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Tel Kabri ustidan tepilgan zarba

Tel Kabri ustidan tepilgan zarba


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1947–1949 yillardagi Falastin urushi

The 1947–1949 yillardagi Falastin urushi Britaniya mandati ostida Falastin hududida olib borilgan urush edi. Bu Isroilda nomi bilan mashhur Mustaqillik urushi (Ibroniycha: Malmagma עצעצmāòt, Milkhemet Ha'Atzmaut) va arab tilida Nakbaning markaziy komponenti sifatida. [a] [11] [12] [13] Bu Isroil -Falastin va Arab -Isroil mojarosining birinchi urushi. Bu urush paytida Britaniya imperiyasi 1917 yilgacha Usmonli imperiyasi tarkibiga kirgan Majburiy Falastinni tark etdi. Urush yahudiylar tomonidan Isroil davlatini tashkil etish bilan yakunlandi va yahudiylar bosib olgan hududning demografik o'zgarishiga olib keldi. 700 mingga yaqin falastinlik arablarning ko'chishi va ularning ko'pgina shaharlari vayron bo'lishi bilan. [14] Ko'plab falastinlik arablar fuqaroligi yo'q, Misr va Iordaniya tomonidan bosib olingan Falastin hududlariga yoki ularning atrofidagi arab davlatlariga ko'chirildi, ularning ko'plari, shuningdek ularning avlodlari fuqaroligi bo'lmagan va qochqinlar lagerlarida qolishdi.

  • Isroil g'alabasi
  • Iordaniya chegaraviy g'alabasi [3] [4]
  • Falastin arablarining mag'lubiyati
  • Misr mag'lubiyati
  • Arab Ligasining strategik muvaffaqiyatsizligi va yahudiylarning arab va musulmon mamlakatlaridan chiqib ketishi
  • Bo'linish rejasi taklif qilgan chegaralar tashqarisida Isroil davlatining tashkil etilishi
  • Misr homiyligida G'azo sektorida Butun Falastin hukumatining tashkil etilishi
  • G'arbiy Sohil va Sharqiy Quddusni Iordaniya boshqaruvi
  • Suriyaning Galileya dengizining shimoli va janubi

1948 yil 26 maygacha
Yishuv
Harbiylashtirilgan guruhlar:

1948 yil 26 -maydan keyin:
Isroil
Isroil mudofaa kuchlari

ALA
al-Najjada

Muqaddas urush armiyasi
(1948 yil 15 maygacha)
Misr
Transjordaniya
Iroq
Suriya
Livan
(1948 yil 15 maydan keyin)

Urushdan oldin Britaniya boshqaruvi ostida bo'lgan hudud, uning 78 foizini egallagan Isroil davlati, Iordaniya Qirolligi (o'sha paytda Transjordaniya deb atalgan) o'rtasida bo'linib, G'arbiy Sohilga aylangan hududni egallab oldi va keyinchalik qo'shib oldi. va O'rta er dengizi sohilidagi qirg'oq hududi bo'lgan G'azo sektorini egallab olgan Misr, unda Arab Ligasi butun Falastin hukumatini tuzdi.

Urush ikkita asosiy bosqichdan iborat edi, birinchisi, 1947-1948 yillardagi majburiy Falastindagi fuqarolar urushi, 1947 yil 30 noyabrda [15] Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti Falastin hududini yahudiy va arab suveren davlatlariga bo'lishga ovoz berganidan bir kun keyin boshlangan. va yahudiy rahbariyati qabul qilgan xalqaro Quddus (BMTning 181 -rezolyutsiyasi) va Falastin arab rahbarlari, shuningdek arab davlatlari bir ovozdan qarshi chiqishdi. [16] Urushning bu bosqichi tarixchilar tomonidan "fuqarolik", "etnik" yoki "jamoalararo" urush deb ta'riflanadi, chunki u asosan arab ozodlik armiyasi va atrofidagi arab davlatlari tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan yahudiy va falastinlik arab qo'shinlari o'rtasida bo'lib o'tdi. . Partizanlar urushi va terrorizm bilan tavsiflangan bu jang 1948 yil mart oyining oxirida yahudiylar hujumga o'tganda va Falastinni yirik kampaniyalar va janglarda mag'lubiyatga uchratib, aniq front chizig'ini o'rnatganlarida avj oldi. Bu davrda inglizlar hali ham Falastin ustidan hukmronlikni saqlab qolishgan va vaqti -vaqti bilan zo'ravonliklarga aralashishgan. [17] [18]

Britaniya imperiyasi 1948 yil 14 mayda Falastinga bo'lgan barcha da'volaridan voz kechishni va bekor qilishni rejalashtirgan. Shu kuni, Britaniyaning oxirgi askarlari va xodimlari Hayfa shahridan chiqib ketishganida, Falastindagi yahudiy rahbariyati Isroil davlatining tashkil etilganligini e'lon qildi. Bu deklaratsiyadan so'ng, Isroilning o'rnatilishining oldini olish va o'sha paytda mag'lubiyatga uchragan Falastin arablariga yordam berish maqsadida, ularning atrofidagi arab qo'shinlari va ekspeditsion kuchlari darhol Falastinga bostirib kirishdi. allaqachon qochgan yoki yahudiy qo'shinlari tomonidan majburan.

Bosqin urushning ikkinchi bosqichi, 1948 yilgi Arab -Isroil urushining boshlanishini ko'rsatdi. Misrliklar janubiy qirg'oq bo'yida oldinga siljishdi va Ashdod yaqinida to'xtatildi, Iordaniya Arab Legioni va Iroq qo'shinlari Falastinning markaziy tog'larini egallab olishdi. Suriya va Livan shimolda Isroil qo'shinlari bilan bir necha bor to'qnashuvlar o'tkazdi. Isroil mudofaa kuchlari tarkibiga kirgan yahudiy qo'shinlari arab kuchlarini to'xtatishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Keyingi oylarda ID va arab qo'shinlari o'rtasida shiddatli janglar bo'lib o'tdi, ular asta -sekin orqaga surildi. Iordaniya va Iroq qo'shinlari Falastinning markaziy baland tog'larining ko'p qismini nazorat qilishni davom ettirdilar va Sharqiy Quddusni, shu jumladan Eski shaharni egallab oldilar. Misrning ishg'ol zonasi G'azo sektori va Al-Falujadagi Isroil kuchlari bilan o'ralgan kichik cho'ntak bilan chegaralangan edi. 1948 yil oktyabr va dekabr oylarida Isroil qo'shinlari Livan hududiga o'tib, Misrning Sinay yarim oroliga bostirib kirib, G'azo shahri yaqinida Misr qo'shinlarini qurshab oldi. Oxirgi harbiy harakat 1949 yil mart oyida, Isroil qo'shinlari Negev cho'lini egallab, Qizil dengizga etib kelganida sodir bo'lgan. 1949 yilda Isroil 24 fevralda Misr, 23 martda Livan, 3 aprelda Transjordaniya va 20 iyulda Suriya bilan alohida sulh tuzdi. Bu davrda Falastin arablarining qochishi va quvilishi davom etdi.

Urushdan keyingi uch yil mobaynida 700 mingga yaqin yahudiylar Isroilga Evropa va arab mamlakatlaridan ko'chib kelishgan, ularning uchdan bir qismi Yaqin Sharqda yashab turgan mamlakatlarini tark etishgan yoki quvilgan. [19] [20] [21] Bu qochqinlar bir millionlik rejada Isroilga singib ketishdi. [22] [23] [24] [25]


2005-2008 yillar mavsumining dastlabki natijalari, Tel-Kabri, Isroil

Kabri arxeologik loyihasi 2005 yilda hozirgi Hayfa universiteti Assaf Yasur-Landau va Jorj Vashington universiteti Erik X. Klayn rahbarligida boshlangan. Hozirgi vaqtda, 2005-2008 yillar yozida, Egey dengizidan oldingi tarix instituti, Tel-Aviv universiteti Arxeologiya instituti, Santa-Kruz shaharchasi, va Jorj Vashington universiteti.

O'rta bronza davrida, taxminan. Miloddan avvalgi 2000-1550 yillarda Tel-Kabri O'rta er dengizidan besh kilometr sharqda, Isroilning g'arbiy Jalilasi hududida joylashgan Kan'on politsiyasining markazi edi. 1986-1993 yillarda Aharon Kempinski va Bo'ri-Ditrix Nimeyyer tomonidan olib borilgan qazishmalar natijasida uy qurilishi qoldiqlari, katta tuproqli devor va ular tomonidan qurilgan katta bino, xuddi shu tuzilmalar bilan parallel ravishda Suriya shimolidagi Alalaxda topilgan. va boshqa joylarda hammasi O'rta bronza (MB) davriga to'g'ri keladi. Ular saroyni MB II davriga tegishli deb hisoblashgan va bundan oldin "proto-saroy" deb nomlangan MB I-ning yaxshi qurilgan tuzilmasi qoldiqlari bor deb ishonishgan.

MB I-II saytlar xaritasi

Saroy ichida MB II davrining oxirgi qismiga tegishli bo'lgan Egey uslubidagi pol va devor rasmlari topilgan. Qadimgi Egey va Kan'on madaniyatlari o'rtasidagi badiiy aloqalarning bunday dalillari Isroilda yagona. Bu boshqa joylarda juda kam uchraydi, Egeydan tashqarida faqat Misrda, Geksos poytaxti Tel-Dabada va Suriyadagi Alalax va Qatna joylarida mavjud.

2003 yilda Makovskiy va Yasur-Landau o'tkazgan magnitometr va o'tkazuvchanlikning dastlabki tadqiqotlari shuni ko'rsatdiki, MB II saroyining yarmidan ko'pi qazilmagan. Bu holatlar bizda Kan'onlarning mumkin bo'lgan saroyi va proto-saroyi borki, bu erda juda qulay vaziyatni yaratadi, bu erda keyinchalik hech qanday qoldiq qolmaydi. Bu O'rta er dengizining sharqidagi bronza davri dunyo tizimini o'rganishda ikkita asosiy savolni o'rganish uchun Isroilda noyob bo'lgan noyob imkoniyatdir.

Birinchi savollar O'rta bronza davridagi ijtimoiy murakkablik evolyutsiyasi va Kan'on hukmronligining paydo bo'lishida ekzogen va endogen omillarning roliga tegishli. Saroy madaniyatining rivojlanishi MB I-ning ko'p qismi orqali uzoq va sekin evolyutsiyaga cho'zilganmi yoki bu surya-mezopotamiya an'analaridan ilhomlangan tez jarayonmi? Bundan tashqari, saroy tuzilmalarining bir -birining ustidan ketishi, bizga Levantning janubida O'rta bronza davrida ilgari o'rganilmagan hukmronlik tomonlarini, masalan, ziyofat va ikonografiyaning muzokaralar va parvarishdagi rolini o'rganish imkonini beradi. siyosiy kuch, xususan Tel Kabrida.

Savollarning ikkinchi to'plami Egeyning sayt bilan o'zaro ta'sirining tabiati bilan bog'liq. Kabri devorining freskalari Niemier tomonidan miniatyura uslubiga tegishli ekanligini ko'rsatib, otilishdan oldingi to'g'ridan-to'g'ri parallellik bilan, LM IA Santorini. Shunday qilib, Kabri freskalarining mutlaq xronologiyasi sharq va g'arbni bog'laydigan muhim langarni, shuningdek Santorini otilishining mutlaq xronologiyasi to'g'risida mumkin bo'lgan tasavvurlarni berishi mumkin. Shu bilan birga, biz Kabri freskalari bilan yakunlangan g'arb va sharq o'rtasidagi madaniy uzatish mexanizmini o'rganishni xohladik. Bu bir martalik voqeami yoki bu Egey dunyosi bilan uzoqroq aloqaning natijasimi?

Mintaqaviy o'rganish

Bizning 2006 va 2007 yildagi yuqori Jalilaning g'arbiy qismini, Kabri qirolligi hududini tadqiq qilishimiz natijasida, bu hokimiyatning ko'tarilishi va qulashi jarayoni haqida qiziqarli ma'lumotlar paydo bo'ldi. Bu fasllarda tadqiqot guruhi Kabri hududidagi O'rta bronza davridagi 28 ta ob'ektga tashrif buyurdi va MB II kulolchilik buyumlarining sirt taqsimotiga ko'ra har bir uchastkaning chegaralarini kuzatib, GPS yordamida ularning hajmini aniq qayd etdi. Doktor Rafi Frankel va boshqalar tomonidan qirq o'n yillik tashriflar davomida to'plangan IAA omborxonalarida chop etilmagan sopol idishlar tahlillari MB I, MB II va kech bronza davrida mintaqaning qadimiy tarixini taqdim etdi.

Bizning nashrimizda e'lon qilingan xulosalarimizning dastlabki hisobida Dala arxeologiyasi jurnali, 1 biz MB davrida G'arbiy Jaliladagi turar -joy shakllari bo'yicha bir nechta dastlabki kuzatuvlarni taklif qildik, jumladan:

MB I davrida aholi punktlari landshaftiga asosan qishloqlar kirgan, ularning ba'zilari dehqonchilik tuproqlariga yaqin vodiylarda joylashgan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, bu davr mobaynida Acco mintaqadagi yagona mustahkam shahar bo'lgan.

MB I-II o'tish davrida, Kabrining ham, bir nechta ikkilamchi joylarning ham mustahkamlanishi tez urbanizatsiya va uch bosqichli turar-joy ierarxiyasi: politsiya markazining ikkinchi darajali mustahkamlangan markazlari va tepalikdagi kichikroq mustahkamlanmagan shaharchalarning paydo bo'lishidan dalolat beradi. MBning kichik, qishloq aholi punktlari MB II ga davom etmaydi. Bu hodisa Nahal Xziv shimolidagi hududda eng diqqatga sazovordir, bu hududda ko'plab tashlandiq joylar bor. Kabri hududidagi MB-dan keyingi aholi punkti faqat tepalikdagi joylarni o'z ichiga oladi, bir nechta yangi tashkil etilgan joylar.

MB II davrida Kabri o'zining eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqadi. Buni saytdagi MB II saroyining oxirgi ikki bosqichida ko'rish mumkin, ularning har ikkalasi ham shu davrga to'g'ri keladi, shu jumladan bino Egey uslubidagi freskalar bilan bezatilgan. Kipr kulolchilik idoralari Kabrida, shuningdek, yaqin atrofdagi boshqa ko'p joylarda import qilinishda davom etmoqda. Aslida, MB II davri oxirida Tel Kabri vayron bo'lganidan so'ng, Kipr bilan savdo hali ham o'sha portlar va ankrajlar orqali davom etdi. Mintaqaviy vakuum qisman Acco siyosiy kuchining oshishi bilan to'ldirilgan, shuningdek, tepalikdagi asosiy joylar yashashining davomi bilan ham to'ldirilgan.

Umuman olganda, bizning mintaqaviy tadqiqotlarimiz shuni ko'rsatdiki, Kabri hokimiyatining ko'tarilishi bosqichma -bosqich evolyutsiya jarayoni emas, balki tez va kesilgan traektoriyani kuzatib, mintaqaviy gegemonlikka o'tdi, bu esa vaqtincha Acco politsiyasini egallab oldi. O'rta bronza asrining oxirida u tezda unutildi.

Tel Kabridagi qazish ishlari olib boriladigan joylarning tepadan ko'rinishi

Qozuv ishlari

2005 yilda Tel Kabrida o'tkazilgan dastlabki tadqiqot mavsumida bizning qazishmalarimiz cheklangan edi, ular asosan saroyning kattaligi bo'yicha 2003 yildagi geofizik tadqiqotlar natijalarini sinash uchun mo'ljallangan edi. Saroyning hajmini aniqlash va kelajak uchun dala strategiyasini aniqlash uchun uch xil maydon qazilgan. Bunga quyidagilar kiradi:

G'arbiy D maydoni: taxtning mumkin bo'lgan maydoni, fresklarning topilgan joyiga va saroyning shimoliy yopiladigan devoriga yaqin.

Janubiy D maydoni: saroyning taxmin qilingan janubiy sudi hududida

Shimoliy D hududi: saroydan tashqarida, Kempinskiy rekonstruktsiyasiga ko'ra, hozir avakado daraxtlari orasida yotadi.

G'arbiy D hududida, avvalgi ekskavatorlar tomonidan MB saroyining shimoliy tashqi devori deb topilgan devor, aslida, qalinligi to'rt metr bo'lgan Vizantiya terasidir. ichki saroy devori topilgan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, saroy bu hududda shimol va g'arbda davom etadi.

Shimoliy D hududida biz saroyning gipsli pollari avakado daraxtlari ostida, sharqda uzoqroqda davom etishini aniqladik. Bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, MB II saroyi nafaqat bu yo'nalishda davom etmoqda, balki geofizik tadqiqotlar taklif qilganidek - bu avvalgi ekskavatorlar taxmin qilganidan ancha katta. U 2000 kvadrat metrni emas, balki kamida 3000-4000 kv.km maydonni egallaydi va shimol, sharq va g'arbga ilgari o'ylanganidan ancha uzoqroqqa cho'zilgan. Biz, shuningdek, bu sohada mumkin bo'lgan libation yoki zaytun moyini qayta ishlash moslamasini topdik. Umid qilamizki, kelgusi mavsumda maydonga qaytganimizda, bu xususiyat bilan bog'liq tafsilotlarni ochib beramiz.

D Shimoliy va D janubidagi hududlarda vayronagarchilik konlari, shu jumladan tiklanadigan mahalliy sopol idishlar, kuygan organik materiallar va import qilingan Kipr kulollari topildi. D Janubda, shuningdek, metallga ishlov berish borasida ba'zi dalillar mavjud, shu jumladan krujka parchasi, ba'zi cüruflar, bronza varaqning kichik bo'laklari va kichik oltin lunette.

D janubida ishda

To'rtinchi mavsumda, 2008 yilda, Kabri shahridagi MB saroyida cheklangan qazish ishlari olib borildi, kelgusi yozga rejalashtirilgan keng ko'lamli kampaniya boshlanishidan oldin (qarang: http://digkabri.wordpress.com/). 2012 yilgacha davom eting.

2008 yildagi qazishmalar saroyning tarixini, dastlabki poydevordan to oxirigacha yo'q qilinishigacha, dastlabki tushunishni yaratish uchun ishlab chiqilgan va bunga muvaffaqiyatli erishilgan. Biz, shuningdek, taxminan 45 ta devor gipsining bo'laklarini topdik, ularning hech bo'lmaganda bir qismi bo'yalganga o'xshaydi, shuningdek, saroydagi gipsli pollardan birida qizil bo'yoq borligi to'g'risida qo'shimcha dalillar.

MB saroyi va 611 marosim zali 2005 yilgi mavsum oxirida

Bizning qazishmalar MB II saroyining sharqiy chekkasida, Kempinski va Nimeyyerning ilgari olib borilgan qazish ishlari paytida ochilgan 611 katta marosim zalining shimoli -g'arbida joylashgan D G'arbda to'plangan. Saroyning stratigrafik ketma -ketligini bilish uchun biz 611 -marosim zalining sharqida va shimoli -g'arbida ikkita asosiy qazish maydonini ochdik.

G'arbiy qismga 740 -xona, to'g'ridan -to'g'ri 611 shimolidagi xona, shuningdek uning uzun va tor ostonasi 698 kiradi, uning kirish qismida 1990 -yillarning boshlarida Kempinski va Niemier tomonidan miniatyura freskalari topilgan. 740-xonaning shimolidagi hududda, qalinligi to'rt metrli ulkan devorning narigi tomonida, biz MB II saroyining yakuniy vayronagarchiliklariga tegishli bo'lgan loy va g'ishtdan yasalgan qulashni qazib oldik.

Bu qulash gips chizig'i bilan yuqori va pastki qismlarga bo'linib ketgani uchun, u ikkinchi va birinchi qavatga tegishli bo'lishi mumkin. Bu qulashda biz yuqori sifatli devor gipsining kamida 45 ta bo'lagini topdik, ularning ba'zilari bo'yalgan ko'rinadi, yuqorida aytib o'tilganidek.

Parchalardan biri, shuningdek, Egey fresklarini bo'yash texnikasiga mos keladigan, uning yuzasida ipli taassurot qoldirganga o'xshaydi. Bu qulash shimol va sharqda aniq davom etayotgani sababli, 2008 yildagi qazish ishlari chegarasidan tashqarida, biz kelgusi mavsumda bu hududga kengayganimizda yana bo'yalgan devor gipsining bo'laklarini tiklaymiz deb umid qilamiz.

To'g'ridan-to'g'ri qulash darajasidan pastda, biz kasbiy qoldiqlarning qalin qatlamini topdik, ular bir-birining ustiga o'ralgan va taxminan 30 sm qatlam hosil qilgan yassi idishlardan iborat edi. chuqurlikda. Ko'rinib turibdiki, qulab tushgan sopol idishlar asosan MB II davriga tegishli saqlash idishlaridan iborat edi. Bu sopol idishlar ichida import qilingan buyumlarning bir nechta bo'laklari topilgan, ular orasida bo'yalgan kiprlik oq bo'yalgan krujka yoki juglet va Egey dengizidan mumkin bo'lgan ikkita import bor. Bu kulolchilikni tahlil qilish saroyni birdaniga yo'q qilish uchun aniqroq tanishishga imkon beradi.

Ammo, 2005 va 2008 yillardagi qazishmalarimiz, shuningdek, saroyda Egey uslubidagi rasmlarning sanasini qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini taklif qildi. Devor freskasining bo'laklari Kempinski va Nimeyyer tomonidan 611 -zal va 740 -xonalar oralig'ida, 698 -pol ostonasida va yonida topilgan, u erda ular qadoqlash materiallari sifatida qayta ishlatilgan. Bu plomba 611 -zaldagi eshik ortostatlarining kul bloklari olib tashlanganidan keyin o'rnatildi.

Naymeyerning aytishicha, devor freskasining bo'laklari 611 -zaldan ortostatlarning saroy tark etilgandan keyin paydo bo'lgan "cho'kish bosqichi" da olib tashlangan bo'shliqni to'ldirish uchun ishlatilgan. Biroq, biz fresk parchalarini yotqizish talonchilarning ishi emas, balki saroy hayoti davomida katta ta'mirlash paytida qilingan deb hisoblaymiz.

Biz aniqladikki, 740 -xonaning devorlari, ehtimol taxt xonasi sifatida tanilgan bo'lsa -da, vaqt o'tishi bilan xonaning maydonini ikki baravar qisqartirgan va uning ishlatilishini o'zgartirgan. Bu g'ayrioddiy chuqurlik ostonasini yaratdi, u saroyning boshqa joylaridan farqli o'laroq, ashlar ortostatlari bilan asfaltlanmagan, balki qasddan tushgan fresk parchalari bilan to'ldirilgan edi.

Shu vaqt ichida, Kempinski va boshqalar aytib o'tganidek, ikkita yangi devor qurildi, bu katta xonani 611 -sonli zalni ikkita kichikroq xonaga aylantirdi va shu bilan uning ishlatilishini o'zgartirdi. Ularning orasidagi chegara, xuddi 698 yilga o'xshab, ortostatlar bilan qoplangan emas. Bizning fikrimizcha, 740, 607 va 667 -xonalarni tubdan yangilash 611 -zaldan foydalanishning o'zgarishi bilan bog'liq.

Shu sababli, qurilishning shu davrida 611 -zalda ham ta'mirlash ishlari olib borildi, natijada ortostatlar olib tashlandi, so'ngra fresk bo'laklari 698 ostonasi ostidagi o'rash materiali sifatida yotqizildi va qayta ishlatildi. 611 -zalning ichki devoridan ortostatlarni olib tashlash.

2008 yilgi mavsumda, qisman gipotezamizni tekshirish uchun, biz 740 -xonaning keyingi ostonasini, shuningdek, uning polini ajratdik va polni keng ko'lamli ta'mirlash bosqichidan oldingi davrni ochdik. Yaxshiyamki, bu qavatda qazilgan va oxirgi qavat muhrlangan chuqurdan katta hajmli kulol koni topildi, shu bilan ta'mirlash ishlarining sanasi ko'rsatildi.

Laura D'Alessandro, Chikago universiteti Sharq instituti tabiatni muhofaza qilish laboratoriyasi boshlig'i, 2008 yilda gipsli polni tekshiradi.

Kabri freskalarini olib tashlash va yotqizishni qisqartirish Tel Kabri freskalari uchun yangi va avvalgi nisbiy xronologiyaga olib keladi. Kabri freskalarining mutlaq xronologiyasini aniqlab olish uchun qo'shimcha ish kerak bo'lsa-da, biz taklif qilgan o'zgartirish ularni Tel-Daba'dagi Tutmosid freskalariga qaraganda ancha oldinroq qiladi va ehtimol Santorini shahridagi Akrotiri freskalari bilan deyarli zamonaviy bo'ladi. yaqindan o'xshaydi.

Endi D G'arbning sharqiy qismiga qarab, biz 2008 yilda saroyning oldingi bosqichlarini o'rganish maqsadida qazish ishlarini boshladik. Bu erda biz saroyning so'nggi bosqichiga to'g'ri keladigan 703 -xonaning ostiga tushdik, chunki bu xonaning polini Kempinski allaqachon kesib tashlagan edi. Biz saroyning butun kasbiy tarixini muvaffaqiyatli rekonstruksiya qila oldik, bu quyidagicha.

Saroy qurilishidan oldin, bu maydon, ehtimol, MB I davrining o'rtalariga qadar saqlanadigan, ichki dafn marosimlari bilan jihozlangan, uy qurilishi bilan band bo'lgan. Kipr Qizilining qora sopol buyumlari ko'rsatganidek, Kipr bilan aloqalar bu dastlabki bosqichda allaqachon ro'y bergan. Keyin Kipr bilan bo'lgan aloqalar saroy tarixi davomida davom etdi.

733 -devorning ulkan poydevori shuni ko'rsatadiki, eng qadimgi saroy hayratlanarli darajada mustahkam qurilishga ega bo'lib, butun tel uchun MB istehkomlarini eslatadi. Bu devorning mustahkam qurilishi, saroyning keyingi davrlarida ishlatilgan toshlardan ancha katta bo'lib, Kempinskiyning ilgari qurilgan katta tuzilishi MB II saroyi ostida joylashgan degan farazini tasdiqlaydi. Ammo, avvalgi tuzilmani Kempinski kabi "jamoat binosi" yoki "proto-saroy" deb atashning o'rniga, biz bu aslida saroyning oldingi bosqichi, degan xulosaga kelardik. Tel Kabridagi MB MBdan MB II ga o'tish Kempinski o'ylagandek saroy qurilishi bilan emas, balki MB I davrida qurilgan saroyga o'zgartirishlar bilan belgilandi.

Aslida, saroy 250 yildan beri mavjud bo'lib tuyuladi va uning hayoti davomida bir qator ta'mirlar, jumladan, ichki rejaga o'zgartirishlar, pollarni tuzatish va xonalarning vazifalarini o'zgartirish kiradi. Biz allaqachon alohida xonalarning tarixini yozishimiz mumkin va saroyning umumiy tarixini MB I -da paydo bo'lganidan MB II -dagi vayronagarchilikgacha sanashimiz mumkin. Biroq, saroyning umumiy ichki bosqichi qo'shimcha qazish ishlari olib borilguncha kutib turishi kerak, bu esa har bir aniq xona va maydonning tarixini ochib beradi.

Bu erdan topilgan zooarxeologik topilmalar nihoyatda boy edi va bu bizga saroyning turli davrlari va saroyning turli davrlari o'rtasidagi oshpazlik amaliyotidagi farqlarni aniqlash imkonini beradi. Saroyning dastlabki bosqichida blokirovka qilingan drenajdan juda yaxshi saqlanib qolgan suyaklarning yig'indisi paydo bo'ldi, ular orasida sigirlar, ekvidlar, qo'ylar va echkilar suyaklari, shuningdek qisqichbaqa qisqichlari bor. Bu saroyning erta bosqichining so'nggi qo'llanilishi bilan bog'liq bayram qoldiqlari bo'lishi mumkin.

Aleks Klivlend o'z qo'l ishlarini namoyish etadi

Xulosa

Xulosa qilib aytganda, Tel-Kabri arxeologik loyihasining dastlabki to'rt yili ushbu ob'ektda uzoq muddatli qidiruv ishlarining katta ilmiy salohiyatini ko'rsatdi. Zotan, mintaqaviy tadqiqotlar va saroy qazish ishlarining kombinatsiyasi o'rta bronza davrida bu hududda hokimiyatning rivojlanishiga yangicha qarashni keltirib chiqardi.

Sekin evolyutsiyadan ko'ra, biz shahar bo'lmagan aholi turar joyidan yaxshi shakllangan politsiyaga tez o'tishni ko'ramiz, uning o'rtasida mustahkam shahar markazi joylashgan. Kabri MB II saroyi patrislar uyidan yoki "proto-saroy" dan emas, balki ilgari mavjud bo'lgan va monumental MB I strukturasidan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, devorlari tsiklga yaqin devorlardan yasalgan. Bizning saroyning bosqichlari haqidagi tushunchamizning nozik sozlanishi, shuningdek, MB II saroyida Egey uslubidagi rasmlar xronologiyasini talqin qilish uchun yangi imkoniyatlarni ochib berdi.

Nihoyat, biz topgan va eng yangi kasbiy konlardan ham, Tel -Kabridagi oldingi kontekstlardan ham mumkin bo'lgan Egey kulolchilik bo'laklari, agar aslida Egeydan kelib chiqqanligi isbotlangan bo'lsa, Egey dengizi sohillari bilan ularning o'zaro ta'siri Tel-Kabrining saroy elitasi saroy tarixi davomida davom etib, nafaqat Egey uslubidagi san'atni ishga tushirishni, balki yuqori sifatli keramika va ehtimol boshqa buyumlarni ham import qilishni o'z ichiga olgan.

Kelajak rejalari

Biz kelgusi yozda, 2009 yil 21 -iyundan 30 -iyulgacha bo'lgan navbatdagi qazish ishlariga qaytganimizda, saroy va umuman, bu sayt haqida ko'proq ma'lumotga ega bo'lishni kutmoqdamiz. ko'ngilli. Qiziquvchilar avval veb -saytimizga murojaat qilishlari kerak (http://digkabri.wordpress.com/).

1 A. Yasur-Landau, E.H. Klayn va G.A. Pirs, "G'arbiy Jalilada, Isroilda, O'rta bronza davridagi joylashuv namunalari" Dala arxeologiyasi jurnali 33/1 (2008) 59-83.

2 E.H. Cline va A. Yasur-Landau, "Harakatdagi she'riyat: Kanriy hukmronligi va Kabirda Egey hikoyasi", EPOS: Yunon dostoni va Egey bronza davri arxeologiyasini qayta ko'rib chiqish: 157-165, S.P. Morris va R. Laffinur, tahr. Aegaeum 28. Liège: Liege universiteti. 2007 yil

Agar bizning rekonstruksiya to'g'ri bo'lsa, asl bo'yalgan pol va devor freskasi oddiygina fazaga tegishli emas keyin saroyni ta'mirlash, Niemier va Kempinski taklif qilganidek, lekin bir bosqichga to'g'ri keladi oldin ta'mirlash. Biz fresklarning "foydalanish" davri, ya'ni fresklarning devorga yopishtirilgani va saroyning ichki qismini bezash uchun xizmat qilgan vaqt, saroyning rekonstruksiya qilinish davriga to'g'ri kelganligini taxmin qilamiz. MB II davrining o'rta qismiga. Biz ishonamizki, aynan ta'mirlash paytida devor freskalari yiqilib, qadoqlash materiali sifatida "Chegara 698" va boshqa joylarda ishlatilgan.

Biz allaqachon jurnalda e'tiborga loyiq bo'lgan ba'zi yutuqlarni nashr qildik EPOS 2007 yilda paydo bo'lgan konferentsiya hajmi, shu jumladan taqdim etilgan ma'lumotlarni keyingi muhokama qilish.


BOSHQA MAKALALAR

Bu Isroilning aytishicha, jangarilar dushanbadan beri 1050 dan ortiq raketa uchirgan, shu kuni ertalab Lod shahrida beshta tinch aholi, shu jumladan arab-isroillik qiz halok bo'lgan.

200 ga yaqin raketa qulab tushdi va G'azo hududiga tushdi, ularning ko'plari jarohatlandi, aksariyatini Temir gumbaz tizimi ushlab oldi.

Tel -Avivda kecha raketa zarbasidan keyin avtobus yonib ketdi, qirg'in sodir bo'ldi. Ko'cha bo'ylab boshqa mashinalar ham yonib ketdi.

Avtobusdan chiqqan alangalar havoga ko'tarildi, mashinadan portlashlar eshitildi, chunki qora tutun havoga ko'tarildi.

Portlash oqibatida yaqin atrofdagi mashinalardan eshitilgan sirenalar va yaqin atrofdagi binolarning qoldiqlari erga sochildi.

Videoni Twitterga joylashtirgan Daniel Lauferning aytishicha, portlash oqibatida to'rt kishi, jumladan, besh yoshli bola jarohatlangan.

Bu kadrlar Isroil va Hamas o'rtasidagi 2014 yilgi G'azo urushidan beri sodir bo'lgan va 2000 dan ortiq odamning o'limiga olib kelgan eng yomon jang paytida paydo bo'ldi.

Avtobusdan chiqqan alangalar havoga ko'tarildi (o'ngda), mashinadan portlashlar eshitildi, chunki qora tutun havoga ko'tarildi. Portlash oqibatida yaqin atrofdagi mashinalardan eshitilgan sirenalar va yaqin atrofdagi binolarning qoldiqlari erga sochildi.

Isroil havo hujumi natijasida G'azodagi Hamas shtab -kvartirasi deb gumon qilingan minorali blok vayron bo'lganidan so'ng, Tel -Avi shahriga kecha tunda yuzdan ortiq Hamas raketalari uchirildi.

Boshqa videoda, Xolonda osmonda uchayotgan raketaning ovozi eshitiladi - va bir soniya sukunatdan so'ng, ko'chaning oxirida portlash sodir bo'ldi va binoga urildi.

Restoran oldida turgan mahalliy aholi vahimaga tushib, qochib ketishdi, bir kishi hayron bo'lib qo'llarini boshiga ko'tardi.

Yong'inni tungi osmonni yoritayotganini ko'rish mumkin, chunki atrofdagi odamlar olovga qarab yugurishni boshlaydilar, boshqalari esa vayronaga qarab baqira boshlashadi.

Boshqa videoda, Xolonda osmonda uchayotgan raketaning ovozi eshitiladi - va bir soniya sukunatdan so'ng, ko'chaning oxirida portlash sodir bo'ldi (chapda) va binoga urildi. Yong'inni tungi osmonni yoritayotganini ko'rish mumkin, chunki hayratda qolganlar olovga qarab yugurishni boshlaydilar (o'ngda), boshqalar esa vayronagarchilikka qarab baqira boshlashadi.

Boshqa bir videoda, Xamon Xolonga tashlangan raketa oqibatlarini, qora tutun havoga to'lgan paytda, mashinalar yonayotganini ko'rish mumkin.

Kamera vayronagarchilik sodir bo'lgan joyda, butun ko'cha yonayotgan mashinalarga to'lib ketganga o'xshaydi.

Tel -Avivdagi qo'rqinchli aholi, kecha tunda Hamas jangarilari tomonidan ko'plab raketalar bilan bombardimon qilinganida, uylarida yoki boshpanalar ostida yashiringan.

Videoda ba'zi odamlar turar -joy binosining zinapoyasida zinapoyasi yo'qligi sababli turishi kerakligini ko'rsatadi.

Sirenlar eshitilishi mumkin, chunki bir necha soniyada katta portlashlar eshitiladi, bu temir gumbaz mudofaa tizimi tomonidan raketa urilgan paytni bildiradi.

Birinchi raketalar dushanba kuni otilgan edi, chunki Hamas Isroil Quddusdagi Al-Aqsa masjididan bir necha kunlik to'qnashuvlardan so'ng xavfsizlik kuchlarini olib chiqmasa, Isroilga zarba berish bilan tahdid qilgan edi.

O'shandan beri Hamas, Isroilga 1000 dan ortiq raketa otganini, bugun ham bombardimon qilinayotganini aytdi, Isroil esa o'nlab raketa zarbalarini amalga oshirdi.

Sog'liqni saqlash vazirligi ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, hozircha kamida 48 falastinlik, jumladan 14 bola va uch ayol halok bo'lgan.

Olti isroillik, shu jumladan uch ayol va bola raketa hujumida halok bo'lgan, o'nlab odamlar jarohatlangan.

Shuningdek, bir kechada, Isroilning ichida, xususan Lod shahrida isroillik arablar bo'lgani kabi, tartibsizliklar boshlandi.

Kechasi kechasi o'ldirilgan, yahudiy qurolli gumondor bo'lgan arabning dafn marosimidan keyin politsiya va arablar o'rtasida og'ir to'qnashuvlar sodir bo'ldi.

Isroil matbuoti olomon politsiya bilan jang qilgani, ibodatxona va 30 ga yaqin mashinani yoqib yuborgani haqida xabar tarqatdi.

Isroilliklar Lod shahridagi ibodatxonadan Tavrot kitoblarini ko'tarishgan, ular kecha tartibsizliklar paytida yoqilgan. Netanyaxu favqulodda holat e'lon qilish uchun chorshanba kuni erta tongda shaxar markaziga tashrif buyurdi

Keyin, chorshanba kuni erta tongda, G'azodan uchirilgan raketa Lodga tushib, isroillik arab va uning qizini o'ldirdi-mahalliy 16 yoshli Nadin Avad.

Uning amakivachchasi Ahmad Ismoil Kan telekanaliga bergan intervyusida, u 52 yoshli otasi Xalil Avad bilan birga o'ldirilganida Nadin yaqinida bo'lganini aytdi.

"Men uyda edim, biz raketaning shovqinini eshitdik. Bu juda tez sodir bo'ldi. Agar biz biron joyga qochmoqchi bo'lgan bo'lsak ham, bizda seyf xonasi yo'q, - dedi Ismoil Kanga.

Janglar natijasida ikki kishi chorshanba kuni qoraygan va qoldiqlarga to'la hovlidan o'ttizilgan ibodatxonadan Tavrot kitoblarini tozalayotganini ko'rishdi.

Chorshanba kungi boshqa video lavhalarda, Hamas tomonidan G'azodan uchirilgan raketalar janubdagi Ashkelon shahri ustidan uchayotganini ko'rish mumkin.

Qora tutun chorshanba kuni erta tongda G'azo janubidagi Xon Yunisni nishonga olgan Isroil havo hujumlari natijasida paydo bo'ldi. Harbiy ekspertlarning fikricha, tutunning ko'tarilishi isroilliklar yer osti infratuzilmasini nishonga olgan bunkerli bomba joylashtirayotganidan dalolat beradi.

Israeli artillery fires shells at the Gaza border on Wednesday after the defence chief vowed to bring 'total, long-term quiet' to the Gaza Strip

A fire rages at an oil refinery in the southern town of Ashkelon which has been heavily targeted by hundreds of Hamas rockets fired since Monday

In retaliation for the hundreds of of missiles fired at its cities, Israel launched massive bombardments.

Hamas confirmed that several of its top commanders were killed in air strikes on the Gaza Strop today.

Israel has vowed to bring 'total, long-term quiet' to the region despite growing international alarm at the numbers of civilian casualties being sustained in its barrages on densely populated areas.

Hamas said the commander of its Gaza City Brigade, Bassem Issa, was among those 'martyred' in the strikes.

Hamas militants and their allies have fired more than 1,000 missiles at Israel, though many have been shot down by the Iron Dome defence system, while others have landed inside Gaza. The Israeli towns of Ashdod, Ashkelon and Yehud have been struck, as well as the most populous city, Tel Aviv. In the Gaza Strip, the Israeli Air Force has targeted suspected Hamas strongholds in Gaza City as well as the southern settlements Rafah and Khan Yunis

Shin Bet, Israel's internal security agency, named another three slain Hamas officers: Jamaa Tahla, responsible for the improved accuracy of the group's rockets Jamal Zabeda, chief of 'special projects' in the munitions department and Hazzem Hatib, head engineer in the munitions wing.

'The army will continue to attack to bring a total, long-term quiet. Only when we reach that goal will we be able to speak about a truce,' Defence Minister Benny Gantz said today from the southern town of Ashkelon where two Israeli women were killed by Hamas rockets on Tuesday.

The United Nations has warned the two sides they risk a 'full-scale war' if there is not an urgent ceasefire.

'Stop the fire immediately. We're escalating towards a full-scale war. Leaders on all sides have to take the responsibility of de-escalation,' Tor Wennesland UN Special Envoy to the Middle East tweeted.

Just after daybreak, the Israeli Air Force unleashed dozens of strikes within the course of a few minutes with what appeared to be bunker buster bombs targeting underground Hamas infrastructure.


Haifa U: Flourishing Canaanite Palatial Site Suddenly Abandoned 3,700 Years Ago – Now We Know Why

A team of Israeli and American researchers funded by the National Geographic Society and the Israel Science Foundation have uncovered new evidence that an earthquake may have caused the destruction and abandonment of a flourishing Canaanite palatial site about 3,700 years ago.

The group made the discovery at the 75-acre site of Tel Kabri in Israel, which contains the ruins of a Canaanite palace and city that dates back to approximately 1900-1700 B.C. The excavations, located on land belonging to Kibbutz Kabri in the western Galilee, are co-directed by Dr. Assaf Yasur-Landau, a professor of Mediterranean archaeology at the University of Haifa, and Dr. Eric H. Cline, a professor of classics and anthropology at the George Washington University.

Overhead of Orthostat Bldg with trench through it at right. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

“We wondered for several years what had caused the sudden destruction and abandonment of the palace and the site, after centuries of flourishing occupation,” Yasur-Landau said. “A few seasons ago, we began to uncover a trench which runs through part of the palace, but initial indications suggested that it was modern, perhaps dug within the past few decades or a century or two at most. But then, in 2019, we opened up a new area and found that the trench continued for at least thirty meters, with an entire section of a wall that had fallen into it in antiquity, and with other walls and floors tipping into it on either side.”

According to Dr. Michael Lazar, lead author on the study, recognizing past earthquakes can be extremely challenging in the archaeological record, especially at sites where there isn’t much stone masonry and degradable construction materials like sun-dried mudbricks and wattle-and-daub were used instead. At Kabri, however, the team found both stone foundations for the bottom part of the walls and mudbrick superstructures above.

“Our studies show the importance of combining macro- and micro-archaeological methods for the identification of ancient earthquakes,” he said. “We also needed to evaluate alternative scenarios, including climatic, environmental, and economic collapse, as well as warfare, before we were confident in proposing a seismic event scenario.”

The researchers could see areas where the plaster floors appeared warped, walls had tilted or been displaced, and mudbricks from the walls and ceilings had collapsed into the rooms, in some cases rapidly burying dozens of large jars.

“It really looks like the earth simply opened up and everything on either side of it fell in,” Cline said. “It’s unlikely that the destruction was caused by violent human activity because there are no visible signs of fire, no weapons such as arrows that would indicate a battle, nor any unburied bodies related to combat. We could also see some unexpected things in other rooms of the palace, including in and around the wine cellar that we excavated a few years ago.”

Wine cellar room emptied with wave visible in far wall. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

In 2013, the team discovered forty jars within a single storage room of the palace during an expedition also sponsored by the National Geographic Society. An organic residue analysis conducted on the jars indicated that they had held wine it was described at the time as the oldest and largest wine cellar yet discovered in the Near East. Since then, the team has found four more such storage rooms and at least seventy more jars, all buried in the collapse of the building.

“The floor deposits imply a rapid collapse rather than a slow accumulation of degraded mudbricks from standing walls or ceilings of an abandoned structure,” Ruth Shahack-Gross,a professor of geoarchaeology at the University of Haifa and a co-author on the paper said. “The rapid collapse, and the quick burial, combined with the geological setting of Tel Kabri, raises the possibility that one or more earthquakes could have destroyed the walls and the roof of the palace without setting it on fire.”

Wall fallen into trench at the palace’s site. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

The investigators are hopeful that their methodological approach can be applied at other archaeological sites, where it can serve to test and/or strengthen cases of possible earthquake damage and destruction.

Roey Nickelsberg, a graduate student at the University of Haifa, was also a member of the research team.

The National Geographic Society, the Israel Science Foundation, GWU, the University of Haifa, and private donations provided funding for the research.


Tarkibi

Egyptian rule Edit

The Egyptian troops of Ibrahim Pasha captured the city of Jaffa and its environs following a battle with the forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1832. Though Egyptian rule over this area continued only until 1840, Egyptian Muslims settled in and around Jaffa, founding the village of Sakhanat Abu Kabir, bilan birga Sakhanat al-Muzariyya, Boshqalar orasida. [1] [2] An eastern suburb of Jaffa, many of the Egyptians who populated it came from the village of Tall al Kabir (or Tel Abu Kabir), and named it for their hometown. [1] [3]

Usmonli davri Tahrir

An Ottoman village list of about 1870 described Saknet Abu Kebir as a "Beduin camp", with 136 houses and a population of 440, though the population count included men only. [4] [5]

Yilda The Survey of Western Palestine (1881), its name is recorded as Sâknet Abu Kebîr and it is translated as, "The settlement of Abu Kebir p.n. (great father)." [6] Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, the French archaeologist, visited in 1873-1874, searching for the site of the ancient Jewish cemetery of Joppa (Jaffa). He describes "Saknet Abu K'bir" as a hamlet, and relates walking through the "extensive gardens that close in Jaffa on every side" to reach it. [7] He notes that during the heavy winter rains, the gardens between Jaffa and Saknet Abu Kabir became a small marshy lake that was known as al-Bassa by the locals. Noting that this name is commonly used throughout Syria for seasonal ponds of this nature and recalling that the bissah of the Hebrew Bible also means pond, he suggests that the similarity in the Arabic and Hebrew indicates a borrowing from even earlier linguistic traditions. [8]

Under an entry entitled The Jewish necropolis of Joppa, Clermont-Ganneau relates that after inquiring with the local fellahin (peasants) in Abu Kabir, he was led "a few yards further on" from the hamlet, "in the middle of some poorly tilled gardens," where building stone was quarried by the villagers. Laid bare by their activities were, "sepulchral chambers hollowed out in the calcareous tufa." He notes that similar graves were said to found in the lands between Abu Kabir to as far as Mikveh Israel and the Catholic cemetery. Other fellahin told him of finds between Saknet Abu Kabir and Saknet al-'Abid, and still others told of artifacts that they had retrieved from them. One artifact was brought to him which he purchased: a small marble titulus with a four-line Greek inscription and a seven-branched candlestick (or menorah). Clermont-Ganneau identified this as Helleno-Jewish funeral epigraphy, ascribing it to Hezekiah, and writes that it, "settled once and for all the nature of the burial ground I had just discovered." [7] In a letter published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, he expressed his hope to return noting, "We must at least find two or three more inscriptions of the same kind coming from the same neighbourhood." [9] Locating the tombs within a circle called, "Ardh (or Jebel) Dhabitha," he notes the area extends over, "the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a little hamlet called Abou K'bir* (Abu Kebir), and by the well of Aboa Nabbout (Abu Nabbut)." [9]

The Jewish necropolis was looted mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Dating the site is a challenge due to the lack of objects found in situ, but estimates are that the tombs were used between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD. Most of the necropolis is now in the area of the Russian Orthodox Saint Peter's Church compound. [10]

According to Mark LeVine, the Biluim pioneers set up a commune among the orange and lemon groves of the Abu Kabir neighborhood between 1882 and 1884. [11] The house used by the commune members is now located in the Neve Ofer neighborhood of Tel Aviv.

British Mandate period Edit

During the 1921 Jaffa Riots, the violence reached Abu Kabir. The Jewish Yitzker family owned a dairy farm on the outskirts of the neighborhood, in which they rented out rooms. At the time of the riots, Yosef Haim Brenner, one of the pioneers of modern Hebrew literature was living at the site. On May 2, 1921, despite warnings Yitzker and Brenner refused to leave the farm and were murdered, along with Yitzker's teenaged son, his son-in-law and two other renters. [12]

As Jaffa expanded during the 1920s and 1930s, Abu Kabir was incorporated within the municipal boundaries of Jaffa but retained much of its agricultural character. [13] It consisted of a main built-up part bordering the Jewish sector of Jaffa from the south, and several small concentrations of houses within the surrounding citrus groves. [13]

In the wake of violence on the border between Jaffa and Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv's leaders suggested annexing the Jewish neighborhoods of Jaffa to Tel Aviv. They proposed that the whole of Manshiyya, including Hassan Bey Mosque, as well as large parts of the Abu Kabir neighborhood, be transferred to the borders of the new Jewish city and state." [14]

On August 23, 1944, the British Criminal Investigation Department (CID) barracks at Jaffa, and police stations at Abu Kabir and Neve Shaanan were raided for arms by the Irgun. [15]

1947–1948 war Edit

In 1947, Abu Kabir was situated at the entrance to Tel Aviv on the main road to Jerusalem. [16] [17] On 30 November 1947, the day after the UN voted on the Partition Plan, an Arab mob in Abu Kabir attacked a car with Jewish passengers, killing all three. Jewish retaliatory strikes followed. On 2 December the Haganah's Kiryati Brigade blew up an Arab house in Abu Kabir, and the IZL torched several buildings four days later, killing at least two persons. [18]

During Operation Lamed Hey (Hebrew for "35"), named for the 35 casualties of an attack on the Convoy of 35, Abu Kabir was raided to "cleanse it of the forces acting there." [19] On the night of 12–13 February 1948, the Haganah struck simultaneously at Abu Kabir, Jibalia, Tel a-Rish and the village of Yazur. At Abu Kabir, 13 Arabs were killed, including the Mukhtar, and 22 injured.

According to the Palestine Post, on 16 February 1948 the Haganah repulsed an Arab attack on Tel Aviv from Abu Kabir. [20]

A second major attack on Abu Kabir was launched on 13 March, the objective of which was, "the destruction of the Abu Kabir neighborhood". By this time the neighborhood was mostly abandoned by its inhabitants and was guarded by a few dozen militiamen. Sappers blew up a number of houses and this was the first attack in which Yishuv-produced Davidka mortars were used to shell the neighborhood. Inaccurate and very loud, the mortars had a demoralizing effect claimed to have reached "as far as Gaza". [18]

A month after Abu Kabir was conquered, David Ben-Gurion told the Israeli Provisional Government that Jaffa's Arab population should not be allowed to return: "If there will be [an] Abu Kebir again - this would be impossible. The world needs to understand we are 700,000 against 27 million, one against forty . It won't be acceptable to us for Abu Kebir to be Arab again." [17]

Walid Khalidi writes that the Haganah completed the demolition of Abu Kabir by March 31. [21] On April 19, 1948, The Palestine Post reported that "In the Abu Kebir area, the Haganah dispersed Arabs who tried to erect an emplacement facing the Aka factory in Givat Herzl. Two Arabs were shot as they approached the Maccabi Quarter." [22]

State of Israel Edit

After 1948, Abu Kabir was renamed Giv'at Herzl, [1] although the Arabic name, Abu Kabir, is still used by the now largely Hebrew-speaking population. [23] [24] The Tel Aviv Municipality offered Prof. Heinrich Mendelssohn, Director of the Biological-Pedagogical Institute, the option of moving the Institute to Abu Kabir, and it was moved into a structure originally planned as a hospital. [25] Haim Levanon, Deputy Mayor of Tel Aviv in the early 1950s and mayor from 1953–59 energetically campaigned for the founding of a university in Tel Aviv. The idea was realized on August 16, 1953, when the Municipal Council of Tel Aviv-Yafo decided to transform the Biological-Pedagogical Institute into the Academic Institute of Natural Sciences, under the leadership of Prof. Mendelssohn, which would "form the core of a future university." The Abu Kabir campus in southern Tel Aviv had 24 students in its first year.

In 1954, the Academic Institute of Jewish Studies was established in Abu Kabir. A university library was also founded, new study tracks were opened, a teaching staff was formed, laboratories and classrooms were built, and an administration established for the campus. [26] [27] The L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine, locally known as the Abu Kabir Forensic Institute, was established that year.

In 1956, the Academic Institutes were officially upgraded into the new "University of Tel Aviv". The Zoological Gardens became part of the University. The Zoological and Botanical Gardens were moved to the Ramat Aviv campus in 1981. The Nature Gardens still host the original facilities. The gardens at Abu Kabir are recommended in an Israeli guide to Tel Aviv as a destination for nature lovers. [28] In the tour book Israel and the Palestinian territories (1998), "the former village of Abu Kabir" is described as being located in a green space to the east of Jaffa. [29]

Salvage excavations were undertaken by Israeli archaeologists in the burial complex at "Saknat Abu Kabir" in 1991. [30]

The Tel Aviv Detention Center, known as the Abu Kabir Prison is also in the area. [31] [32]

Israeli media reported in January 2011 that the part or all of the area in south Tel Aviv known as Abu Kabir, the hill or neighborhood, was given a new name, Tabitha, by the Tel Aviv municipality's naming committee. [33] [34]

In Ephraim Kishon's satirical short story, "The Economics of Babysitting" (1989), the main character, a male babysitter, speaks of the beauty of strolling through Tel Aviv at night, and one of the places he mentions as being especially beautiful, is the "Abu Kabir Plain." [35]


Tarkibi

According to local legend, the village was named for a local religious figure, al-Shaykh Muwannis, whose maqam was in the village. [7]

Ottoman era Edit

During the Ottoman era, Pierre Jacotin named the village Dahr on his map from 1799. [8]

Al-Shaykh Muwannis was noted in December 1821, as being "located on a hill surrounded by muddy land that was flooded with water despite the moderate winter". [9] In 1856 the village was named Sheikh Muennis on the map of Southern Palestine that Heinrich Kiepert published that year. [10]

In 1870, Victor Guérin noted about al-Shaykh Muwannis: "It contains four hundred inhabitants and is divided into several quarters, each under the jurisdiction of a particular sheikh. On the outskirts one can note some gardens where succulent watermelons grow, with hardly any horticultural care." [11] In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) noted "ruins of a house near the kubbeh", [12] while Al-Shaykh Muwannis was described as an ordinary adobe village. [13] Most of the villagers were members of the Abu Kishk tribe. [14]

The village population was 315 in 1879. [15]

British Mandate era Edit

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Shaik Muannes had a population of 664 residents, all Muslims. [16] This had increased in the 1931 census when Esh Sheikh Muwannis had 1154 inhabitants, still all Muslims, in 273 houses. [17]

In the 1920s, the government of the British mandate attempted to gain title to lands lying to the west of Al-Shaykh Muwannis and extending to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea on the grounds that it was "waste and uncultivated." [18] According to the authors of a book on the Israeli-Arab conflict, the Arabs of the Jaffa-Tel Aviv region "understood the implications of the Zionist-cum-British discourses of development generally and their implementation through town planning schemes." [19] In 1937, the Arabic daily al Ja'miah al-Islamiyya commented on British plans to build a bypass road for Tel Aviv residents on what they claimed were village lands: [20] "[I]n reality the plan in the Town Planning Commission now including Sheikh Muwannis is not really a 'plan', but rather a plan to take the land out of the hands of its owners." [19]

There were two schools in the village, a boys' school built in 1932 and a girls' school built in 1943. 266 students were registered in these schools in 1945. [7] The villagers worked in agriculture, particularly citrus cultivation. In the 1945 statistics, 3,749 dunums were used for growing citrus and bananas, and 7,165 dunums of village land was used for cereals. 66 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, irrigation water was drawn from al-Awja river and a large number of artesian wells. [7] [21] 41 dunams of village lands were classified as built-up areas. [22]

In 1946, three Arab villagers raped a Jewish girl. In the midst of the court proceedings, members of the Haganah shot and wounded one of the attackers, and kidnapped and castrated another. [14] In 1947, in the wake of growing hostility in the days leading up to the war, some of the villagers began to leave. Most stayed, as village notables had secured Haganah protection in exchange for keeping the peace and preventing Arab Liberation Army (ALA) irregulars from the using the village to attack Yishuv forces. [14]

Before the 1948 war, the population of al-Shaykh Muwannis was 2,000. [7]

In 1948, the population was largely made up of fellaheen who enjoyed friendly relations with Jews, despite occasional tension. [14] While occasional shots were fired from the village toward Jewish residential areas in January and February 1948, there were no casualties, and the Abu Kishk abided by their promise to keep out ALA irregulars. The emissary of the ALA was informed by the Abu Kishk that "the Arabs of the area will cooperate with the Jews against any outside force that tries to enter." [14]

Some intelligence reports, which were never corroborated, suggested that in early 1948 the village, which overlooked both the Sde Dov Airport and the Reading Power Station, was being infiltrated by heavily-armed Arab irregulars. [23] On 7 March, the Haganah's Alexandroni Brigade imposed a 'quarantine' on the village by closing off all access roads to it and two smaller satellite villages of Jalil al Shamaliyya and Jalil al Qibliya and may even have occupied houses on the edge of village. [14] The underground Stern Gang (LHI) maintained one of its encampments in the village, [24] and, five days later, on 12 March, militants from either the Irgun or Lehi groups kidnapped five village notables. [23] [25] The Jewish Intelligence Services noted that

"many of the villagers . began fleeing following the abduction of the notables of Sheikh Muwannis. The Arab learned that it was not enough to reach an agreement with the Haganah and that there were 'other Jews' of whom to beware, and possibly to be aware of more than the Haganah, which had not control over them." [25]

The villagers then protested that Jewish forces in the area were subjecting them to intimidation, looting and shooting at them randomly. [23] Though the notables were turned over to the Haganah on the 23 March and returned to Shaykh Muwannis, most of the villagers there and in other villages north of the Yarkon River continued to leave, as their confidence had been "mortally undermined". [14] Tawfiq Abu Kishk threw a large parting 'banquet' for the remaining villagers and their Jewish friends on the 28 March 1948. [14] After their departure, the village lands were promptly allocated for Jewish use by the Yishuv leaders, [14] and were ultimately incorporated into the municipality of Tel Aviv. [18]

In the days following, the Abu Kishk leaders attributed their abandonment of the village to: "a) the [Haganah] roadblocks . b) the [Haganah] limitations on movement by foot, c) the theft [by Jews?] of vehicles, and d) the last kidnapping of Sheikh Muwannis men by the LHI." The villagers of Shaykh Muwannis became refugees, with the majority taking up residence in Qalqilya and Tulkarem. [14]

According to the Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, the village's remaining structures in 1992 consisted of several houses occupied by Jewish families and the wall of a house. [7] Soon after the war, it was used to accommodate members of the new Israeli Air Force and men from Mahal units. It was initially repopulated, from 1949 onwards, by Jews from North Africa, called "Moroccans" by other Jews in the area, and much of its land, as the North African Jews were relocated, was taken over for the development of Tel Aviv University, [26] and the former home of the village sheikh, known as the 'Green House', serves as the University's faculty club. [5] [27]

In a right of return march organized by the Israeli group Zochrot on Nakba Day in 2004, participants called upon the Tel Aviv municipality to name six streets in the city after Palestinian villages that had existed there until 1948, among them, Al-Shaykh Muwannis. [28]


Beagle

“When Gregor van der Berg and his team tapped into a natural gas reserve on Mars in 2057, the world collectively scrambled to find the source of this unexpected find. Over the next two decades, the International Martian Research Station was established and manned in the Hypanis Vallis region. It wasn’t long before IMRS unearthed fossilized microbial life. The discovery of extinct extraterrestrials precipitated a renewed interest in the search for life outside the Solar System.

“Six space agencies and two private companies cooperated to send out high-velocity interstellar probes to twelve nearby terrestrial planets, each one a promising candidate for life. Three of the Beagle probes, as they were called, went silent before reaching their destinations. Each of the remaining nine zoomed past their assigned planets, furiously gathering data all the while. As the 21 st century came to a close, the first messages from the Barnard system reached Earth.

“The discoveries were astounding! The first satellite images from Barnard’s fourth planet revealed oceans and continents, dusted red-violet with flourishing plant life. The atmosphere was toxic to humans but rich in gasses common to Earth. The planet’s natural features, along with its tidally locked state, engendered an array of familiar biomes: tundra, rainforest, desert, and prairie among them, along with a few that didn’t fit the profile of any know biomes. Strong currents in the air and the seas moderated the climate and, most importantly, prevented the atmosphere from freezing on the dark side. The planet was given the proper name Ilion after the ancient city of Troy. In keeping with the ancient civilization theme, the other planets became Avaris, Tel Kabri, Ur, Vaishali, Heracleion Yingchang, Pompeii, and Cahokia.”

– Excerpt from The Other Red Planet: A history of the Odyssey program by Raya Andiyar-Mistry, Sergei Dotsenko,, and Johan R. Boscaro

Sayyora
Probe
Size (Earth radii)
Mass (Earth masses)
Surface gravity (g)

Tel Kabri
Beagle 1
0.5 r(E)
0.2 m(E)
0.8 g
Beagle 1 vanished shortly before the flyby but managed to capture several blurry photos of Tel Kabri and collect some preliminary data. Tel Kabri is tantalizingly Earthlike though much smaller, and many theorize that the probe was shot down.

Ur
Beagle 8
0.6 r(E)
0.3 m(E)
1.6 g
Little was known about Ur at the time the probes were disseminated. As exoplanet detection technologies improved, it became clear that Ur had experienced a runaway greenhouse effect and was uninhabitable. Oblivious, Beagle 8 soldiered on.

Cahokia
Beagle 3
0.8 r(E)
0.9 m(E)
1.4 g
Beagle 3 reached its target only to find that Cahokia was little more than a rock. The team’s astrobiologists were disappointed. The astrogeologists were not. The probes were programmed to position themselves between the planet and its star, but Beagle 3 suffered an anomaly that forced it to veer off course.

Avaris
Beagle 11
1.0 r(E)
0.9 m(E)
0.9 g
Probes 11 and 12 journeyed together to Barnard’s Star, where two promising planets had been detected. Beagle 11 split off from its sister and changed course to fly past Avaris, which turned out to be a dud.

Vaishali
Beagle 6
1.0 r(E)
1.1 m(E)
1.1 g
Avaris was not the only Earth-sized planet to fail to pan out. Vaishali, like Ilion, is tidally locked and rimmed with ice. The ice, however, is not made of water but frozen gasses, and the planet is much too cold to support life.

Yer
For comparison

Ilion
Beagle 12
1.3 r(E)
2.0 m(E)
1.2 g
As one of the last to reach its destination, Beagle 12 was under a good deal of pressure to find life. And find life, it did. The probes were outfitted with instruments sensitive to biosignatures, but Beagle 12 didn’t need these. Ilion’s biosphere was out in the open, visible to the naked eye from Beagle 12’s (very short-lived) vantage point.

Pompeii
Beagle 4
1.4 r(E)
2.7 m(E)
1.4 g
Beagle 4 was the only probe to successfully sample its planet’s atmosphere. Pompeii’s air is thick with volcanic gasses and the world was deemed habitable to extremophilic life, though no biological activity was confirmed.

Yingchang
Beagle 10
1.6 r(E)
4.0 m(E)
1.6 g
The super-Earth Yingchang was a long shot, but since so little was known about it, it was voted to be included in the program. Yingchang turned out to be a rocky planet with a tenuous atmosphere, not the water world many expected.

Heracleion
Beagle 5
2.2 r(E)
8.9 m(E)
1.8 g
Heracleion was the water world everyone expected. Its mass and radius were measured from Earth, and from that information planetary scientists deduced that it must have an ocean – and a deep one at that. Beagle 5 gathered copious amounts of data but found no biosignatures.
__________________________________________________________________

The planets I made in Photoshop using various techniques, mostly spherizing textures and playing around with layer styles and gradients. The textures are sourced from NASA and my own photos of physical objects, including some of my dioramas. Some elements are hand painted, including, I believe, the entirety of Yingchang. I made that one a long time ago so I'm not a hundred percent sure.


Ulashish:

Archaeologists have unearthed in northern Israel what might be the world's oldest -- and largest -- wine cellar.

Researchers estimate the cellar is more than 3,000 years old, dating back to about 1,700 B.C. It was found inside an ancient ruined palace in the western Galilee region of Israel, in an area now used for growing banana and avocado trees.

Inside the ancient cellar, archaeologists found 40 large jars, each of which would have held 50 litres of strong, sweet wine. The 40 jars would have had a capacity of roughly 2,000 litres, meaning the cellar could have held the equivalent of nearly 3,000 bottles of wine.

Sadly, all the wine was long since gone, but many of the jars were almost perfectly intact.

"This is a hugely significant discovery -- it's a wine cellar that, to our knowledge, is largely unmatched in age and size," says Eric Cline, the chair of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at George Washington University.

Researchers working on the site in the ancient city of Tel Kabri say the palace was used for an extended time during the Middle Bronze Age and then abandoned for reasons that are still unknown and never re-occupied.

The team used carbon dating to determine the age of the jars that were found, a technique that finds the approximate age of artifacts by measuring the amount of carbon that has decayed.

Andrew Koh, assistant professor of classical studies at Brandeis University, analyzed the jar fragments using organic residue analysis and found traces of tartaric and syringic acid, both key components in wine. He also found compounds suggesting other ingredients that were popular in ancient wine-making were used, including honey, mint, cinnamon bark, juniper berries and resins.

The recipe is similar to medicinal wines used in ancient Egypt for 2,000 years.

Koh also analyzed the proportions of each diagnostic compound and discovered remarkable consistency between jars. He says that suggests that the winemakers followed a precise recipe and followed it to the letter.

"This wasn't moonshine that someone was brewing in their basement, eyeballing the measurements," Koh notes. "This wine's recipe was strictly followed in each and every jar."

The team's findings were presented Friday in Baltimore at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

Assaf Yasur-Landau, chair of the Department of Maritime Civilizations at the University of Haifa, says it's likely that important guests drank the wine.

"The wine cellar was located near a hall where banquets took place, a place where the Kabri elite and possibly foreign guests consumed goat meat and wine," he says.

The Tel Kabri site was first excavated in 1986, when archeologists discovered a building with a floor and wall frescoes painted in an Aegean manner.Excavation work has been ongoing at the site ever since.

As researchers excavated at the site this past summer, they uncovered a metre-long jar, later christened “Bessie.”

“We dug and dug, and all of a sudden, Bessie’s friends started appearing -- five, 10, 15, ultimately 40 jars packed in a 15-by-25-foot storage room,” Cline said in a statement.

In 2015, the dig team hopes to continue their dig work by following two doors leading out of the wine cellar, which they are likely to lead to additional storage rooms.

The excavation work is being funded by grants from National Geographic, the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), the Institute for Aegean Prehistory and several private donors.


Canaanite wine stash found in Galilee unearths ancient flavors

Ilan Ben Zion, a reporter at the Associated Press, is a former news editor at The Times of Israel. He holds a Masters degree in Diplomacy from Tel Aviv University and an Honors Bachelors degree from the University of Toronto in Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, Jewish Studies, and English.

The Canaanite kings of Tel Kabri drank plenty of wine, and for the first time archaeologists have hard evidence for it after unearthing a Bronze Age royal wine cellar at the northern Galilee site.

Kabri, a Middle Bronze Age city located a few miles east of the modern town of Nahariya, was excavated last year by a team headed by Dr. Assaf Yasur-Landau of University of Haifa, Dr. Eric H. Cline of George Washington University, and Dr. Andrew Koh of Brandeis University. During the dig, they found 40 narrow-necked, meter-tall, handleless jugs which date back over 3,600 years.

After conducting a residue analysis of the ceramics found last summer, they said in an article published Wednesday in PLOS ONE that the vessels contained wine.

“The presence of both tartaric and syringic acids in relative abundance as biomarkers indicates that all of these vessels originally held wine and that we may be confident in identifying this space as a wine storage room – that is to say, a wine cellar,” they wrote. A lack of syringic acid, a compound prevalent in red wine, in three of the jars may indicate the lords of the palace also held a stock of white, they postulate, “but it is difficult to say with certainty without further evidence.”

But the wine wasn’t a straight grape-to-barrel concoction. The analysis found that the ancients enhanced their vino with herbs and resins to help flavor and preserve it. Chemical traces suggest that the jar’s contents had herbal additives including “honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cyperus, cedar oil, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon.”

At roughly 2,000 liters of wine, the researchers noted, the quantity found in the cellar suggests the stash was “directly related to consumption within the palace,” rather than for mass distribution.

“We may have here the private reserve of the ruler and his household. ”

Discovering an ancient palace’s storeroom filled with ancient wine jars was a “most unusual find,” Yasur-Landau told The Times of Israel.

“You do not usually find palaces, not to mention palaces that are as early as that, [with] rooms that are filled with very, very large ceramic storage jars,” Yasur-Landau, chair of the department of maritime civilization at the University of Haifa, said.

He said that there are at least two more storerooms adjoined to the one already excavated that remain to be unearthed in the 2015 season. They, too, might contain vessels for wine, or perhaps other commodities such as olive oil or wheat.

“On the other edge of the room there’s a massive entrance with double-doorways, which is likely leading to something important,” he said. Adjacent to the storeroom the excavators also found the remains of an elegantly decorated “banquet hall” with bright white plaster on the floor in which large quantities of meat — sheep and goats, and wild cattle (aurochs) — was consumed and other wine jars were found.

“It is very likely that in every celebration… wine was consumed and wine was also offered to the gods,” not dissimilar to ancient and modern Jewish ritual, he said.

The region of the western Galilee where Tel Kabri is situated was noted in antiquity for its wine production, as it remains today. Kibbutz Gesher Ziv, just west of the site, and Abirim, to its east, both possess vineyards and boutique wineries. Cultivars of the ancient grapes used to produce the Canaanite wine may still exist in the wild in northern Israel, meaning the ancient concoction could be recreated.

Professor Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania has teamed up with Dogfish Head Brewery to recreate ancient beers and ales. Yasur-Landau said he seeks to accomplish a similar undertaking and resurrect the Canaanite wine with appropriate scientific diligence.

“We are looking for the right winery to do it, but this will have to be a very serious archaeological experiment,” he said. “The aim is actually double, to re-enjoy the taste of the old wine, but second is to make an accurate reconstruction of the ancient taste.”

For wine aficionados hoping to try the blend should it be recreated, be warned: “The Canaanites were drinking wines that were very different from our wines,” he said. They would deteriorate with age, so they added flavors and natural preservatives to enhance them, lending them tastes unfamiliar to those with modern palates.

Nonetheless, when Canaanite lords threw a banquet in their palace and slaughtered a large animal in celebration, “I have no doubt that the people… were consuming very, very good wine.”

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Assaf Yasur Landau. Red Wine and Minoan Frescoes: The Canaanite Palace at Tel Kabri (Fevral 2023).

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