ham bu yil Shimoliy Uilkesborodagi OldCourthouse binosida ochilishi rejalashtirilgan yangi muzeyga mashinalar va boshqa oy nurlari va poyga esdalik sovg'alarini sovg'a qilishdi. "Ular juda yaxshi til topishmoqdalar", deydi Jonson. "Uilkes okrugining andrasin va botleglik, jang va boshqa hamma narsalari tarixi bo'ladi."


Madaniyat va tarix

Tarahumara ismining Raramuri ismining ko'plab tarjimalarida "piyoda yuguruvchi", "yengil oyoqlar" yoki "yaxshi yuradiganlar" bor. Yurish va uzoq masofalarga yugurish Tarahumara uchun hayotning ajralmas qismidir. Ularning vatani ko'plab tog 'etaklari, cho'llar, daralar va daryolar bilan to'lib toshgan - bularning hammasi balandlikda, uy hayvonlarini ishlatishni qiyinlashtiradi. Tarahumaralarga piyoda (ko'pincha yalangoyoq) sayohat qilish, ba'zan esa keyingi qo'shni fermaga borish uchun besh mil masofani bosib o'tish samaraliroq. Ba'zi Tarahumara ovchilari kamon, o'q yoki o'q ishlatishdan ko'ra, qurbonlikdan charchashadi.

Zo'r yuguruvchilar Tarahumara jamoalarida yuqori mavqega ega va bu iste'dod gender chegaralarini kesib o'tadi. Yugurish kontseptsiyasi o'g'il va qiz bolalarga yoshligidan singdirilgan va har bir inson hayoti davomida poyga poygasi, yoki palillo, lakrosga o'xshash o'yin, lekin regbi shiddati bilan, u bir necha kun va bir necha yuz kilometrga cho'zilishi mumkin. Tarahumarani begonalar yaxshi bilishadi (chabochilar) Olimpiya va Ultra-marafonlarda kuzatilganidek uzoq masofalarga yugurishning ajoyib qobiliyati uchun.

Tarahumara poygalari jamoat ishidir. Ba'zilar poygalarda qatnashadilar, boshqalari ovqat tayyorlaydilar, ba'zilari esa oldindan pul tikish bilan shug'ullanadilar. Kikbol poygalari chaqirildi dalahípu yoki dalahipami Tarahumara pueblosidagi asosiy voqealar bo'lib, tayyorgarlik haqiqiy musobaqadan uch kun oldin boshlanadi. Haqiqiy poyga 12 kishigacha bo'lgan ikkita jamoadan iborat bo'lib, ularning har biri uch dyuymli yog'och to'pni oyoqlari bilan oldinga va orqaga o'tkazib, o'z sheriklari bilan bir xil masofani bosib o'tishlari kerak. Odatda kurs eng tekis er uchun tanlanadi, lekin ko'pincha bu mumkin emas. Yuguruvchilar daryolardan o'tishlari, tepaliklarga ko'tarilishlari va to'siqlardan o'tishlari kerak, shu bilan birga to'pni jamoadoshlariga oldinga siljitishadi. Har bir musobaqaning davomiyligi qisqa poygalar bir necha soat davom etadigan millar soniga qarab belgilanadi, uzoqroq poygalar esa bir kundan ko'proq davom etishi mumkin.

Ayollarda ham ushbu musobaqaning nomlangan versiyasi bor dowérami. To'p o'rniga, tayoqlar va halqalar oldinga siljish uchun ishlatiladi, lekin bir xil asosiy qoidalar qo'llaniladi.

Bahs chaqirildi tali, poyga tadbirlarining eng muhim qismlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Har bir jamoada kamida uchta tcokéame kim pul tikadi va boshqa jamoa bilan shug'ullanadi tcokéame (Bennet va Zing 1935). Barcha garovlar musobaqa boshlanishidan oldin yaxshilab solishtiriladi, olinadi va saqlanadi. O'yin -kulgi, Tarahumara uchun muhim ijtimoiy va madaniy harakatdir.

Kooperativ mehnat

Asrlar mobaynida pul Tarahumara iqtisodiyotining harakatlantiruvchi kuchi emas edi, odamlar ko'p tovar va xizmatlarni sotib olish uchun barter tizimining bir turini ishlatgan va ishlatishda ham. Qachonki, odamlar o'z erlarida yordamga muhtoj bo'lsalar, ishchilar "a" xizmatida zarur bo'lgan har qanday vazifani bajarish uchun "yollanadi" tesgüinada. Ishchilar odatda qo'shnilar yoki qarindoshlardir (ba'zida ikkalasi ham). Yordam evaziga, ishdan foyda ko'rgan shaxs oziq -ovqat va tesgüino, Misrga asoslangan spirt Tarahumara orasida qadrlanadi. Ko'p hollarda, agar odam badavlat va ishi katta bo'lsa, so'rovchi qarzni to'lash uchun tesgüinada tashlashi mumkin.

Bu turdagi kooperativ mehnat, agar buyumlar kerak bo'lmaganda ishlatilsa, Tarahumara jamiyatdagi boshqa birovga tovarlar yoki xizmatlar qarz berish haqida o'ylamaydi. Tarahumara madaniyatida kooperativ mehnat tushunchasi shu qadar muhimki, yordamdan bosh tortish jamiyatdan chetlatilishiga olib kelishi mumkin. "Qashshoqlar" va "badavlatlar" o'rtasida mol -mulk yoki erga qarab farqlar bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, shamandan tashqari, har bir odam xuddi shunday ijtimoiy mavqega ega deb qaraladi.

Jinsiy rollar

Tarahumara jamiyatida erkaklar va ayollar yarim ko'chmanchi qishloq xo'jaligi turmush tarzini saqlab qolish uchun bir-biriga bog'liqdir. Voyaga etgan rollar jinsi bo'yicha aniq taqsimlanadi va har bir kishiga Mis kanyonida omon qolish uchun zarur bo'lgan ko'nikmalarning yarmi qoladi. Nikohning boshqa sabablari bo'lsa -da, Tarahumara "bir jinsning ikkinchisining o'zaro iqtisodiy ehtiyojlarini inobatga olgan holda, nikohni tan oladi va muhokama qiladi" (Bennett va Zingg 1935: 78). Nikoh marosimi juftlikni "mehnatsevar" bo'lishini aniq ifodalaydi (Bennet va Zingg 1935: 225) va er -xotinning vazifalarini belgilab beradi. Ayol erga egalik qilishi mumkin, lekin erning vazifasi erni qo'y podasi bo'lishi mumkin, lekin eriga g'amxo'rlik qilish uning xotinining burchidir. Biri boshqasidan ko'ra foydali deb hisoblanmaydi, lekin erkak ham, ayol ham "ikki iqtisodiy tenglik shartnomasining" bir qismi (Bennett va Zingg 1935: 232). Garchi mafkura jinsiy vazifalarni belgilashda qat'iy bo'lsa -da, amaliylik ko'pincha ularni bekor qilishi mumkin. Ba'zi vazifalarni, birinchi navbatda, erkak vazifasi deb hisoblasa -da, agar kerak bo'lsa, uning xotini yoki bolalari bajarishi mumkin. Masalan, qoramol Taraxumara orasida qadrlanadi va ularni qishloqdagi erkaklar ehtiyotkorlik bilan parvarish qilishadi, lekin agar ular oldindan kelishgan bo'lsa, ayollar va bolalar podani kuzatib turishadi.


Bennett va Zingning "Skripka ishlab chiqarishda oxirgi teginishlar" (1935)
Chikago universiteti matbuoti ruxsati bilan.

Tarahumara jamiyatidagi erkakning vazifalari uning uydan tashqarida ishlashini talab qiladi. Tarahumara erkakining asosiy vazifasi - yog'ochchi va yog'och ustasi. XVI asrda ispaniyaliklar bu erga bostirib kirganlarida, temir bolta olib kelingan va zich qarag'ay va kul o'rmonlari Tarahumara uchun ulkan manbaga aylangan. Erkaklar juda mahoratli va turar -joy va omborlardan tortib musiqa asboblariga qadar hamma narsani qo'l asboblari va po'lat bolta bilan yaratadilar.

Tarahumara odamining yana bir vazifasi, yuqorida aytib o'tilganidek, oilaviy dalalarni parvarish qilish va parvarish qilishdir. Bu erlarni shudgorlash, ekish, yig'ish va kelgusi ekish mavsumiga tayyorlashni o'z ichiga oladi, dalalarni bezovta qiluvchi hayvonlardan himoya qilish haqida gapirmasa ham bo'ladi. U har doim ham bu ishni yolg'iz o'zi qilmaydi, lekin odatdagidek, agar kerak bo'lsa, uning erkak qo'shnilari yordam berishadi (qarang: Kooperativ mehnat). O'rim -yig'im paytida erkaklar o'z ekinlarini yig'ib, atrofdagi aholi punktlariga (shu jumladan meksikaliklarga) savdo qilish yoki buyum sotish uchun borishadi. Tranzaksiya paytida ayollar bo'lmasa -da, erkaklar ular bilan oldindan maslahatlashadilar. Erkaklarning yagona kasbi - bu "gubernador" (pueblo etakchisi va matbuot kotibi) dan tashkil topgan "amaldorlar" ofisidir. kapitan, shahar hokimi, va doplik.

Ayollar


Bennet va Zingning "Dizaynni adyolga kiritish - to'quv" (1930)
Chikago universiteti matbuoti ruxsati bilan.

1930 -yillarda Bennett va Zingg "jun tayyorlash va adyol yigirish taraxumara ayolining eng muhim va mashaqqatli vazifasi" ekanligini tan oldilar (1935: 90). Bunga oilaning qo'y -echkilarini parvarish qilish, junni yirtish va mahsulot tugaguniga qadar bo'lgan hamma narsa kiradi. To'quvchilik muhim vazifa bo'lib qolmoqda, biroq G'arbning ommaviy ishlab chiqaradigan kiyimlarini moslashuvi kelajakda buni o'zgartirishi mumkin.

Syerra Madrada uy xo'jaliklarining muammosiz ishlashi Tarahumara ayollari uchun doimiy ishdir. Garchi do'konlar Tarahumara hududlari yaqinida tobora ommalashib borayotgan bo'lsa -da, kundalik buyumlarning aksariyati sotib olinmaydi, ular ko'pincha mahalliy materiallardan, tom ma'noda "uy qurilishi" dan tayyorlanadi. Materiallarni yig'ish, saqlash va qurish bolalikdan beri takomillashtirilgan mahorat bilan bajarilishi kerak. Savat va kulolchilik buyumlari nozik teginishni talab qiladi va shunchaki utilitarian ayollar bu erga kelgan sayyohlarga savat va kulolchilik mahsulotlarini mahalliy xalq san'ati sifatida sotadilar.

Ovqat pishirish asboblari - metatlar va qoshiqlar, shuningdek idishlar - uyning ayoli tomonidan yaratilgan. Kulolchilik mahsulotlari Tarahumara ayollari uchun odatiy hol edi, lekin hozir ko'pchilik zamonaviy idishlar va kostryulkalarga ega. Ko'p oilalarda ikkita tog'lar bor, biri baland tog'lardagi yozgi uylari uchun, ikkinchisi qishki g'orlardagi uylar uchun. barrancalar.

Oziq -ovqat va makkajo'xori asosidagi pivo tayyorlash, tasquino, Tarahumara ayollarining juda muhim vazifalari ikkalasi ham nafaqat kundalik ovqatlanish uchun, balki ajralmas marosimlar, davolanish va tasquinada bu jamiyatning ishlashini ta'minlaydi.

Bolalar

"Tarahumara bolalarining o'yinchoqlari madaniyat namunalarini aks ettiradi va ularning o'yinlari va o'yin -kulgisi oqsoqollarning ishi va kasbini qayta yaratadi" (Bennet va Zingg 1930: 97). Tarahumara jamiyatidagi bolalar o'z oilasida, yaylovda esa qo'y va echki podalari bilan mas'uldirlar. Bola uydan uzoqqa cho'chqalarni yangi yaylovlarga olib ketishi odatiy holdir, bir necha kun yoki haftani faqat it bilan birga o'tkazadi. "Bolalik davridagi bu holat, kattalar Tarahumaraning qattiqqo'l munosabati uchun asosan javobgardir" (Bennet va Zingg 1930: 15). Tarahumara bolalarining ko'pchiligi ularni kattalar rollariga tayyorlaydi (15 yoshga to'lgan deb o'ylashadi). O'yinchoqlar ko'pincha har qanday jinsga tegishli asboblarni taqlid qilishadi: model korallari, tosh metatlar va sling o'qlari kelajakda qandaydir "amaliyot" sifatida ishlatiladi. Jinsiy vazifalarni boshqa jins vakillari bajarishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, bola dunyosida rollar juda aniq va ko'pincha o'yinlarda o'ynaladi.

Din - Shamanizm va Xristianlik

Tarahumara dini nasroniy va an'anaviy shamanistik e'tiqodlarni birlashtiradi. XVI asrda Konkvadadorlar Taraxumara bilan birinchi marta uchrashganda, ularni nasroniylikka aylantirishga harakat qilishdi. Ba'zi Tarahumara dinni o'zgartirdi (chaqirdi bautizados), lekin yangi dinning barcha jihatlarini to'liq qabul qilmagan. O'zlarini nasroniy cherkovi bilan tanishtirmaganlar, o'zga millatlar deb ataladi, garchi ularning e'tiqodlarida unchalik ko'p farqlar bo'lmasa ham.

Tarahumara shaman (o'yin yoki salom) bir nechta vazifalarga ega: u tabib, marosimchi va eski usullar va jamoaning himoyachisi. Shaman to'liq yoki yarim vaqtda amaliyotchi bo'lishi mumkin va quyidagi rollardan birini yoki bir nechtasini bajarishi mumkin: chanter (marosim qo'shiqlarini kuylaydi), qurtlarni chiqaruvchi (faqat ma'lum shamanlarga xos bo'lgan mahorat); o'rtacha shifokor (dorivor o'simliklar haqida keng ma'lumotga ega bo'lgan), peyotero (davolashda peyote o'simlikidan foydalanadi) yoki bu odamlardan birining yordamchisi. Bu ko'nikmalar shaman vorisiga shogirdlik orqali o'rgatiladi. Shamanning roli ma'lum bir maqom emas - qon tomirlari bu qobiliyatlarga ega deb o'ylashadi - shuning uchun ko'p hollarda voris o'g'il yoki qiz bo'ladi.

Konkistadorlar va missionerlar Syerra Madraga kirganlarida, Tarahumara Kanyonlarning qattiq erlariga chekinishdi, lekin ular bosqinchilar ta'siridan qochishmadi. Vaqt o'tishi bilan Tarahumara gibridlangan xristian va shamanistik dinni ishlab chiqdi. Bu tizimda xoch, tasbeh, xochga mixlanishlar, azizlar va xudolarning ismlari va hatto massadan foydalanish qabul qilingan. San -Xose su -Kristo, Bokira Maryam va Xudo - Tarahumara tomonidan tan olingan azizlar va xudolar, ularning barchasi zamonaviy dunyosini shakllantirishda muhim rol o'ynagan. Ular Xudoni uchta odamni o'zida mujassam etgan bitta xudo sifatida tan oladilar. U dunyodagi hamma narsani yaratuvchisi sifatida tan olingan va u bilan kelgan barcha kuchlarning me'mori va regulyatori hisoblanadi.


Bennett va Zingg "Matachin raqqosining bosh kiyimlari, taqinchoqlari va muxlisi" (1935)
Chikago universiteti matbuoti ruxsati bilan.

Matachin raqqosalari marosimlarda va cherkov bayramlarida qatnashadilar.

Tarahumaralar nafas oladigan hamma narsaning ruhi borligiga ishonishadi (iwigála). Tarahumaraga ko'ra, jon tirik mavjudotlarga qo'shiq aytish va gapirish qobiliyatini beradi. Ruh kundalik hayotda bo'lganidan farqli xususiyatlarga ega. Agar odam sovuq bo'lsa, demak, ruh issiq, agar uxlab yotgan bo'lsa, ruh uyg'ongan va ishlagan. "Kecha - bu oyning kuni, va shu kuni o'lik va ruhning ishi" (Bennet va Zingg 1935: 323), bu ruh yurakda, shamol esa uni havo bilan ta'minlaydi, o'pka esa uni kuchaytiradi.

Ko'p dinlar singari, Tarahumara jannat va do'zaxdan iborat oxirat hayotiga ishonadi. Osmonda uchta mavjud samolyot mavjud bo'lib, odamning ruhi eng past tekislikdan boshlanadi va er yuzida bo'lgani kabi hayotini ham xuddi o'lgunga qadar davom ettiradi va umid qilamanki, keyingi samolyotga ko'tariladi. Agar ular uchinchi va oxirgi samolyotga etib kelishsa, ular Xudoning uyida bo'lishadi. Jahannamning uchta mavjud samolyoti bor, ular olov bilan tugaydi. Xristianlik paydo bo'lishidan oldin, do'zax yoki shaytonga ishonish uchun hech qanday dalil yo'q edi, bu zamonaviyroq g'oya.

Tashqi ta'sir tarixi

Arxeologik dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Tarahumara 2000 yilga yaqin Meksikaning Chihuaxua shtatida yashagan. So'nggi 400 yil ichida Tarahumaraga xorijiy madaniyatlar ta'sir ko'rsatdi. XVI asrdagi Konkvistadorlar va Jezuit missionerlari faqat boshlanish edi, chunki hozirgi Tarahumara Meksika moddiy madaniyatining ko'plab elementlarini qabul qilgan va etnik turizm va rivojlanayotgan giyohvandlik sanoatining talablariga doimo duch kelgan.

Ispan va iezuitlar

Conquistadorning maqsadi Ispaniya monarxiyasi nomidan erni bosib olish va mustamlaka qilish edi. Burgos qonuni (1512) qabul qilinmaguncha, mahalliy xalqlarga ta'siri halokatli bo'lib, mahalliy aholiga nisbatan katoliklikni qabul qilishni rag'batlantirishni taqiqlagan. Ispaniyaliklar Taraxumara vatanlari tomon yo'l olishganida, guruh jang qilib, keyin asta -sekin Mis kanyonining baland tog'lariga, chet elliklar bilan aloqa qilmaslik umidida chekinishdi. chabochilar. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri tuprog'i zabt etuvchilarni bir muncha vaqt ta'qib qilishiga to'sqinlik qildi, lekin yezuitlik missionerlar asta -sekin Kanyonga yo'l olishdi.


Tarahumaraning g'arbiy Sierra Madre uyidagi Mis kanyoni.
Vikipediya izni bilan.

Although little is known about the Tarahumara prior to Jesuit contact, their influences can be felt and seen in modern Tarahumara society. Even the name “Tarahumara” is a by-product of Spanish influence, originally used by the missionaries to refer to the converted Indians but is now used worldwide for all Rarámuri people (Baron 2008). Ideologies shifted and were molded by the missionaries (see Religion), bringing about new associations and groupings. There was a divide between the gentiles and the converted, and the two sides limited their interaction with each other. Pueblos became both physically and spiritually focused on the church.

Once the Spanish discovered gold and silver at Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico in 1631, they advanced into the Copper Canyon bringing more technology from the motherland. Many new items were introduced, including the steel axe and domesticated animals (cattle, sheep, goats, horses, burros, mules, and pigs). While the Tarahumara had presumably depended on hunting and gathering in the forested Canyon before Spanish contact, their lives were transformed by farming and animal husbandry. Until recently, cattle, sheep, and goats have been the only providers of the manure that fertilizes crops, the wool for clothing, and the little protein that make up the Tarahumara diet.

Musical instruments such as the violin, guitar, drum, and flute were also integrated into Tarahumara culture. Documentation of instruments that closely resembled the violin (similar to a Jew’s harp) existed before Spanish arrival, but by the time research was conducted, violins were fully assimilated into the culture.

During the mid-18th century, friction between the Jesuits and the Inquisition and the new king Carlos III (1760) resulted in the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and all Spanish territories. After many rumors of the wealth and power that the Jesuits had acquired in the New World, the missionaries were also expelled from Tarahumara land in 1767, thus removing immediate external pressures until the modern era (McChesney 2007).

Modern Influences


Map of present-day Tarahumara territory.Courtesy of questconnect.org.

In 1821, when Mexico won its independence from Spain, the new government encouraged citizens to move farther into the Chihuahua territory. This resulted in the Tarahumara retreating further into the Copper Canyon. From that time the Mexican government, miners, lumber yards, tourists and, most recently, drug wars have plagued the indigenous canyon dwellers.

Qachon chabochis moved into Tarahumara territory they brought with them new trade industries, primarily mining. In 1856, communal land ownership was outlawed by the Finance Minister, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, by passing the Lerdo Law, which freed more land for the new settlers deep within the Sierra Madre. During the 1870s, Mexican mining boomed gold, silver, and copper were found in the major rivers that make up the Sierra Madre and the new citizens took advantage of it (Anderson 1996). The Tarahumara were exploited as a cheap labor source for the mining and the upland timber industry. This led the Tarahumara to further retreat into the canyons, but this did not prevent some of the indigenous populations were “Mexicanized.” Some learned how to speak Spanish, while others took on Mexican clothing styles such as palm leaf hats, cotton skirts, and the infamous guaraches (tire or leather shoes).

In the 1900s, Jesuits re-entered Mexico and expanded upon their old territories by establishing orphanages, hospitals, and clinics for the Tarahumara. However, during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), the land that was acquired by the Jesuits and a small percentage of what was taken in 1856 was given back to the tribe. The Tarahumara territory is now approximately 50,000 square miles –- half of what it was before European contact (Baron 2008).

Contemporary Western influences have brought fast food (chatarra) to the traditional diet of corn and beans. Potato chips, Coca Cola, and Tecate beer cans are bought with the money that is received from the “folk art” (wood carvings and dolls, textiles, pottery, and basketry) sold to tourists. Men and women are also abandoning the cotton clothing styles introduced by the Spanish for denim jeans.

The recent threat of marijuana and heroin traffickers has had a major impact on the Tarahumara lifestyle. The drug traffickers, mostly of opium and marijuana, are encroaching on the Tarahumara’s crop fields and taking advantage of the isolation to run an unlimited supply of drugs and money through the region. Tarahumara are also recruited to work the fields. The pay from this industry is significantly greater than what can be made selling tourist goods, and Western ideals focused on money and prestige are becoming more apparent among subsequent generations of Tarahumara youth.

The Mexican government is also pressuring the Tarahumara to change new economic development in the area is being encouraged to combat the illegal activity. It is hoped that more development and police presence will stop or severely limit the drug trade. This development would involve substantial alterations to Tarahumara homelands and would inevitably cause a clash of cultures. The future of the Tarahumara remains ever-changing.


A history of women&rsquos running

In Ancient Greece, young women take part in the Herean Games, a series of footraces to honour the Greek goddess Hera.

The day after the (men-only) marathon, Greek woman Stamata Revithi runs the marathon course of the first modern Olympic Games.

The first Women&rsquos World Games are held in Paris. More than 15,000 attend.

Londoner Violet Piercy becomes the first woman to run a marathon recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations, finishing in 3:40:22.

The Olympic Games opens five track and field events to women. Following erroneous reports of many women collapsing after the 800m, the IOC bans women from running more
than 200m.

On May 29, Diane Leather from Staffordshire becomes the first woman to run a mile in under five minutes (4:59.23), 23 days after Roger Bannister&rsquos sub-four-minute mile.

For the first time since 1928, women are allowed to compete in the 800m, in the Rome Olympics. Lyudmila Lysenko from the Soviet Union wins in 2:04.50.

Kathrine Switzer is the first woman to officially run the Boston Marathon.

Six women are allowed to run the New York City marathon on the condition they start 10 minutes before the men. At the gun, they sit down in protest.

Norwegian Grete Waitz becomes the first woman to run a sub-2:30 marathon, winning her second New York City Marathon in 2:27:33.

American Mary Decker becomes the first woman to run a mile in under 4:20, running 4:17.55

The first Olympic women&rsquos marathon is held at the LA Games. Joan Benoit wins in 2:24.52.

Brit Rosie Swale-Pope, the first woman to &lsquorun around the world&rsquo begins her five-year journey.

Paula Radcliffe runs the London Marathon in 2:15:25, a record that still stands.

At the London Olympic Games, 19-year-old Sarah Attar becomes the first woman from Saudi Arabia to compete in an Olympic track and field event.

Jo Pavey wins the 10,000m at the European Championships. At the age of 40 years and 325 days, she&rsquos the oldest female European champion in history.


Runners - History

We have put our complete runner history in a large spreadsheet for people to view and filter. Please let us know if there are any errors - we do have issues where people change their name, spell their name differently from year to year and even people who use numerous dates of birth (!). If you see your details are incorrect then please email [email protected] and ask for it to be corrected.

Download the history from 1984 to latest race in excel format HERE

UNOFFICIAL

Provided and maintained by Australian Mountain Running Association

Frequent runners

The frequent runner list counts a runner's number of finishes. That is entered but did not start (DNS) and Did Not Finish (DNF) do not count.

Note that some years there were varying cut-off times - it has been 8hrs 00mins, 7hrs 30mins and 7hrs 00mins - and this list has counted all finishes not just those under the cut-off. Therefore it is not a 100% accurate indicator of belt / buckle status.

Fastest runner times

Many of our runners treat the Six Foot Track Marathon as a race and like to compare their fastest times over the years.

List of fastest times run (i.e. some people have multiple entries): Click here to view list

List of each runner's best time (i.e. one time listed per runner - their fastest): Click here to view list

Fastest Race Splits

Six Foot Track Marathon has had Cox's river and Pluviometer splits since 2004. There was however a technical problem in 2009 with the Pluviometer split. in 2016, a Caves Road split was introduced. In 2017, a Megalong Road split was introduced.


Bow Street Runners

The Bow Street Runners were the first professional police force, organised in London by magistrate and author Henry Fielding in 1749. The group would end up successfully solving and preventing crimes until 1839 when the force was disbanded in favour of the Metropolitan Police, leaving behind a legacy for modern-day policing.

Bow Street Runners, c.1800

Before the introduction of the Bow Street Runners and anything of the like, policing took the form of privately paid individuals used to maintain law and order without a formal system connected to the state. This resulted in unofficial policemen who were known as ‘Thief Takers’ who would capture criminals for money and negotiate deals in order to return stolen goods whilst claiming rewards. People who partook in this activity, such as a figure called Charles Huitchen and his accomplice Jonathan Wild, were voluntarily policing the streets of London for big profits when in fact, these men and others like them were often behind much of the crime in the area. The informal, volunteer based system was not working.

The increasing crime rate prompted the government to increase the rewards on offer to around £100 for the arrest of a highwayman, someone who robbed travellers, often on horseback. The increase was considerable from the £40 offered in 1692 for the conviction of such a criminal. The resulting impact was a swelling number of private thief-takers operating around London, rather than the intended consequence of incentivising victims to prosecute the person who had carried out the crime.

It was clear that the system in place was not functioning as it should, with crime still on the increase and new crimes developing, something new had to be done. The law enforcement in operation in the eighteenth century had changed very little since medieval times. There were JPs, known as Justices of the Peace that had been in existence since 1361, appointed by the Crown but were often known for their corruption. Then there were the watchmen, referred to as ‘Charleys’ because they were introduced by King Charles II, but had proved to be predominantly ineffective. The constables meanwhile, were often only working part-time and were paid very little and therefore had little incentive to meet the requirements of their job.

With London growing rapidly and crime accompanying this growth, Henry Fielding, the chief magistrate at Bow Street Court decided to conduct and write a report about the crime rates in the capital and published his findings in 1751. The report found that the increase in crime could be attributed to a number of factors, including a great number of people moving to London expecting an easy life, inherent corruption within the government, people choosing crime over hard work and the ineffectual constables. With these findings published, Fielding sought to bring about some necessary changes to law enforcement.

Henry Fielding, along with his half-brother John who was also a magistrate, founded the Bow Street Runners, a paid police force with the intention of preventing and fighting crime. Henry was known for his motto of ‘quick notice and sudden pursuit’. He was keen to use the general public to help, somewhat similarly as before, by using adverts and pamphlets asking for assistance.

The force he set up included six paid constables to patrol the streets of London. The name the Bow Street Runners referred simply to their location, whilst the term ‘runners’ referred to their pursuit of criminals, although it was not a name that was particularly well-received by the constables themselves.

The constables were formally trained, paid and full-time serving officers, very different from the more informal, privately funded system which had been operating. Instead the men were paid using a government grant, therefore creating a closer link to a state-run law enforcement system. They were also to receive rewards when they caught their suspects, much like the Thief Takers, only with more formality and control in place. This idea proved to be effective and by 1800, there were said to be around sixty-eight Bow Street Runners fighting crime in London.

The police force was essentially London’s first professional police force of its kind, using organised methods of dealing with crimes, formal work settings and a proper law enforcement system. The Bow Street runners differed from their ‘thief-taker’ predecessors because they were not only formally attached to the Bow Street magistrates office, but they were also paid by central government. Much of the work was being conducted from Henry Fielding’s own office and the court at No. 4 Bow Street. The constables would arrest offenders on the authority of the magistrates and would travel across the country in pursuit of the criminals.

Bow Street Magistrates’ Court

Henry Fielding dedicated himself to making the streets of London safe again. He went about setting up a journal called the Covent Garden Journal, containing information about criminals and their activity, much like an eighteenth century version of “Crimewatch”. It served to make people aware, allowing them to assist in solving a crime and operating almost as a neighbourhood watch, helping to reduce the likelihood of a crime being committed.

Henry died in 1754 and his brother John succeeded him, continuing his good work as magistrate. Although blind, John took over the reins and successfully managed Henry’s legacy, remaining the Chief Magistrate for the next twenty-six years. He served until 1780 and it was said that he could recognise the voice of over 3,000 criminals.

John Fielding managed to acquire a government grant in order to set up the horse patrol which had been organised by his brother, helping to deal with the issue of highway robberies. The use of grants, however temporary, was an important step in increasing the government’s involvement in law enforcement. Under John Fielding, the Bow Street Runners gained more recognition from the government, as they became more aware of the methods and structure that could be achieved with formal policing. Bow Street represented the professionalisation of the police force.

John would continue his brother’s legacy by using his idea of involving the general public in order to assist in crime prevention. He published ‘The Quarterly Pursuit’, a newspaper produced every week, providing information on stolen goods and giving descriptions of criminals. The idea of sharing information to solve crime spread nationwide.

The arrest of the Cato Street Conspirators

The Bow Street Runners even helped to uncover the Cato Street Conspirators, a group attempting to kill the British cabinet members as well as the Prime Minister in 1820. By using an informer, the police force managed to trap the conspirators, arresting thirteen men whilst one policeman was killed in the confrontation. The uncovering of such a plot was a major coup for the Bow Street Runners, demonstrating the enormous impact they had on the prevention of crime.

Nevertheless, the Bow Street Runners were eventually replaced in 1829 with the formation of the Metropolitan Police. They would eventually disband entirely in 1839 after decades of pioneering police work tackling criminal activity on the streets of London.

The Bow Street Runners were a pioneering force, revolutionising the way law enforcement was carried out. Henry Fielding and his brother John helped to introduce a new way of policing in a formalised setting with government support, which would form the backbone of future police work to come. Modern-day policing owes a great deal to the first tentative steps taken in reinventing law enforcement in eighteenth century England.

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75: The 100-miler: Part 22 (1978) Fort Meade 100

By Davy Crockett

Park Barner at Fort Meade

During the 1960s and 1970s, most of the 100-mile races were held on oval tracks. Additionally, 100 miles were achieved during 24-hours races, usually also held on tracks. Running for 100 miles on an oval track seemed like an extreme oddity back then, even as it does today.

During that period, there were 19 known track 100-mile running races held worldwide, that were not also 24-hours races. In addition, there were many other 100-mile racewalking competitions in both England and America where walkers sought to become a “Centurion” by walking 100 miles in 24 hours of less (see episode 63).

The first modern-era track 100-miler (running) was held in Durban, South Africa in 1964 won by Manie Kuhn in 17:48:51. In America, the first track 100 was held in 1975 in New York, the Queensborough 100, won by Park Barner in 13:40:59 (see episode 66).

Beginning in 1978, an important track 100-miler started to be held, that became the premier track 100-miler. The race was held on an military base at Fort Meade, Maryland in America. It would be held there for twelve years. This 100-miler was dominated by Ray Krolewicz of South Carolina, who won it six times. Sadly, this race has been mostly forgotten in the annuls of ultrarunning history.


Runners - History

By Jeff Merron
Page 2

Are there any women poised to break onto this list after Athens? Possibly Deena Drossin Kastor, the American record-holder in both the 10K (30:52.32 in 2002) and marathon. At the Olympic trials, she won by a huge margin in one of the fastest 10K times in the world this year. But she's forgoing the 10K in Athens for the marathon. Her American record of 2:21:16 last year in London, combined with her track speed, puts her in a position to medal -- and possibly win gold.

Greatest male runners
Click here for Jeff's list of the best U.S. male runners of all time.

10. Lynn Jennings
Jennings, the best female long-distance runner in U.S. history, was a nine-time national champ and three-time world champion in cross country. She won Olympic bronze while setting an American record of 31:19 in the 10K at Barcelona, and also holds the U.S. road records in the 8K and 10K. Between 1990 and 1993, Jennings was among the world's top 10 in the 3K, 5K, and 10K.

9. Valerie Brisco
Think Michael Johnson was the first to win the 200/400 double at the Olympics? Thing again. Bricso achieved the feat in 1984, taking golds in both events in Olympic record times, and adding another in the 4 x 100 meter relay.


8. Joan Benoit
The first time Benoit ran the Boston Marathon, in 1979, she won and set a new American record of 2:35. Four years later, after being sidelined by operations on her Achilles tendons, she set the distance running world on fire, setting American records in events from the 10K to the marathon, and winning the Boston Marathon with a world mark of 2:22:43. (This record was more extraordinary than most, as Boston's course is notoriously slow.).

Then, in 1984, Benoit crushed the field in the first women's Olympic Marathon, finishing far ahead of the great Grete Waitz. She ran the third-fastest marathon of all time, 2:24.52, running alone pretty much the whole way but still captivating TV viewers and spectators lining the route.

7. Evelyn Ashford
Ashford's longevity in the sprints in unmatched 13 times between 1976 and 1992 she was ranked among the world's best 100-meter runners (including four years in the top spot) seven times she achieved a top-10 ranking in the 200. She was on every U.S. Olympic team between 1976 and 1992, and won four golds overall, including the 100-meter title in 1984. Shortly after ascending to the top of the podium in L.A., she set a world record of 10.76 in the 100.

6. Mary Decker Slaney
She remains the biggest phenom in American track history -- little Mary Decker ran a 4:55 mile at age 13, and 11 years later, in 1982, was the best middle and long-distance runner in the world, running the fastest times in every track distance from 800 to 10K.

Decker enjoyed her greatest years in the early 1980s, setting world marks in the half-mile and mile. Her utter dominance of the middle distances was exemplified by her 1500/3000 double at the 1983 World Championships, which won her a cover spot as Sports Illustrated's Sportswoman of the Year.

But the Olympics were not kind to her: injuries kept her off the track in Montreal, a boycott did the job in 1980, and in 1984 she had her famous run-in with Zola Budd. She competed again in both 1988 and 1996, but was not a medal contender.


5. Gail Devers
Devers overcame Graves' Disease and its debilitating treatment (she came close to having both feet amputated) to win photo-finish golds in the 100 meters in both the 1992 and 1996 Olympics. Though she placed out of the money in the 100-meter hurdles, her best event, in four straight Olympics, she did win world championships in the hurdles three times, and was the top-ranked 100-meter hurdler in the world six times between 1992 and 2001.

Devers will get another change at Olympic gold this year at age 37, she'll compete in her fifth Olympics, and has a good shot a winning the 100 hurdles.

4. Wilma Rudolph
At age 9, Rudolph, who had suffered from polio, tossed away the leg braces everyone thought she needed seven years later, she stood on the medal podium in Melbourne, collecting a bronze medal as part of the 4 x 100 relay team. But the best was yet to come: in the 1960 Games, she became the first woman ever to win three golds in one Olympics. She tied the world record in the 100, set an American record in the 200, and anchored the gold-medal 400-meter relay team that set a world record in the semifinals.


3. Wyomia Tyus
Tyus made her national debut in 1962, when as a high-schooler she set an American record in the 100-yard dash at the AAU championships. In the 1964 Tokyo Games, the 19-year-old Tyus blew away the field in the 100 meters, winning gold in 11.2 seconds and tying Wilma Rudolph's world record. In 1968, up against a 100-meter field that included four co-world-record holders, she won and set a new standard of 11.08, becoming the first sprinter, male or female, ever to win back-to-back Olympic 100s.

2. Marion Jones
For six consecutive years, beginning in 1997, Jones enjoyed the No. 1-ranking in the world in both the 100 and 200 meters, an extraordinary achievement in the sprints, where the margin for error is tiny and injuries are common. Jones was dominant as a high school sprinter, and even qualified, as a 16-year-old, for the 1992 Olympic team as an alternate on the 4 x 100 relay team. But she bypassed Barcelona, then missed Atlanta due to a broken left foot.

In 2000, Jones said she was going for five golds, but "only" came home with three -- in the 100, 200, and 4 x 400 relay. (She also picked up bronze medals in the 4 x 100 and long jump.)

1. Florence Griffith Joyner
FloJo looked spectacular on the track, with her one-legger, long hair, and red, white, and blue-painted nails, but once she got moving, all you saw was a blur. She was among the best in the world in the sprints as early as 1982, and won a silver in the 1984 Games, but it wasn't until 1988 that she really burst into the pantheon of greats.


In the Olympic trials leading up to the 1988 games, she shattered the 100-meter world record by .27 seconds, running a staggering 10.49. In Seoul, she captured golds in the 100 and 200 (setting another world record in the latter), won a third gold as anchor of the 4 x 100 relay team, and added a silver anchoring the 4 x 400 relay team.

Also receiving votes:
Regina Jacobs (recently tested positive for THG and suspended)
Francine Larrieu Smith
Madeline Manning
Marla Runyan
Gwen Torrence
Kim Batten
Ann Trason
Suzy Favor-Hamilton


The History of The Rum Runners

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

However, it was not long into the start of prohibition that many began to smuggle alcohol.

With the start of prohibition, Captain Bill McCoy began bringing rum from Bimini and the rest of the Bahamas into south Florida and throughout the Keys. The Coast Guard soon caught up with him and began patrolling the waters of Southern Florida non-stop.

Captain Bill McCoy aboard the Tomoka

Bill McCoy, being an out of the box thinker, began to bring the illegal goods to just outside U.S. territorial waters and let smaller boats and other captains take the risk of bringing it to shore.

The rum-running business was very good, and McCoy soon bought a Gloucester knockabout schooner named Tomoka. He installed a larger auxiliary, mounted a concealed machine gun on her deck, and refitted the fish pens below to accommodate as much contraband as she could hold. She became one of the most famous of the rum-runners of all time, along with his two other ships hauling mostly Irish and Canadian whiskey as well as other fine liquors and wines to ports from Maine to Florida.

Cargo being loaded on one of Bill McCoy’s Boats

In the days of rum running, it was common for captains to add water to the bottles to stretch their profits or to re-label it as better goods. Any cheap sparkling wine became French champagne or Italian Spumante unbranded liquor became top-of-the-line name brands. McCoy became famous for never water in his booze and selling only top brands. Although there are several other origin stories, McCoys often gets credit for being the origin of the term “The Real McCoy”.

McCoy is credited with the idea of bringing large boats just to the edge of the three-mile limit of U.S. jurisdiction and selling his wares there to “contact boats”, local fishermen, and small boat captains. The small, quick boats could more easily outrun Coast Guard ships and could dock in any small river or eddy and transfer their cargo to a waiting truck.

Soon others were following suit, and the three-mile limit became known as “Rum Line” with the ships waiting called “Rum row”. The Rum Line was extended to a 12-mile limit by an act of the United States Congress on April 21, 1924, which made it harder for the smaller and less seaworthy craft to make the trip.

Coast Guard Members aboard the Seneca patrolling the Florida Coast

On November 15, 1923, McCoy and Tomoka encountered the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Seneca just outside U.S. territorial waters. A boarding party attempted to board, but McCoy chased them off with the machine gun. Tomoka tried to run, but Seneca placed a shell just off her hull, and William McCoy surrendered his ship and cargo.

Instead of a drawn-out trial, Bill McCoy pleaded guilty and spent nine months in a New Jersey jail. He returned to Florida and invested his money in real estate. He and his brother continued the boat building business and frequently traveled up and down the coast. McCoy to this day is remembered as one of the premier Rum Runners.

History of the Rum Runner Cocktail

The Tiki Bar at Holiday Isle Beach Resort and Marina in Islamorada, Florida

The Original Rum Runner Recipe was a creation made at the Holiday Isle Beach Resort and Marina in Islamorada. In 1972, John Ebert first walked through the door of the Tiki Bar, applying for a job. When he was asked to make up a new drink as a trial, he looked around the bar stock and decided to put some of the lesser-used liqueurs together to use to impress the manager. He mixed and mixed and came up with what we now call a “Rum Runner.” And the rest they say is history.


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