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Jek Rubi - O'lim, qurol va faktlar

Jek Rubi - O'lim, qurol va faktlar

1963 yil 24-noyabrda, 52 yoshli Dallas tungi klubi operatori Jek Rubi (1911-1967), prezident Jon Kennedi (1917-) qotili ayblangan Li Xarvi Osvaldni (1939-1963) otib o'ldirganida Amerikani hayratda qoldirdi. 1963). Bundan ikki kun oldin, 22 -noyabr kuni Kennedi Dallasda avtoturargohda ketayotib halok bo'lgan. Tez orada prezidentning o'ldirilishi uchun 24 yoshli omborxona ishchisi Osvald hibsga olindi. 24 -noyabr kuni, gumonlanuvchi shahar qamoqxonasidan tuman qamoqxonasiga ko'chirilayotganda, Rubi tomoshabinlar orasidan chiqib, yosh yigitni otib tashladi. Bu voqeaga millionlab amerikaliklar jonli efirda guvoh bo'lishdi. Chikagodagi asli o'tmishdagi Rubi 1964 yilda qotillikda ayblangan edi. U o'zini qayg'u tufayli qilganini va fitnaga aloqasi yo'qligini aytgan. 1966 yilda Rubining sudlanganligi bekor qilindi; ammo, yangi sudni kutayotganda, u saraton kasalligidan vafot etdi.

Jek Rubi kim edi?

Yakub Rubenshteyn, keyinchalik Jek Rubi nomi bilan tanilgan, 1911 yilda Chikagoda tug'ilgan, polshalik muhojirlarning o'g'li. Rasmiy yozuvlarda Rubining tug'ilishining qarama -qarshi sanalari ko'rsatilgan; ammo, u haydovchilik guvohnomasida 1911 yil 25 martda ishlatgan.

Sakkiz aka -ukadan biri bo'lgan Rubi bolaligini Chikagoda qiyin o'tkazdi va vaqtini homiylik qaramog'ida o'tkazdi. U hech qachon o'rta maktabni tugatmagan va ko'p yillar davomida g'alati ishlarda, jumladan, uyma-uy sotuvchi va chiptachi bo'lib ishlagan. Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida Rubi AQSh harbiy -havo kuchlarida xizmat qilib, AQSh bazalarida samolyot -mexanik bo'lib ishlagan. 1940-yillarning oxiriga kelib u Dallasga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda tungi klublar va qimor o'yinlari dunyosida kichik operatorga aylandi. U, shuningdek, kichik jinoyatlar uchun bir qator hibsga oldi.

Rubi uyushgan jinoyatchilik bilan uzviy bog'liqliklarga ega edi va ism-sharif va reklama qidiruvchi sifatida obro'ga ega edi. U hech qachon uylanmagan va ma'lum siyosiy aloqalarga ega bo'lmagan.

Kennedi suiqasd

1963 yil 22-noyabrda prezident Kennedi va uning rafiqasi Jaklin (1929-1994) Texas gubernatori Jon Konnali (1917-1993) va uning rafiqasi bilan Dallas shahri bo'ylab prezident kortejida ochiq limuzinda ketayotgan edilar. Ularning mashinasi soat 12:30 da Texas maktab kitoblar omborxonasi binosidan o'tayotganda, o'tgan oyda binoda ish boshlagan Li Xarvi Osvald, oltinchi qavatdan uchta o'q uzib, 46 yoshli prezidentni o'ldirgan. gubernator Connaliga jiddiy shikast etkazdi. Kennedi 30 daqiqadan so'ng Dallasdagi Parklend memorial kasalxonasida vafot etdi. Kennedi otib tashlanganidan bir soat o'tmay Osvald politsiyachi J.D. Tippitni o'ldirdi (1924-1963), u ko'chada Dallasdagi uyi yonida so'roq qildi. Biroz vaqt o'tgach, politsiya Luiziana shtatida yashovchi va sobiq dengiz piyodasi Osvaldni kinoteatrda hibsga oldi. U Tippit va Kennedi o'ldirilganini rad etdi, lekin tez orada ikkala odamni o'ldirishda ayblanib sudga tortildi.

Jek Rubi Li Xarvi Osvaldni o'ldiradi

24 -noyabr kuni olomon muxbirlari, politsiyachilar va suratga olish guruhlari Osvaldni Dallas shahar qamoqxonasining podvaliga olib kelinganini, uni tuman qamoqxonasiga o'tkazishni rejalashtirayotgan mashinaga olib ketayotganini kuzatish uchun yig'ilishdi. Qo'llari kishanlangan Osvald tergovchilar yonida turganida, to'ng'ich, tukli, qora kostyum va kulrang fedora kiygan Jek Rubi olomon orasidan oldinga intildi. Taxminan ertalab soat 11:20 da Ruby yashirin .38 kalibrli Colt Cobra revolveridan qorin bo'shlig'iga bitta o'q bilan Osvaldni o'ldirdi. Televizor kameralari butun mamlakat bo'ylab amerikaliklar tomonidan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri guvoh bo'lgan hujumni tasvirga oldi. Politsiya tomonidan erga urilgan otishma chinqirib yubordi: “Hammangiz meni taniysiz. Men Jek Rubi. Qotillikda ayblangan Rubi, Osvaldni o'ldirganini aytdi, shuning uchun Jaklin Kennedi sud uchun Dallasga qaytmasligi kerak edi.

Jek Rubining hukm va o'limi

Jek Rubi o'zining taniqli sudida Kaliforniya shtatining taniqli advokati Melvin Belli (1907-1996) tomonidan pro bono himoyalangan, u psixomotor epilepsiya Rubining aqliy zaiflashishiga va Osvaldni ongsiz ravishda otib tashlashiga olib kelganini va bu holat tufayli u yumshoqlik bilan muomala qiling. Biroq, 1964 yil 14 martda, hakamlar hay'ati ikki soatdan ko'proq vaqt davomida maslahatlashgandan so'ng, Rubini yovuzlik bilan qotillikda aybdor deb topdi va uni elektr stul bilan o'ldirishga hukm qildi. Belli sud qaroridan g'azablanib, yahudiy Rubini kamsitish qurboni bo'lgan deb da'vo qildi. 1966 yil oktyabr oyida Texas Jinoyat Apellyatsiya sudi guvohlikni noto'g'ri qabul qilganligi va Rubini olmaganligi sababli ayblovni bekor qildi. haddan tashqari oshkoralik tufayli o'sha paytda Dallasda adolatli sud. 1967 yil fevral oyida Texas shtatining Vichita -Falls shahrida yangi sud o'tkazilishi rejalashtirilgan edi. Biroq, 1966 yil 9 -dekabrda Rubi pnevmoniya bilan Parklend kasalxonasiga yotqizildi (Kennedi va Osvald o'lgan joy). Ko'p o'tmay, unga o'pka saratoni tashxisi qo'yildi. 1967 yil 3 -yanvarda u 55 yoshida o'pkasidagi qon pıhtısından vafot etdi.

Jek Rubini nima undadi?

Ba'zilar Jek Rubini prezident qotilini o'ldirgani uchun qahramon deb maqtashgan, boshqalari esa Osvaldni katta fitnani oshkor qilmaslik uchun o'ldirgan deb hisoblashgan. Rubining ta'kidlashicha, u g'amginlikdan dadil harakat qilgan va har qanday fitnaning bir qismi bo'lishdan bosh tortgan. (Life jurnalining xabar berishicha, Rubi tez -tez to'pponcha olib yurgan va Osvald o'ldirilgan kuni, tungi klub egasi itini politsiya binosi tashqarisida mashinaga tashlab qo'ygandek, u tez orada qaytishni rejalashtirgandi.) Rubining xatti -harakatlarining boshqa izohlari bor. taklif qilingan, shu jumladan u qahramon bo'lishni xohlagani, retsept bo'yicha dorilar ta'sirida bo'lgani, pul muammosi borligi va shuning uchun yo'qotadigan hech narsasi yo'q. (1908-1973) 1963 yil noyabr oyining oxirida, Osvald ham, Rubi ham Kennedi o'ldirishga katta fitna uyushtirmagan degan xulosaga kelishdi. Ammo, aniq ko'rinib turibdiki, hisobot voqea atrofidagi fitna nazariyalarini o'chira olmadi va 1979 yilda uy qurilishi suiqasdlar bo'yicha qo'mitasi o'z hisobotida Kennedi "fitna natijasida o'ldirilgan bo'lishi mumkin" degan xulosaga keldi. qurollanganlar. Qo'mitaning xulosalari, Uorren komissiyasi kabi, bahsli bo'lishda davom etmoqda.


JFK suiqasd haqida 50 fakt

Betsy Towner, AARP byulleteni | Izohlar: 0

Tebranadigan stulda o'tirish JFKning surunkali bel og'rig'idan xalos bo'lishga yordam berdi.

Eng yaxshi | 1963 yil 22-noyabrda, Dallasda prezident korteji paytida prezident ochiq-oydin mashinada, birinchi xonim yonida o'tirganida, Jon Kennedi Li Xarvi Osvald tomonidan o'ldirilgan kundan 50 yil o'tdi. .

Mana, o'sha kun haqida, undan oldin va keyin nima bo'lgani haqida 50 ta qiziqarli fakt.

1. 1963 yil 11 -noyabrda Prezident Kennedi Arlington milliy qabristonidagi noma'lum askar qabriga Veteranlar kuniga gulchambar qo'ydi.

2. U roppa -rosa ikki haftadan so'ng qabristonga dafn qilinadi.

3. Jaklin Kennedi kamdan -kam hollarda siyosiy safarlarda eri bilan borar edi, lekin u bilan 21 noyabrda Texasga uchishga qaror qildi.

4. 22 -noyabr kuni er -xotin Fort -Uertda nonushta qilishdi.

5. Ochiq tepadagi prezidentlik limuzini D.C.dan uchib kelgan.

6. 14 yoshli bola soat 12.30 atrofida JFKning yuzi bo'shashib qolganini kuzatganini aytdi. 22 noyabrda.

7. Bola, shuningdek, Jaklin Kennedi, "Xudo, ey Xudo, yo'q" degan qichqiriqni eshitganini aytdi

8. Texas gubernatori Jon Konnali bir nechta o'q jarohati oldi.

9. Ruhoniy AQShning birinchi Rim -katolik prezidentiga oxirgi marosimlarni o'tkazdi.

10. Bu 200 yoshga to'lmagan mamlakatdagi to'rtinchi prezident suiqasdidir.

11. Bu maxfiy xizmat prezidentlarni himoya qila boshlaganidan beri birinchi bo'ldi.

12. Xizmat prezident qutisini nazorat qilish uchun Dallas politsiyasi bilan janjallashdi.

13. Lyndon B. Jonson Air Force One bortida qasamyod qabul qildi.

14. U Kennedi vafotidan 99 daqiqa o'tib prezident bo'ldi.

15. Kennedi jasadi ham Vashingtonga qaytish reysi bortida bo'lgan.

16. Sudya Sara Xyuz qasamyod qilganda yig'lab yubordi.

17. Jeki Kennedi erining qoniga bo'yalgan pushti Chanel kostyumini echishdan bosh tortdi. U Lady Bird Jonsonga: "Men ulardan Jekga nima qilganini ko'rishlarini istayman."

18. Biroq, Jeki nikoh uzugini echib, erining barmog'iga qo'ydi va u bilan birga dafn qilindi.

19. Keyinchalik uni yordamchisidan olishdi.

20. Jekining kostyumi hech qachon tozalanmagan va Milliy arxivda yotibdi.

21. Kennedi oilasining xohishiga ko'ra, u kamida 2103 yilgacha omma oldida ko'rinmaydi.

22. Bosh prokuror va prezidentning ukasi Robert F. Kennedi qaytgach, Endryus harbiy -havo bazasida Harbiy havo kuchlari bilan uchrashdi.

23. Texas maktab kitoblar omborxonasining oltinchi qavatida, qotil Li Xarvi Osvald otishma uchun o'zini ko'rsatgan, bugun JFK suiqasdiga bag'ishlangan muzey.

24. Osvald o'zini marksist deb atagan.

25. U 1959 yilda Rossiyaga o'tishga harakat qilgan.

26. O'sha paytda prezidentni o'ldirish federal jinoyat emas edi, Osvald Texasda sudlangan bo'lardi.

27. Qotillik quroli - Osvald 19,95 dollarga sotib olgan 6,5 mm italyan karabin miltig'i.

28. Dallaslik tadbirkor Ibrohim Zapruder suiqasdni uyidagi 8 mm diametrli kameraga tushirdi.

29. Uning kotibi uni uyiga borishga va prezidentlik paradiga olib kelishga undagan edi.

30. Zapruderning filmini keyinchalik sotib olgan Hayot jurnal 150 ming dollarga.

31. Osvaldni 24 -noyabr kuni Jek Rubi tomonidan o'ldirilishi jonli efirda qo'lga olingan birinchi qotillik edi.

32. Politsiya detektivi otishma chog'ida: & quot; Jek, seni o'g'il! & Quot;

33. Politsiya erga urishganda, Rubi qichqirdi: "Men Jek Rubyman, hammangiz meni taniysiz!"

34. Osvald Kennedi bilan bir kasalxonada, prezidentdan ikki kun va etti daqiqa o'tgach vafot etdi.

35. New York Times gazetasining yozishicha, JFKning 98 yoshli buvisi Meri Jozefina Fitsjeraldga suiqasd haqida hech narsa aytilmagan.

36. Vashingtondagi Kennedi dafn marosimiga dunyoning 100 dan ortiq davlatlaridan arboblar kelishdi. O'sha paytda, bu AQSh hududida eng katta yig'ilish edi.

37. Sobiq prezident Kapitoliy Rotunda shtatida yotar ekan, kutilmagan 250 ming odam hurmat bajo keltirdi.

38. O'n minglab odamlarni qaytarib yuborishdi, ba'zilari esa muzlab qoladigan kechani 2 kilometrdan ko'proq cho'zilgan chiziqda kutishdi.

39. Jeki Kennedi erining dafn marosimlarini Avraam Linkolnnikidan namuna qilib olgan.

40. Bobbi Kennedi va Robert Maknamaraning yordami bilan Jeki Arlington milliy qabristoniga dafn qilinadigan joyni tanladi.

41. Jeki qabrga abadiy olov qo'yishni so'radi.

42. Garchi u boshqa turmushga chiqsa -da, bugun prezident yoniga dafn etilgan.

43. Kennedilarning ikkita farzandi, go'dak o'g'li va qizi ham ota -onasi bilan dafn etilgan.

44. Janoza kuni, 25 -noyabr, shuningdek, Jon Jonning uchinchi tug'ilgan kuni edi.

45. Ikki kundan keyin Karolin 6 yoshga to'lardi.

46. Taksi haydovchisining aytishicha, dafn marosimiga yig'ilganlar g'alati tarzda jim bo'lishgan: & quot ... siz pinhon qulaganini eshitdingiz. & Quot

47. Irlandiyalik harbiy qo'riqchi Gael tilida aytilgan buyruqlarga amal qilib, qabr yonida hurmat bajo keltirdi.

48. Dafn marosimidan so'ng, Jeki Kennedi uchta davlat rahbarlari bilan yakka tartibda uchrashdi: frantsuz Sharl de Goll, irlandiyalik Eamon de Valera va efiopiyalik Xail Selassi.

49. O'sha kechaning yarmiga yaqin u Bobbi Kennedi bilan Kennedi qabriga rejasiz tashrif buyurdi.

50. Lindon Jonson prezident sifatida yozgan birinchi ikkita xat Karolin va Jon Jr.


Nega Jek Rubi JFK qotilini o'ldirdi

Agar 1963 yil 22-noyabrdagi voqealar bo'lmaganida, Jek Rubi umrining oxirigacha 50-yillarning ko'pini o'tkazgandek yashagan bo'lishi mumkin: hech kim, begona odam kabi, kichik vaqt ichida. firibgar o'z mulkiga ega bo'lishni astoydil xohlamoqda. Xuddi o'sha kuni Dallasda ko'p odamlar hayoti o'zgargan bo'lsa -da, ularning ko'plari o'zgarmas tarzda. Ruby's ulardan biri edi.

Noyabrning quyoshli kunlaridan ikki kun o'tgach, Li Xarvi Osvald prezident Jon Kennedi o'ldirganida, Rubi - hozirda ko'pincha "Dallas tungi klubining egasi" deb ta'riflangan odam - politsiya shtab -kvartirasining podvalida jurnalistlar va operatorlar to'plamidan chiqib ketdi. qo'llari kishanlangan Osvaldning oshqozoniga revolver, rasmiylar uni qattiqroq qamoqxonaga o'tkazishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishayotganida va jonli televideniyada guvoh bo'lganidek, tetikni tortib olishdi.

Ruby dastlab o'zining shafqatsiz harakati bilan shon -shuhrat topdi. U, ba'zilar uchun, qotilning qotili bo'lib, AQShning qulagan prezidentining qasosiga aylandi. Osvald o'ldirilgani haqida birinchi xabar paydo bo'lganida, Dallas ko'chalarida quvonch ko'tarildi. Bir necha hafta o'tgach, Ruby yuzlab qo'llab -quvvatlash maktublarini oldi.

Boshqalarga, Rubi, xuddi boshqa narsa kabi, adashgan odam, yo'qolgan ruh, ahmoq va qotillik fitnasi qurboniga aylangan.

Rubining Osvaldni otish motivlari hozircha aniq emas. Ammo qariyb olti yil mobaynida bu tetikni tortish oddiy harakatlar Kennedi o'ldirilishi haqidagi nazariyalarni kuchaytirdi.

& quotJek Rubi bo'lmaganida, menimcha, Kennedi o'ldirilishi butun dunyo bo'ylab ko'p odamlar uchun sir bo'lib qolgandi. Rubi bo'lmaganida, Li Xarvi Osvald 1964 yilda sudga borgan bo'lardi va, ehtimol, Osvaldning kelib chiqishi va uning motivlari haqida ko'proq ma'lumotga ega bo'lardi, - deydi Stiven Fagin, Dealey Plazadagi oltinchi qavat muzeyining kuratori, sobiq Texas maktab kitoblar omborxonasi binosida joylashgan bo'lib, ko'pchilikning fikricha, Osvald Kennedi o'ldirgan. & quot; Ruby Osvaldning hikoyasiga bag'ishlangan kitobni yopdi va shuning uchun o'nlab yillar davomida skeptitsizm va suiqasd haqidagi savollarni ochdi.

& quotRuby, ba'zi odamlar uchun, Kennedining fitna nazariyasini ochish uchun foydalanishingiz mumkin bo'lgan Rosetta Stone. Ammo boshqalar uchun, u Kennedi sevgani uchun va Jekiga [prezidentning xotini] Dallasga qaytib, sudda guvohlik berish uchun kelgan azobini ayamoqchi bo'lgani uchun hamma narsani o'z qo'liga olgan. Muhim raqam, lekin shu bilan birga, asosan, hikoyadagi izoh. & Quot

Jek Rubi kim edi?

Yoqub Leon Rubenshteyn 1911 yilda Chikagoda tug'ilgan-uning tug'ilgan sanasi aniq savol ostida-Rubi muammoli va zo'ravonlik tarbiyasida omon qolgan, shu jumladan politsiya bilan bir necha bor qatnashgan va shaharning jinoiy elementi bilan doimiy aloqada bo'lgan. U Ikkinchi jahon urushida qatnashgan, 1946 yilda xizmatdan bo'shatilgan va 1947 yilda akalari bilan Dallasga ko'chib o'tgan.

U erda Rubi tungi klub egasi va uning joylariga tez-tez boradigan politsiyaning do'sti sifatida tanildi. 1963 yilga kelib, Rubi bir qancha tadbirkorlik sub'ektlarini sinab ko'rdi, ularning hech biri unchalik muvaffaqiyatli bo'lmadi. "Suveren Klub" deb nomlangan "kvartal" va "kvartira" gullab -yashnay olmaganda, u uni Karusel klubi deb qayta nomladi, bu erda shampan, pivo, pitssa, guruh va bir hovuch striptizchi bo'lgan burlesk joyi.

"Ruby" Karusel klubini "ajoyib qo'shma" deb ta'riflagan va uning fikriga e'tiroz bildirgan homiylar ba'zan zinapoyadan tushib ketishgan. 1300 tijorat blokida, Abe Vaynshteynning koloniya klubi yonida va mehmonxonalar, restoranlar va tungi joylar yaqinida, Dallas markazini o'sha paytda rasmiy aybsizlik paytlarida jonli va hurmatli qilib qo'ygan.

Oltinchi qavat muzeyi tomonidan o'tkazilgan bir qancha og'zaki tarixlarga ko'ra, Rubining "klassli" va "professional" ta'rifi ba'zida cho'zilib ketgan. U tez -tez shahar markazidagi ko'chalarda yosh ayollarga murojaat qilib, ularni o'z klubida havaskor striptizchi sifatida ko'rishga undagan.

& Ruby hech qachon biznes nuqtai nazaridan sifat haqida emasdek tuyulardi, lekin shaxsan u jismoniy holatini saqlab qolishga harakat qilgan, yaxshi ovqatlangan, har doim juda chiroyli kiyingan. Har doim kostyum kiyib yurgan va haqiqatan ham jurnalistlar, politsiya xodimlari bilan minnatdor bo'lishni xohlagan, - deydi Fagin. & quot; Shunday qilib, u o'zining tashqi qiyofasi va shaxsiyati haqida juda ko'p g'amxo'rlik qilar edi - u juda xushmuomala edi - biznesga kelganda, u sinfni tashkil qilish nuqtai nazaridan befarq bo'lib tuyuldi. & quot

Kennedi suiqasdidan so'ng, ko'plab fitna nazariyotchilari Rubining tungi klublarda ishtirokini va uning bolalikni Chikagoda uyushgan jinoyatchilikka aloqadorligining isboti sifatida ko'rsatdilar va Kennedi o'ldirilishi olomon tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlangan degan fikrni ilgari surdi. .

Rubi kamida bir marta Kubaning Gavana shahriga safar qilgan edi, bu esa uyushgan jinoyatchilik gumonlarini kuchaytirdi. Ammo ko'pchilik hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, Ruby unchalik bog'liq emas edi.

& quot; U har doim jinoiy harakatlarga qo'shni bo'lgan, agar u bunga shaxsan aralashmagan bo'lsa. U odamlarga haqiqatdagidan ko'ra ko'proq narsa bor degan taassurot qoldirishdan zavqlangan deb ishoniladi, - deydi Fagin. & quotAniqki, bu uning klub biznesiga odamlarga gangster bilan tirsagini ishqalayotganini o'ylashiga yordam berdi. Va Ruby ularni bunga ko'ndirmadi. & Quot

Yillar davomida Rubining uyushgan jinoyatchilik bilan aloqalarini isbotlash qiyin bo'lgan. Shunga qaramay, Kennediga suiqasd paytida hukumatdan 4500 dollardan ko'proq qarzdor bo'lgan va kommunistlar boshqarayotgan Kubaga sirli sayohatlar qilgan tungi klub egasi, Rubining jim bo'lishini taklif qilganlar uchun asosiy ozuqa bo'lib tuyuladi. Osvald Kennedi o'ldirish uchun uyushtirilgan katta guruh fitnasining bir qismi sifatida.

Ammo Rubining xatti -harakatlari uchun boshqa tushuntirishlar, 1963 yil 24 -noyabr - o'z so'zlari bilan aytganda - bu fikrga qarshi.


Mahalliy muallifning aytishicha, sharhlovchi JFK ishini 1965 yilda, o'ldirilishidan oldin ochgan

Burlingame muallifi Mark Shou 1965 yilda vafotidan oldin kuzatuvchi Doroti Kilgallenning bosh muharriri bo'lgan Jek Rubi sudining transkriptining yonida o'tiradi.

Burlingamelik tergov muxbiri va muallifi Mark Shou o'tgan asrning eng yirik jinoyat hikoyasi - Prezident Jon Kennedi o'ldirilishining nuqtalarini bog'laydigan yangi kitob bilan chiqdi.

Uning "Adolatni inkor etish" nomli yangi kitobidagi eng hayratlanarli faktlardan biri shundaki, JFK qotili Li Xarvi Osvaldni milliy televideniyeda o'qqa tutgan Jek Rubi Dallas gazetasi binosida, Kennedi kortejiga qaragan deraza yonida edi. 1963 yil 22 -noyabr, taqdirli tushdan keyin, Kennedi o'ldirilgan. Bir nechta guvohlar Rubini otishma paytida ko'rishgan.

"Rubi suiqasd sodir bo'lishidan oldin aniq edi", dedi Shou menga o'tgan hafta bergan intervyusida.

Kitobdagi bu vahiy va boshqa dalillar FBR direktori J. Edgar Xuverning Osvald yolg'iz harakat qilganligi haqidagi da'vosini puchga chiqaradi va Yangi Orlean mafiyasi xo'jayini Karlos Marchello boshchiligidagi fitnaga ishora qiladi.

Zaharlanish o'limi

Shou bu yangi ma'lumotni "Juda ko'p bilgan muxbir" bestsellerini yozgandan so'ng topdi, unda jurnalist va "Mening chizig'im nima?" panelist Doroti Kilgallen 1965 yilda u suiqasdni tergov qilayotganda zaharlangan.

Doroti Kilgallen, Texas sud binosining koridorida, JFK suiqasd ishida to'plagan yozuvlar va hujjatlar faylini mahkam ushlaydi. Fotosurat Mark Shou tomonidan berilgan.

Shou sinchkovlik bilan olib borgan tergovlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, Kilgallen, Ogayo shtatidagi gazetaning sharhlovchisi, er -xotin bilan uchta o'ldiruvchi dori ichganida vafot etdi. Ammo, ehtimol, u FTB, mafiya yoki ikkalasining buyrug'i bilan unga josuslik qilgan.

"Juda ko'p narsani bilgan muxbir" chiqarilgandan so'ng, Shou Rubining 1964 yilgi sud jarayonining 2000 daftarlik dafn qilingan nusxasini olishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

O'sha paytda jurnalistlar sud jarayoniga unchalik e'tibor bermagan, chunki Rubi Osvaldni Dallas politsiya bo'limi podvalida televizorda otib tashlagan. Ular ochiq va yopiq edi, deb o'yladilar ular. Hech kim Rubyni Osvaldni o'ldirishga kim majbur qilgani qiziqtirmagan. Bundan tashqari, ommaviy axborot vositalari Osvald yakka o'zi harakat qilgan hukumatning rasmiy yo'nalishini bir xilda surishdi.

San -Frantsisko advokatining roli

Ammo sud protokollari Shouga Rubining fitnaning bir qismi ekanligini ko'rsatadigan ko'plab yangi materiallarni berdi. Shou, Rubining advokati, San -Frantsiskodagi taniqli advokati Melvin Belli, Rubining jinnilikni talab qilib, olomonga yaxshilik qilganini, tergov shu erda to'xtab qolishini aniqladi. Aqlsiz odamga kim ishonadi, to'g'rimi?

Belli suiqasddan keyin olomon uchun "chaqiruvda" bo'lgan, deb yozadi Shou. Baliqchilar portidagi Scoma's -da tushlik qilayotganda, Belli Osvald o'ldirilganini eshitdi. U Shou bilan suhbatlashgan guvohga shunday dedi: "Osvald o'lganidan keyin men Rubini himoya qilishim kerak".

Sudda Rubi o'rnini egallashni xohladi, lekin Belli ruxsat bermadi. Ruby, Hearst gazetasi sindikatining taniqli sharhlovchisi Kilgallenga bir nechta intervyu berdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Kilgallen Rubidan o'rgangan narsalarning ko'p qismi o'z ustuniga kirmagan, lekin u kitobda ishlatishni rejalashtirgan, chunki u vafotidan keyin hech qachon nashr etilmaydi.

Kilgallen nishonga oldi

"Adolatni inkor etish", aniqki, suiqasd uyushtirganlarning ongida Kilgallenni o'ldirish kerak edi.

U odamlarga o'limidan oldin JFK ishini ochib beradigan dalillar borligini aytdi. Uning panelisti "Mening chizig'im nima?" Random House nashriyoti Bennett Cerf unga suiqasd haqida yozmoqchi bo'lgan kitobini oldindan bergan edi. Cerf kitobning oldingi so'zini "Mening qatorim nima?" Kechqurun o'qidi. uning o'limidan oldingi epizod. U odamlarga bundan taassurot qolganini aytdi.

U 1965 yil 8 -noyabrda, tergov tugashiga yaqin, jinoyat boshlig'i Marchelloning uyi bo'lgan Nyu -Orleanga sayohat qilishidan bir kun oldin o'ldirilgan.

U vafotidan bir necha soat o'tgach - lekin politsiya kelishidan oldin - guvohlar FHR xodimlari uning Manxetten shaharchasidan hujjatlarni olib ketayotganini ko'rishdi. Yana, federal agentlar aslida olomonning a'zolari bo'lishi mumkin edi, deydi Shou. Qanday bo'lmasin, uning eslatmalari va JFK ishi bo'yicha yig'gan fayli yo'qoldi.

Boshqa fitna nazariyasi?

Bilaman, ba'zilaringiz nima deyishingiz mumkin - yaxshi qayg'u, boshqa JFK fitna nazariyasi? 60 -yillarning oxiri va 70 -yillarning aksariyatida har bir kraker suiqasd haqidagi nazariyani taklif qilardi. Mamlakat charchoq fitnasi nazariyasiga kirdi. Ko'pchilik Osvald yolg'iz harakat qilmaganini sezdi, lekin bu suiqasdni kim uyushtirganini hech kim taxmin qilmagan - ruslar, kubaliklar, olomon, Lyndon Jonson hamma jamoatchilik fikrida gumon qilingan.

Shou, sobiq advokat va 25 ta badiiy bo'lmagan kitoblar muallifi, "Adolatni inkor etish" da o'z da'volarini yozib olingan intervyular va Ruby sudining transkriptlari kabi dastlabki manbali hujjatlar bilan qo'llab -quvvatlaydi. U www.thedorothykilgallenstory.org veb -saytini yaratdi, u o'zi yozgan yozuvlar va hujjatlarni joylashtirdi.

Palo Alto voqeasi

JFK -ning o'ldirilishi ahmoqona mavzu bo'lsa -da, kitobda Shawning Palo -Alto voqeasi haqida o'ylangan, u Kilgallenni o'ldirgan odamning jinoyat tarixining bir qismi, Ogayo shtatining gazetachisi Ron Pataki.

1954 yilda Pataki - o'shanda Stenfordning birinchi kurs talabasi - bir kechada Palo Alto avtostantsiyasida bo'lgan ikki do'sti bilan mast bo'lgan. Ular avtobus haydovchisidan avtobusga qo'yib yuborishni talab qilishdi, lekin u rad etdi. Keyin avtobusning old oynasiga sharob shishasi tashlandi va haydovchi politsiyaga qo'ng'iroq qilish uchun telefon kabinasiga bordi, lekin telefonni mast o'quvchilardan biri olib tashladi. Ammo politsiya uchtasini ushlab, hibsga oldi.

Shou voqea haqidagi birinchi manbasi Stenford Daily arxividan olingan parcha edi. Buni aniqlash uchun u Patakining kogortlaridan birini topdi, hech kim janubiy janubidagi taniqli jinoyat himoyachisi Toni Serra emas. Hozir 83 yoshda bo'lgan Serra Shouga Pataki bilan uchrashganini, ikkalasi ham birinchi Stenford futbol jamoasida o'ynaganini aytdi.

Serra Shouga ularning uchalasi hibsga olinganini tasdiqladi. "Politsiya kelganida, men ikkita avtobus orasida yashirdim, Pataki esa avtobus tagida yashirinib qoldi, lekin ular bizni topdilar", dedi Serra Shouga.

Ko'p yillar davomida boshqa voqealarga aloqador bo'lgan Pataki hech qachon Kilgallenni o'ldirishda ayblanmagan, garchi u uning ichimligi zaharlanganini bilganligini ko'rsatuvchi bir qancha ayblovli bayonotlar bergan.

Noyabr oyida chiqarilgan “Denial Adolat, ” muqovasi.

Uinston Cherchill Kennedi suiqasdiga "sirli, sirli o'ralgan jumboq" haqidagi iqtibos keltiradi. Shou tadqiqotlari uni mafiya JFKning otasi, Bostonlik tadbirkor va Taqiqlanish davridagi botlegger Jozef P. Kennedi tomonidan o'zini ikki tomonlama his qilganiga ishonishiga olib keladi. Katta Kennedi olomondan Richard Niksonni mag'lub etish uchun Kennedi olib borishi kerak bo'lgan G'arbiy Virjiniya va Illinoys shtatlaridagi kasaba uyushmalari ta'siridan foydalanib, 1960 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlarini o'tkazishni so'radi. Buning evaziga mafiya hukumat orqasidan ketmasligiga ishondi.

JFK saylanganidan so'ng, ukasi Robert Kennedi bosh prokuror etib tayinlandi. Aftidan, RFK mafiyani ishdan bo'shatish to'g'risida eslatma olmagan. U uyushgan jinoyatchilikni tergov qila boshladi va mafiya bunga munosabat bildirdi. Ularning birinchi fikri RFKni o'ldirish edi, lekin Jon Kennedi akasining o'ldirilishiga javoban mafiyani buzish uchun ko'proq kuch sarflagan bo'lardi. Keyin ular, agar ular JFKdan qutulishsa, uning vorisi Lindon Jonson RFKni bosh prokuror sifatida saqlamasligini tushunishdi. Jonson va Robert Kennedi bir -biridan nafratlanishdi.

Nyu -Orleandagi jinoyat boshlig'i Karlos Marchelloga Jon Kennedi ishdan bo'shatish vazifasi yuklatilgan. Shouda Osvaldni Marcello ofisida o'ldirilishidan bir oy oldin dalillar bor.

Kitobda FTB direktori Xuverning ishtiroki borligi haqida dalillar ham bor.

Siz Shou xulosasi bilan shubhalanishingiz mumkin, lekin bu dalillarga asoslangan.

"Shisha shift"

Va Kilgallenga kelsak, dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, u qo'rqmas va jirkanch muxbir edi, u Shou ta'kidlaganidek, jurnalistikadagi "shisha shiftini" buzilishidan ancha oldin buzgan.

Shou ertaga kechqurun (4 -dekabr) 6 da San -Frantsiskodagi The Embarcadero, Hamdo'stlik klubida, 6 da gapiradi. Chiptalar haqida ma'lumot olish uchun www.commonwealthclub.org saytiga o'ting.

Muharrir Deyv Praysning ustuni dushanba kuni chiqadi. Uning elektron pochta manzili [email protected]

Tegishli maqolalar

Gollivud prodyuserlik kompaniyasi Doroti Kilgallen vafoti haqidagi mahalliy muallifning kitobiga huquqlarni oldi.

Daily Post xodimlari tomonidan Gollivud prodyuserlik kompaniyasi Burlingame muallifining eng ko'p sotilgan kitobiga 1965 yilda tergov muxbiri va teledasturning sirli o'limi haqidagi huquqni oldi […]

Mahalliy muallif, sharhlovchi Doroti Kilgallenning o'limida adolat talab qilmoqda

By EMILY MIBACH Daily Post xodimlari yozuvchisi Burlingame muallifi Mark Shou, kecha (4 sentyabr), hukumat 1965 yilni e'lon qilish uchun o'z harakatlarini davom ettirmoqchi ekanligini aytdi […]

3 ta sharh

Janob Shou, shubhasiz, JFK, Richard Nikson, Jerald Ford va Jorj W. Bushning otasi Edgar Xuver kabi otasi Lyndon Bayns Jonsonni o'ldirgan. JFKni o'ldirish rejasi eng yuqori darajadan boshlangan, u holda JFKni o'ldirish mumkin emas edi. LBJ JFKga Rokfellerlar oilasining marhamati bilan davlat to'ntarishi qildi, bu butun operatsiyani moliyalashtirgan Texaslik ikkita neft magnatlari, mafiya, Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasining sobiq direktori Allan Dalles, Dalles va Jerald Ford "Uorren hisoboti" a'zolari, prezidentni, Dallas politsiya boshqarmasini, ba'zi yuqori harbiy xizmatchilarni, Bushning otasi bo'lgan Boshsuyagi va Suyaklari maxfiy jamiyatini himoya qilish uchun Dallas maxfiy xizmatining boshlig'i va Federal zaxira kengashining yuqori a'zolari. JFK vafotidan keyingi 5 yil ichida 120 dan ortiq guvohlar o'ldirilgan yoki vafot etgan

Jimmi, siz Rotshildlar, masonlar va uch tomonlama komissiyani tark etdingiz!

Doroti jurnalistlar uchun shisha shiftini sindirib tashlagani meni janob Praysning oxirgi xatboshisi hayratga soldi. Men uning tarixda e'tibordan chetda qolganini his qilyapman. U o'z davridagi Bernshteyn va Vudvord kabi juda qat'iyatli muxbirga o'xshaydi. Ehtimol, u suiqasd bilan bog'liq biror narsani o'ylab topgandir. Hukumat, agar ular haqiqatan ham FBR agentlari bo'lganida, uning ustidagi narsalarni va uning kvartirasidan olib tashlangan narsalarni oshkor qilishga majbur bo'lishi kerak.

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Qotillik va ayblov

1963 yil 24 -noyabrda Li Xarvi Osvald suiqasd uchun Dallas politsiyasi tomonidan hibsga olingan Prezident Jon F. Kennedi. Ruby yaqin atrofda edi, u qurol olib tashlaganida Osvaldni otib tashladi uni yaralash.

Jek Rubi politsiya tomonidan ushlanib, hibsga olindi. 1964 yil 14 martda, suddan so'ng, Jek Rubi aybdor deb topilib, o'lim jazosiga hukm qilindi Osvaldni o'ldirgani uchun. Uning advokatlari apellyatsiya berishdi va u boshqa sud majlisini kelgusida belgilashini so'radi. Sud uning apellyatsiyasini qanoatlantirdi va yangi sud va sud ishining yangi sanasini belgilab berdi.

Sud o'lim jazosini bekor qildi va 1967 yilning fevralida boshlanadigan sudning yangi sanasini belgilab berdi. Biroq 1966 yil 9 dekabrda u kasal bo'lib, pnevmoniya tufayli Dallasdagi Parklend kasalxonasiga yotqizilgan.

To'g'ri tashxis qo'yilgach, shifokorlar & rsquo hisoboti buni o'qidi Jek Rubi bor edi o'pkada, miyada saraton, va jigar U uch haftadan so'ng vafot etdi 1967 yil 3 yanvar o'pka saratonidan o'pka emboliyasi Parklend kasalxonasida. U ellik besh yoshida vafot etdi va Illinoys shtatining Norridj shahridagi Uestlon qabristoniga dafn qilindi.


Fotosuratni tugatish

Ikkita tergovchi yonida bo'lgan Osvald erto'laga soat 11:21 da kirdi. Ular tamponlari janob Jeksonning chap tizzasiga tegib turgan, hali ham joyida turgan, markirovka qilinmagan mashinaga ketayotganga o'xshardi.

Osvald paydo bo'lishidan bir daqiqa o'tmay Rubi podvalga kirib, detektiv Xarrisonning orqasida va chapda joylashdi.

1967 yilda Rubi advokatiga yozgan maktubida janob Birs nima bo'lganini tasvirlab beradi:

"O'ng ko'zning burchagida men to'satdan harakatni ko'rdim. Birinchi taassurotim - bu fotosuratchi o'rnidan chiqqan yoki juda qisqa optikasi bilan o'z pozitsiyasini yaxshilashga harakat qilgan, keyin la'nat:" Sen, kaltakesak o'g'li " La'nat shunchalik g'ayritabiiy va hayajonli ovozda edi, men xulosa qilishimdan oldin, kimdir asabiylashib ketganini va Osvaldga hujum qilayotganini bilardim.

To'satdan sodir bo'lgan harakat janob Jeksonni sekundning o'ndan oltidan keyin, deklanşöre tortishga undadi.

"Pivo menga qaraganda ancha tez otilganining sababi, - deydi janob Jekson, - u buni mendan ko'ra osonroq va tezroq ko'rdi. Rubi o'z tasavvurida ko'proq edi. Men yaxshiroq pozitsiyaga ega edim, chunki men chalg'imagan edim. by Ruby as much. I was still looking at Oswald's face, and I knew I was going to shoot before whoever that was blocked my view."

Mr. Jackson was using a Nikon S3 with a wide-angle 35 mm lens. Mr. Beers was using a Mamiyaflex camera with a 65 mm lens.

More than anything, Mr. Jackson says, timing was paramount: 1963 technology required the use of strobe lights, which took up to five seconds to recycle each time the shutter snapped. Motor-driven

cameras, which advance the frames rapidly, existed in 1963, says Mr. Jackson, but no one in the basement was using one. Amid the bedlam, Mr. Jackson had no idea what he had.

The basement events had left him sickened, adding to the horror of the president being murdered in Mr. Jackson's hometown. "But I had a job to do," he says. And so did his crosstown rival.

As soon as he could, Mr. Beers returned to the Yangiliklar' darkroom. Seeing the negative for the first time, Mr. Beers' supervisor was ecstatic.

"My God!" Mr. Dillard said. "You've just won us the Pulitzer Prize!"

But Mr. Jackson's darkroom discovery was even more dramatic.

Felix McKnight, co-publisher and editor of the Times Herald, says Mr. Jackson's negative was overwhelming. "I had been a Pulitzer juror three times," says Mr. McKnight, now 91. He shouted to the troops: "We've got a winner here! We're gonna win one!"

1 / 2 The Dallas Times Herald front page on November 25, 1963 carried the famous Bob Jackson photo of Jack Ruby shooting Lee Harvey Oswald. (The Dallas Times Herald)

2 / 2 The Dallas Morning News front page of Nov. 25, 1963 displayed this photo taken by former Dallas Morning News photographer Jack Beers, who was positioned higher than rival Bob Jackson.

When The News began hitting porches at dawn the next day, Mr. Beers' photograph ate up most of the front page.

It was and is a great picture, showing Ruby emerging from the shadows with gun fully extended. But the look on Oswald's face - sullen, indifferent, even bored - and that of the officers leading him in handcuffs indicates none of them has even seen Ruby, much less sensed the impending chaos.

"Seeing Jack's picture made me a little sad," says Mr. McKnight, who had once worked at Yangiliklar and supervised Mr. Beers. "Jack was a fine young man and a very good photographer, and I knew that would be a bitter defeat. It was like losing a horse race by a nose. I understood the pangs of his disappointment, and it was damn narrow."

Lekin ichida Times Herald newsroom, no one else felt even a twinge of sadness. News columnist Blackie Sherrod, who in 1963 was lead sports columnist and sports editor at the Times Herald, was helping out the city desk in the assassination's aftermath. It was Mr. Sherrod who made the decision to run Mr. Jackson's photograph the full eight columns.

Taken six-tenths of a second later, Mr. Jackson's is similar to Mr. Beers' but with a far more arresting image: It shows Ruby aiming the gun at Oswald, whose body has just been invaded by the bullet, as smoke rings rise from his abdomen to his eyes. As Oswald grimaces in pain, the police detectives' faces are etched in sheer terror.

Now a 61-year-old photographer for the Vashington Post, Frank Johnston reflects on his own moment in the basement by trumpeting Mr. Jackson's photograph as a classic for the ages. More than any other image, he says, it captures the shock and horror of Dallas' darkest weekend.

"The facial expressions, the body language of everyone in that photograph is just incredible," says Mr. Johnston. "I looked at that photograph the first time and was startled by it, it had so much impact."


In American History

Ruby claimed he shot Oswald in order to prevent Jackie Kennedy from having to participate in a lengthy trial. He also noted his ire at the famous anti-Kennedy ad placed in the Dallas Morning News on the day of the assassination. Ruby feared the ad, signed by right-wing activist Bernard Weissman, would cause the public to blame the assassination on the Jews—to Ruby, Weissman’s name sounded “Jewish.”

Ruby’s activities between the time of the assassination and the Oswald shooting are well documented. Seth Kantor, a former Dallas journalist then working as a White House correspondent, claimed to have seen Ruby at Parkland Hospital shortly after the assassination.

Ruby then closed his nightclub, the Carousel Club, for the weekend, and spent the rest of the day running around the city talking about the assassination. He bought sandwiches for the police, bringing them to radio station KLIF where he learned the police had already eaten.


He visited the police station anyway, talked with Kathy Kay, an employee of his at the Carousel, and stopped by the Dallas Times Herald. At 4:30 A.M on 24 November, he and his roommate, George Senator, took photographs of an “Impeach Earl Warren” billboard near a Dallas freeway.

Later that morning, Ruby drove downtown to the Western Union office and wired $25 to Karen Carlin, another Carousel employee, at 11:17 A.M. Four minutes later, he headed to the nearby Dallas Police station, where Oswald was at that moment being transferred to the Dallas jail. Moving quickly through the crowd, Ruby shot Oswald once in the stomach.

Ruby was born Jack Rubenstein on 25 March 1911, in Chicago. His family was Orthodox Jewish, and Ruby’s Jewish identity emerged early on, as he participated in breaking up American Nazi Bund marches in Chicago. Dropping out of school after the sixth grade, Ruby spent his youth fighting and hustling on the streets. He was placed in a foster home for eighteen months beginning in 1923. In 1933, he left for California, returning to Chicago in 1937.

Between 1937 and 1943 he was union organizer for Scrap Iron Junk Handler Local 20467 in Chicago the union’s books were later seized by the state of Illinois because of connections with organized crime (it has often been claimed that Ruby was more widely involved with organized crime in Chicago).

He enlisted in the army air force in 1943, and was discharged in 1946. He moved to Dallas in 1947, to help his sister Eva run a nightclub. That same year, he changed his name to Jack Ruby. Between 1947 and 1963, Ruby ran a string of Dallas nightclubs.

Eva’s Singapore Club became the Silver Spur in 1953, and Ruby invested in the Vegas Club, which he partly owned until his arrest. In 1959, Ruby acquired an interest in the Sovereign Club, on Commerce Street in downtown Dallas. When Ruby’s friend Ralph Paul became his partner, they changed the Sovereign’s name and format to a striptease joint called the Carousel Club.

After his arrest for the Oswald killing, Ruby was tried and convicted by Judge Joe B. Brown. San Francisco lawyer Melvin Belli defended him, making the case that Ruby suffered from psychomotor epilepsy, which affected his judgment. After the guilty verdict was returned on 14 March 1964, Ruby’s lawyers began an appeal, which culminated in Brown’s removal from the case.

On 24 June 1966, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reversed Ruby’s death sentence and granted him a change of venue. While this appeal continued, Ruby died of cancer on 3 January 1967, expiring in the same Parkland Hospital where Kennedy was taken.

Though Ruby’s claim that he was injected with cancer is medically impossible, his Parkland doctor asserted that if his cancer had been detected earlier by Dallas jail physician John W. Callahan, it could have been treated, prolonging Ruby’s life.

Ruby and Kennedy Conspiracy Theories

Up until his death, Ruby offered flickering assertions that he was involved in a conspiracy, asserting in a television interview that his entire story had not been told. Ruby figures in every conceivable assassination conspiracy theory.

In particular, his connections with organized crime have helped produce theories describing collusion between the Mafia and Cuban exiles, the CIA, or right-wing Texas militants. Ruby’s alleged Mafia ties begin with his youth in Chicago, where he supposedly ran errands for Al Capone, and continue through his union organizer work in the same city.

Many of Ruby’s associates in Dallas are also linked to organized crime. For example, Paul Roland Jones, an associate of the Chicago Mafia who offered to bribe the Dallas Police Department, frequented Ruby’s Singapore Club during the late 1940s.

In addition to these links, Ruby’s activity in the months before the assassination also indicates an organized crime connection. For example, according to Bell Telephone records, Ruby’s phone activity increased dramatically during this period, and many of these calls are to figures connected with organized crime.

Ruby explained these calls as resulting from troubles with the American Guild of Variety Artists, the union to which Carousel Club performers belonged. Ruby also made several documented trips to Cuba between 1959 and 1963, supposedly on Mafia gun-running or narcotics errands.

In addition to the Mafia connection, conspiracy researchers point to Ruby’s testimony before the Warren Commission, in which, among other strange notes, he repeatedly asks to be taken to Washington because his life is in danger. Ruby’s involvement in a conspiracy also surfaces elsewhere in the hearings.

In his testimony, Marguerite Oswald’s lawyer Mark Lane infamously claimed that Ruby met with Weissman at the Carousel Club, along with J. D. Tippit, the policeman whom Oswald shot shortly after the assassination. Lane’s reference to Tippit carried weight because of Ruby’s close association with the Dallas Police Department.

For example, he regularly hosted Dallas Police Department members at the Carousel Club, and sent policemen gifts of whiskey at Christmas. With fifty-one policemen guarding Oswald, researchers often assume that Ruby must have had inside help to fire such a close shot.


The Gun That Killed John F. Kennedy

On Nov. 22, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald fired two 6.5-millimeter rounds from an Italian Carcano Fucile di Fanteria Mod. 91/38 rifle and killed U.S. president John.

On Nov. 22, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald fired two 6.5-millimeter rounds from an Italian Carcano Fucile di Fanteria Mod. 91/38 rifle and killed U.S. president John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas.

Kennedy was the fourth American president to be assassinated.

Oswald, a 24-year-old former Marine, fired from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. The killer harbored Communist sympathies and had earlier defected to, then returned from, the Soviet Union.

Oswald had enlisted in the Marines in 1956. He was, like all Marines, taught how to shoot. In his final marksmanship test in December 1956, he attained the “sharpshooter” classification. After a 1959 retest he achieved the lower “marksman” rating.

He was, in other words, a skilled rifleman. Discharged from the Marines in late 1959 at the age of 19, Oswald traveled to Russia and, after some difficulty, defected. However, he grew disenchanted with Soviet Russia and returned to the United States in 1962. In March 1963 Oswald attempted to assassinate retired major general Edwin Walker, who he believed to be a fascist, with the same rifle he would later use to kill the president.

In mid-October 1963, Oswald took a job at the Texas School Book Depository.

At top — Oswald’s Carcano Mod. 91/38 carbine. Manba. Above Oswald posing with his rifle and pistol and holding copies of the Communist newspapers The Worker va Jangari

On the morning of Nov. 22, Kennedy arrived in Texas, intending to give a speech to launch his 1964 re-election campaign. The presidential motorcade left Love Field airport at 11:30 A.M. and at 12:28 P.M. reached Dealey Plaza.

The motorcade passed through the plaza traveling at just 11 miles per hour, as the limos’ passengers waved to the crowd. At 12:30, Oswald fired his first shot, missing the president. He quickly reloaded and fired his second just 2.3 seconds after his first.

The second round struck its target, plunging through Kennedy’s body, rupturing his trachea and a lung. This was a life-threatening wound but not a mortal one. As Kennedy leaned forward in pain, clutching his wounded throat, the third shot entered the top of his skull, exiting the right of his face. This was a mortal wound.

Also in the car was Texas governor John Connally. He was badly wounded by the same bullet that first wounded the president. Kennedy’s Secret Service detail reacted to the shots while Kennedy’s wife Jackie cradled her husband’s shattered skull in her hands. By 12:31, U.S. and world history had irrevocably changed.

The rifle Oswald wielded was an Italian Carcano Fucile di Fanteria Mod. 91/38 carbine that he had mail-ordered eight months earlier from Klein’s Sporting Goods. It cost $19.95. The Carcano was an imported war-surplus rifle. Oswald paid the extra $7 for Kleins to fit the scope. The rifle fired a round-nose copper-jacketed 6.5-by-52-millimeter round. It held six rounds.

Following the shooting, Oswald left the book depository and returned to his lodgings to change clothes. While waiting for a bus he was confronted by Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit. Oswald fired four rounds into Tippit at close range from a mail-order Smith & Wesson Model 10 chambered in .38 caliber.

Oswald’s mail-order Smith & Wesson Model 10

After killing Tippit, Oswald attempted to hide in the Texas Theater. But he was spotted entering without paying. He was arrested after a brief struggle.

Kennedy was rushed to Dallas’s Parkland Hospital where he was treated by staff in Trauma Room #1. Last rites were performed and he was declared dead at 1:00 P.M. His passing was announced to the public 30 minutes later. Upon Kennedy’s death, Vice President Lyndon Johnson immediately became president. Johnson was officially inaugurated aboard Air Force One two hours later.

Oswald had become a suspect in the assassination earlier that afternoon when he had been reported missing from the book depository. He was charged by police with Tippit’s murder at 7:10 P.M. and in the early hours of the next day after hours of interrogation, he was also charged with the president’s murder.

In 1964 the Warren Commission found that a deranged Oswald acted alone. Oswald never stood trial for the assassination of Kennedy or the murder of Tippit. On Nov. 24, 1963 he was shot and killed by Jack Ruby as he was led from the basement of the Dallas Police Department.

Ruby claimed his motive was to spare Jackie Kennedy the ordeal of a trial. Ruby himself was convicted of murder and died of complications from lung cancer in 1967.


Jack Ruby's Executor And Heirs Battle for Gun

Millions of Americans still benumbed by the killing of President John F. Kennedy two days earlier caught a fleeting glimpse of the gun 27 years ago, when a short man in a hat darted from the corners of their television screens, ran up to Lee Harvey Oswald and fired it into his stomach.

Ever since, the .38-caliber Colt Cobra revolver that Jack Ruby used to assassinate an assassin -- a macabre piece of American history, a bizarre collectible and perhaps the last artifact of that traumatic weekend still at large -- has sat in a $20-a-year safety deposit box here. Now it is the subject of a legal tug-of-war, one that will land in a court of law Monday morning.

On one side of Judge Robert E. Price's courtroom in Dallas County Probate Court, across the street from the Texas School Book Depository Building, will be 81-year-old Jules F. Mayer of Dallas, whom Jack Ruby named his executor in a will he wrote 40 years ago. On the other, representing the Ruby heirs, will be Jack Ruby's younger brother Earl, 75, of Boca Raton, Fla. In between them will be the lawyers.

Technically, the legal status of the Ruby estate and why it remains open nearly 24 years after Jack Ruby's death will be at issue, as well as whether Mr. Mayer or Mr. Ruby should control it. But what is really at stake is which of the two men will sell the fateful gun -- for which, Mr. Mayer says, he has been offered as much as $100,000 -- and which set of lawyers gets to pocket the proceeds.

"It's not a very fertile source of information on Ruby, but it's a first-class example of the legal system screwing things up more than you can imagine," the Ruby family's lawyer, James M. Simons of Austin, said of the case. Mr. Simons himself stands to receive a third of whatever Mr. Ruby and his family collect.

Court documents show that Mr. Mayer is seeking $32,387 from the estate for his services, which have in recent years included time spent talking to reporters as well as to a researcher from the television game show "Jeopardy." Two lawyers he hired say they are owed an additional $23,151.

Mr. Mayer called his fee request "minute," adding, "I have never received a dime from anybody in that estate."

Mr. Simons countered that Mr. Mayer was "real close to being senile," but said he would not raise the issue of his mental competency purely as a matter of courtesy. "It's very clear he's not on top of the situation and is confused on many things," he said. "This man is just setting there doing nothing but writing up slips for the time he's supposedly spending on this estate. The time has come to wind this thing up."

Mr. Mayer called the charge of incompetence "a damned lie." He said that all offers for the gun had either been withdrawn, were made subject to conditions to which he could not agree, or had been blocked by the Ruby heirs.

Earl Ruby, who has retired from his dry-cleaning business, called the assertion of blocking the gun's sale ridiculous. "I could never stop him from selling it," he said. "He told me, 'You can't stop me, and neither can anyone else,' and then he hung up on me. As far as I'm concerned, the man is an idiot." Thousands in Expenses

At one point, Mr. Ruby said, the family had hoped to donate the gun to the National Archives -- to show he said "that the Ruby family was O. K., they're not moochers." But his brother had cost him so much in legal fees -- $59,000 for lawyers in his murder trial, $10,000 and counting in the probate case -- that he now plans to sell the gun just to recoup his costs.

Jack Ruby's gun now sits in the vault of the North Dallas branch of the Texas Commerce Bank, where it has been viewed by a steady stream of reporters in recent months. Beyond that and a few pieces of jewelry -- a Le Coultre watch and diamond-studded gold ring, which are in Mr. Mayer's office safe -- the Ruby estate consists almost entirely of the clothes Jack Ruby wore when he was taken into custody after shooting Oswald on the morning of Nov. 24, 1963. They sit in two boxes, sealed with twine, atop Mr. Mayer's law books.

The inventory includes one charcoal-colored Neiman-Marcus suit, a pair of Florsheim "imperial quality" wing-tipped shoes with "Jack Ruby" in the lining, a French-made alligator belt, a white shirt, a gray silk tie, some Pilgrim underwear from Sears-Roebuck & Co., a Cavanagh hat and an athletic supporter.

The precise worth of these objects, or the demand for them, is unclear. In 1968 Mr. Mayer tried to peddle Mr. Ruby's personal effects to a variety of places: Madame Tussaud's wax museum, Christie's, and the Smithsonian Institution, as well as to the manufacturers of the hat, the gun and the shoes. There were no takers.

On the advice of friends when he arrived here from Chicago in 1947, Jack Ruby looked up Mr. Mayer, an Indiana native who had been practicing law in Dallas since the 1930's. The two became close, and Mr. Mayer did legal work for Ruby's various night clubs.

In his deposition, Mr. Mayer described how he and his wife were vacationing in Galveston in 1950 when Ruby came to see them. The drive had been harrowing, and around 4 in the morning, shortly after awakening the couple in their hotel room, Ruby asked Mr. Mayer to write a will for him. Mr. Mayer Drifted Away

"I said, 'Well, when we get back to Dallas, I'll draw up a will for you,' " Mr. Mayer recalled. "He said, 'No, I want a will now, today.' So I said, 'Well, I'll tell you, Jack, I'm a little tired.' " But the following morning he complied with Ruby's wishes.

In the intervening years, the two men grew apart and, said Earl Ruby, Mr. Mayer took no role in Jack Ruby's personal affairs after the Oswald shooting. Mr. Ruby said his brother drafted another will, which substituted him for Mr. Mayer as executor, as he lay dying in Parkland Hospital, the same place where both Kennedy and Oswald had died three years earlier. Jack Ruby, who was 55 when he died on Jan. 3, 1967, had been convicted of murder and sentenced to death for killing Oswald. That conviction was overturned, and he was hospitalized while awaiting a new trial.

The new will was never signed, Mr. Ruby said.

Over the next few years, Mr. Ruby said, he called Mr. Mayer periodically to ask about the status of the estate. Each time, he said, Mr. Mayer hung up on him.

Finally, in November 1988, as the airwaves were filled with commemorations of the 25th anniversary of the Kennedy assassination, Mr. Ruby said he heard Mr. Mayer tell a reporter that he planned to sell the weapon. At that point, he contacted him again and asked that it be returned. In May 1989 the family then took him to court.

Last September the Ruby family's local counsel, Douglas Larson of Mesquite, Tex., questioned Mr. Mayer. Both then and in an interview with a reporter today, Mr. Mayer was alternately halting, rambling, cantankerous and belligerent. He appeared to have trouble differentiating between hundreds and thousands, as well as between months and years. Only the gentle questioning of his lawyer, Peter Bargmann of Dallas, elicited information.

Despite the troubles and high fees, Mr. Ruby said he welcomed the court case, for it has given him a forum for defending his older brother, of whom he said he had never been ashamed, then or now.

Mr. Ruby is particularly incensed at charges that his brother was part of a Mafia conspiracy to silence Oswald. "Sure, they came into his club he had a plush strip-tease place and they were big spenders," he said. "But he never was really personally associated with any of them."

Why, then, did his brother kill Oswald? Mr. Ruby said Jack was grief-stricken over the death of Kennedy, whom he considered a friend of Jews. That mattered to Jack Ruby, a man who, his brother said, had broken up meetings of the German-American Bund in Chicago before World War II and grew so upset over reports of the slaughter of European Jews that, even though on leave from the Army, he vowed to travel to Germany to assassinate Hitler.

"He was a very impulsive person," Mr. Ruby explained. "I told him he might never come back, and he said, 'I don't care.' "

"That's why he wanted to shoot Oswald: for killing someone he loved," he continued. "But he told me he didn't mean to kill him he wanted to make him suffer. If he was trying to silence Oswald, he wouldn't have shot him in the stomach."


Whether you are an expert or a beginner, this essential book will help you make sense of the JFK assassination:

  • a readable and critical account of the central savollar
  • detailed analysis of important topics
  • fully referenced: over 400 footnotes
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Find Out About

  • Lee Harvey Oswald — lone assassin, conspirator or patsy?
  • Oswald’s longstanding links to US intelligence agencies
  • Oswald’s visit to Mexico City a few weeks before the assassination — the crucial event which caused the Warren Commission to be set up
  • ning official investigations — and why their answers are not widely believed
  • ning medical evidence — the reason why the case remains controversial
  • ning political context of the JFK assassination
  • va pros and cons of the main theories associated with the event.

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