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Pearl -Harborga hujum: jangovar kemalar safi

Pearl -Harborga hujum: jangovar kemalar safi


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Pearl-Harbordan omon qolganlar USS Arizona, USS West Virginia va USS Oklahoma kabi jangovar kemalarning olovli vayron qilinganligi haqida o'z qo'li bilan hisobot berishadi.


Birinchi hujum: Pearl Harbor, 1932 yil 7 fevral

Yaponiyaning Pearl-Harborga qilgan hujumidan ko'ra, hech qanday Amerika qo'shinlari o'limdan keyingi o'limga duch kelmagan. 1941 yildan 1946 yilgacha AQSh hukumatining turli bo'limlari to'qqizta rasmiy so'rov o'tkazdi. O'ninchi tergov 1995 yilda bo'lib o'tdi, Mudofaa vazirligi kontr-admiral eri E. Kimmel va general-mayor Valter C.ning aybini Yaponiyaning Pearl-Harborga hujumidan oldin tayyorgarlik ko'rmaganligi uchun qayta ko'rib chiqqach. "Dorn Report" deb nomlangan tergov, Kimmel va Qisqa hujum oqibatida vayronagarchilik uchun javobgarlikni olib tashladi va Kimmel va Shortni o'limdan so'ng, hujumdan oldin egallagan darajalariga qaytarishni tavsiya qildi.

Hujum Ruzvelt ma'muriyati bo'lajak hujum haqida oldindan bilganmi va AQShning Ikkinchi jahon urushiga kirishiga bahona yaratish uchun ruxsat berganmi, degan munozaraga sabab bo'ldi. 1944 yil sentyabr oyida Amerika Birinchi qo'mitasining asoschilaridan biri Jon T. Flin 46 sahifali kitobchani nashr etdi. Pearl -Harbor haqidagi haqiqat, unda u tarixchilar "ilg'or bilimlar fitnasi nazariyasi" deb atagan narsani rasman ko'targan. Munozara hali ham davom etmoqda.

Tarixchilar nazariyani tarixiy faktlar qo'llab -quvvatlanmaydi deb rad etishdi, garchi hukumat hujjatlarida va shaxsiy yozishmalarda Yaponiya bilan urushning muqarrarligini ko'rsatadigan va hatto bunday istiqbolni ma'qullaydigan ko'plab noaniq ma'lumotlar mavjud bo'lsa -da. Ba'zi tarixchilar, Ruzveltning Yaponiyaga nisbatan siyosati qasddan provokatsion va Yaponiyani AQShga birinchi bo'lib zarba berishga undagan, deb bahslashishdi.

1940 yilga kelib, Ruzvelt ma'muriyati Germaniya bilan urush muqarrar deb qaror qildi va bunday hodisaga tayyorlanayotgani haqida dalillar ham bor. Bunday holda, Yaponiya bilan bo'lgan urush, Germaniyaga qarshi sa'y -harakatlardan resurslarni chalg'itadigan chalg'itish edi. Ayniqsa, "D rejasi" ning qabul qilinishi haqidagi hikoya qiziq.

1940 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlaridan ko'p o'tmay, Franklin D. Ruzvelt kampaniyasi "hech bir amerikalik o'g'il Evropaga jangga jo'natilmaydi" degan va'dasiga asoslanib, u dengiz operatsiyalari boshlig'i admiral Xarold R. Starkdan brifing oldi. Evropadagi urush holati to'g'risida. Stark Ruzveltga aytdiki, Amerika yordamisiz Buyuk Britaniya muqarrar ravishda fashistlar tomonidan mag'lub bo'ladi, bu esa Germaniyaning Evropa, Afrika va Yaqin Sharqda hukmronligiga olib keladi. Taxminan o'sha paytda Ruzvelt Albert Eynshteyndan maktub oldi, unda u fashistlar Germaniyasi ulkan vayronkor kuchga ega "atom bombasi" ni yaratish ustida ishlayotgani haqida ogohlantirdi.

Keyinchalik Stark rasmiy eslatmada Ruzveltga siyosatning mumkin bo'lgan variantlarini aytib berdi. "D" deb nomlangan to'rtinchi variant Yaponiyaning har qanday tahdididan qat'i nazar, "birinchi Germaniya" strategiyasini ilgari surdi va Amerikaning Britaniyaga yordami Shimoliy Afrika va Evropaga AQSh qo'shinlarini joylashtirishni ham o'z ichiga olishi kerakligini tavsiya qildi. Keyinchalik "D rejasi" deb nomlangan bu siyosat tavsiyasi Ruzvelt ma'muriyatida, shu jumladan AQShda ham keng qo'llab-quvvatlandi. Armiya shtab boshlig'i, Jorj C. Marshall. Aynan o'sha paytda, Yaponiya hujumidan bir yil oldin, Ruzvelt "D rejasini" amalga oshirish uchun Britaniya va Amerika harbiy shtab boshliqlari o'rtasida qo'shma muzokaralarga ruxsat bergan edi. "Birinchi Germaniya" siyosati bir yil o'tgach, 1941 yil 22 dekabrdan 1942 yil 14 yanvargacha Vashingtonda bo'lib o'tgan Ruzvelt va Uinston Cherchill o'rtasida "Arkadiya konferentsiyasi" ga qadar ommaga rasman e'lon qilinmadi.

AQShning 1940 va 1941 yillardagi Atlantika okeanida olib borgan operatsiyalari Ruzveltning Germaniyaga bo'lgan e'tiboriga mos keldi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi boshlanganidan so'ng, Stark Karib dengizida va Shimoliy va Janubiy Amerika qirg'oqlaridan 200 mil uzoqlikdagi suvlarda "Neytrallik patrullari" ni buyurdi. 1940 yil davomida Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari Atlantika okeanining g'arbiy qismida nemis tijoratchilarini va qayiqlarini betaraflik zonasiga kirishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun "jangovar kemalar" ni o'tkazdi. 1941 yilda bu supuruvchilarga tayinlangan kemalar soni ikki baravar ko'paydi va ularning patrul zonasi Islandiyaga qadar uzaytirildi. 1941 yil sentyabr oyida AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari qiruvchi kanali qirollik floti bilan hamkorlikda Kanada va ingliz savdogarlarini Islandiyaga qadar kuzatib bora boshladi. Amerika birinchi qo'mitasi konvoyni eskort faoliyatini Germaniyani qasddan provokatsion deb tanqid qildi va Ruzveltni Berlin bilan urush olib borishda aybladi.

Hujumdan oldingi davrda AQSh tomonidan olingan signal razvedkasi tarixi ham fitna nazariyotchilarini rag'batlantirdi. Amerika kodini buzish faoliyati juda murakkab va juda rivojlangan edi. AQSh Yaponiya harbiy va diplomatik kodekslarining ko'pini buzishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Shunga qaramay, bu aql -idrokni qo'llash ko'pincha tasodifiy edi. Yapon tarjimonlarining etishmasligi keng tarqalgan edi. Kriptograflar va razvedka tahlilchilarining aylanmasi yuqori bo'lgan. Ikkala faoliyat ham kelajakdagi martaba istiqbollarini yomonlashtirishi mumkin bo'lgan tugallangan ish joylari deb hisoblangan.

Ma'lumot almashish bir xil darajada tasodifiy bo'lib, turli hukumat idoralari signallarni uzib qo'ygan. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, AQSh Yaponiya diplomatik kodini "binafsha rang" deb nomlagan, uni Tokio o'z elchixonalari bilan muhim aloqada ishlatgan. Vashingtondagi Yaponiya elchisiga Davlat departamentiga Tokio AQSh bilan diplomatik aloqalarni uzayotgani to'g'risida 6 va 7 dekabrda dekodlangan va urush departamenti tomonidan Yaponiya hujumining belgisi sifatida to'g'ri talqin qilingan 14 qismli xabar. Tinch okeanining biron bir joyida tong otdi. Afsuski, Tinch okeanidagi AQSh harbiy kuchlariga yuborilgan ogohlantirish, atmosfera sharoitlari tufayli, Western Union tomonidan yuborilgan. Telegramma Gavayiga hujumlarning birinchi to'lqini o'rtalarida kelgan.

Hujumga taalluqli ba'zi hujjatlar hanuzgacha maxfiy saqlanayotgani, fitna nazariyotchilariga ozuqa berdi. Buyuk Britaniyaning "Ultra" va AQShning "Sehrli" dasturlari, masalan, Pearl -Harborga tegishli signalli razvedka mavjud, bu hali ham sir. Bundan tashqari, boshqa hujjatlar, masalan, Gollandiyaning Sharqiy Hindistondagi harbiy razvedkasining Pearl -Harborga yaqinlashayotgan Yaponiya hujumi haqidagi aniq ogohlantirishlari ham bor. Hujumdan keyingi bir necha hafta ichida Pearl -Harbordagi ko'plab hujjatlar yaqinlashib kelayotgan yapon bosqinidan qo'rqib yo'q qilingan.

Bahsga ochiq bo'lmagan tarixiy faktlardan biri bu Pearl -Harborning kutilmagan hujumga zaifligini tekshirish maqsadida o'tkazilgan harbiy mashqlar doirasida 1932 yil 7 fevralda Pearl -Harborda o'tkazilgan soxta reyd. 1921 va 1940 yillardagi Vashington dengiz konferentsiyasi o'rtasidagi davrda AQShda ikki okeanli dengiz floti yo'q edi. Tinch okeanining asosiy langarlari San -Diyego va San -Frantsiskoda bo'lib, u erda flot Panama kanali yoki Gavayi orollarini himoya qilish uchun tezda joylashtirilishi mumkin edi. Kanalga yaqinligi, agar kerak bo'lsa, Atlantikaga tez o'tishiga imkon berdi.

Urush bo'limidagi "rejalashtiruvchilar" kamida 1906 yildan buyon Yaponiya bilan urush ehtimoli haqida o'ylashar edi. "Urush rejasi to'q sariq" deb nomlangan strategiya, agar Yaponiya, Filippin va Tinch okeanining g'arbiy qismidagi Amerika bazalari bilan urush bo'lsa. yo blokadaga solinadi, yoki haddan oshib ketadi. Vaqtinchalik, AQSh Tinch okeani floti o'z kuchini G'arbiy Sohil bo'ylab to'playdi, kemalar ekipajni to'liq to'ldirgunga qadar. 1930 -yillarda kemalar iqtisodiyot chorasi sifatida ajratilgan ekipajining faqat yarmi bilan ishlagan. Filo tayyor bo'lgach, Filippinni yengillashtirish uchun g'arbga suzib ketardi. Filippin kafolatlangan holda, flot Yaponiyani qamal qilishni davom ettiradi va Yaponiya floti bilan harbiy -dengiz flotini hal qiladi.

Bu strategiya amerikalik dengiz strategi Alfred Tayer Mahanning yozishmalariga mos kelgandi, u bo'lajak urushlar hal qiluvchi dengiz kuchlari ishtirokida hal qilinadi. Bu fikr dunyoning dengiz kuchlari, shu jumladan Yaponiya orasida keng tarqalgan edi. Tinch okeanidagi kampaniyada Gavayining muhim rolini hisobga olgan holda, AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlarini Pearl -Harborda kuchaytirish g'oyasi yangi emas edi. Bu hech bo'lmaganda Birinchi jahon urushi tugaganidan beri muhokama qilingan.

1923 yildan beri AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari "flot muammolari" deb nomlangan keng ko'lamli dengiz mashg'ulotlarini o'tkazdilar, ular davomida AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari Evropa yoki Osiyodan kelgan hujumchi bilan istehzoli janglarda qatnashishdi. 13 -sonli flot muammosi "militaristik, osiyolik, orol davlatining Pearl -Harbordagi harbiy bazaga qarshi" istehzoli hujumi edi. Mashq Pearlning mudofaasini sinab ko'rish va uning hujumga zaifligini baholash uchun mo'ljallangan edi.

Hujumchi kuch kontr -admiral Garri Yarnell qo'mondonligi ostida edi. Admiral malakali dengiz aviatori edi, jangovar kema qo'mondonligi hali ham lavozimga ko'tarilish yo'lida bo'lgan paytda, aviatorning qanotlarini qozongan kam sonli admirallardan biri edi. 1927 yilda u samolyot tashuvchisi qo'mondonligini oldi Saratoga va tashuvchi taktikasini ishlab chiqishda muhim rol o'ynadi. O'sha paytda tashuvchilar "flotni qidirish elementlari" deb tasniflangan. Ular kapital kemalar sifatida baholanmagan va sarflanadigan deb hisoblangan.

Yarnellning ta'kidlashicha, Yaponiya "har doim urush e'lon qilinishidan oldin hujum qilib hujum qilgan". Shunga ko'ra, u Pearl -Harborga kutilmagan hujumni amalga oshirish uchun tashuvchi aviatsiyadan foydalangan holda hujum rejasini tuzdi. Pearl himoyachilari Yarnell o'zining jangovar kemalari bilan hujum qilishini taxmin qilishgan edi. Buning o'rniga, u o'zining jangovar kemalarini tashlab, tashuvchilar bilan oldinga siljidi Saratoga va Leksington Gavayining shimoli-shimoli-sharqiy nuqtasiga. Ertalab, 1932 yil 7 -fevral, yakshanba kuni, Yarnell ikkita tashuvchidan 152 samolyot kuchlari bilan hujum boshladi. Uning hujumchi kuchlari avval aerodromlarga hujum qilishdi, keyin esa jangovar kema bo'ylab kemalarga hujum qilishdi.

Yarnell butunlay hayratga tushdi. Aerodromlar foydalanishga topshirilmadi, hujum paytida birorta ham samolyot havoga chiqmadi. Hujumchi kuchlar bir nechta zarbalarni urishdi, ular bomba taqlid qilish uchun qoplarga oq un tashladilar. Hakamlar Yarnellning hujumi muvaffaqiyatli o'tganini e'lon qilib, uni g'olib deb e'lon qilishdi. Biroq, Armiya va Dengiz guruchida hech narsa yo'q edi. Ular Yarnellni aldaganidan shikoyat qilishdi. U yakshanba kuni ertalab tong otganda hujum uyushtirgan edi. Uning shimoliy-shimoli-sharqdan hujum vektori materikdan kelgan samolyotlarga taqlid qilgan. Eng muhimi, dengiz flotining ta'kidlashicha, langarda jangovar kemalarni past darajadagi aniq bombardimon qilish haqiqiy emas, chunki "hamma osiyoliklarning bunday aniq bombardimon qilish uchun qo'li va ko'zlari etarli darajada muvofiqlashtirilmaganligini bilar edi".

Urush bo'limi tomonidan bosim o'tkazilgan hakamlar o'z qarorlarini bekor qilishdi va himoyachilar mashg'ulotda g'olib bo'lishganini e'lon qilishdi. Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari va uning "jangovar kema admirallari" Yarnellning Pearl -Harbor dengiz havo kuchlari hujumidan himoyasiz ekanligi haqidagi bahsiga e'tibor bermadilar. Mashg'ulotlar matbuotda keng yoritilgan va Yaponiyaning Oaxudagi konsulligida Yaponiya dengiz kuchlari ofitserlari tomonidan kuzatilgan. Taxminan 10 yil o'tgach, Yaponiya dengiz floti Pearl -Harborga deyarli uglerodli hujum uyushtiradi, oltita tashuvchidan foydalanadi va Yarnell tomonidan ishlatilgan havo kuchini ikki baravar oshiradi.

Yaponiya dengiz flotida qo'llaniladigan yagona muhim yangilik-marvarid lagunasidagi kemalarga qarshi havoga tortilgan torpedalardan foydalanish. Bir yil oldin, Qirollik floti Tarantodagi bazasida Italiya flotiga hujum qilish uchun sekin qilichli torpedo samolyotlaridan foydalangan edi. Bu hujumning muvaffaqiyati Tokioda ham yo'qolgani yo'q. AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari Pearl bilan aloqani rad etdi, chunki Tarantoning porti taxminan 75 fut chuqurlikda, Pearl-Harbordan deyarli ikki barobar chuqurroq edi va u havodagi torpedalar sayoz suvlarda ishlashiga ishonmadi. Yaponiya dengiz floti bu muammoni torpedalarini tekis siljish yo'li bilan o'zgartirish orqali hal qildi.

Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumning aniq hikoyasi hali yozilmagan. Pearl hali ham oshkor qiladigan sirlarga ega. Sir emaski, Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga qarshi hujum rejasi bundan o'n yil oldin amerikalik admiral tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan.

Jozef V. Micallef - harbiy tarixchi, eng ko'p sotilgan muallif, asosiy ma'ruzachi, sindikatlangan sharhlovchi va xalqaro siyosat va kelajak sharhlovchisi.


Keyin va hozir: Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumga va bugun ko'rilgan yodgorliklarga bir nazar

AQShning uchta jangovar kemasi. Chapdan o'ngga, G'arbiy Virjiniya, Tennessi va Arizona, 1941 yil Ikkinchi jahon urushida yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga hujumidan keyin.

Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

AQSh yodgorligi. Arizona 1941 yilda yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga kutilmagan hujumi paytida dengiz kemasida halok bo'lgan 1177 dengizchi va dengiz piyodalarini sharaflash uchun Pearl -Harborda turibdi.

: Ford oroli 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Gavayida Pearl portiga yaponiyaliklar hujumi paytida havodan ko'rinishda. Surat yapon samolyotidan olingan. 2001 yil 7 -dekabr Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujum qilganiga 60 yil to'ldi.

Gavayi orolining Honolulu shahridagi Pearl Harborning Google xaritalaridan olingan 2016 yilgi fotosurati. Markazda Ford oroli joylashgan.

AQSh harbiy kemasidan tutun ko'tariladi. Aravona, Gavayidagi Pearl -Harborga yaponlarning kutilmagan hujumi paytida cho'kib ketdi.

AQSh Arizona memoriali, Pearl -Harbor, Gavayi.

1941 yil 7-dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator Harbiy-dengiz floti Pearl-Harborga hujum qilib, katta tutun bulutini keltirib chiqargan "Arizona" jangovar kemasini ko'rdi. Doira ichida hujum qilayotgan yapon qiruvchi samolyoti bor.

ullstein bild/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

Tarixiy AQShning yaqin tasviri. Arizona memoriali.

AQShning Yaponiyaga qarshi urush e'lon qilishiga turtki bo'lgan Pearl -Harbor hujumining bir qismi sifatida Yaponiyadagi havo hujumidan yonayotgan Wheeler Field samolyotlari va angarlari.

Vaqt hayoti rasmlari/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

Pearl -Harbor va AQShning tarixiy obidasi. Arizona memoriali. Yodgorlik atrofida bazaning rivojlanishi, shu jumladan Ford orolining bir qismini ko'rish mumkin.

1941 yil 7 -dekabr, Gavayi, Gorolini, Gonolulu, Oaxu, Yaponiya hujumi paytida, jangovar kemalar qatorining portlashlar ko'rinishidagi uchta Amerika kemasi shikastlangan. AQSh chapdan o'ngga G'arbiy Virjiniya, AQSh Tennessi va AQSh Arizona

Vaqtinchalik arxivlar/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

AQSh Arizona memoriali 2015 yil 7-dekabrda Oaxu orolidagi Gear Havo orollari Gonolulu shahridagi Pearl-Harbor-Xikamdagi Kilo-Pierdagi Oaxu orolidagi AQSh harbiy-dengiz bazasiga Pearl-Harborda uyushtirilgan hujumning 74 yilligini nishonlash marosimida ko'rilmoqda.

Kent Nishimura/Getty Images Ko'proq ko'rsat

Gonolulu shahrining Waikiki tumanidagi Lunalilo o'rta maktabi o'quvchilari, maktabning yonishini, Gavayi orolidagi Pearl -Harborga uyushtirilgan hujum paytida, markazdagi asosiy binoning tomini portlatib yuborganidan so'ng, o'z maktabining yonishini tomosha qilmoqdalar.

Gavayidagi Honolulu shahrida Lunalilo o'rta maktabi joylashgan Waikiki tumanining Google Xaritalar ko'rinishi.

U.S.S. ag'darilgan jangovar kemasining pastki qismi Oklaxoma Pearl -Harborda suvni sindirdi.

Odamlar AQShga qarashadi Oklaxoma memoriali, Pearl -Harbor, Gavayi. 1941 yil 7 dekabrda yaponlar AQShning Pearl -Harbordagi harbiy -dengiz kuchlari bazasiga hujum qilib, AQShning Ikkinchi jahon urushiga kirishiga zamin yaratdilar.

AQSh Arizona Gavayi orolining Pearl -Harbor shahridagi Pearl -Harborga yaponiyaliklarning hujumidan keyin olovda tasvirlangan. Hujum natijasida AQShning to'rtta jangovar kemasi cho'kdi, AQShning 188 ta samolyoti yo'q qilindi, yana to'rtta jangovar kemasi, uchta kreyser va uchta esminets buzildi. 2200 dan ortiq dengizchilar, dengiz piyodalari va askarlar halok bo'ldi.

AQSh Chung-Xun AQShdan o'tadi. Arizona memoriali, Tinch okeani milliy yodgorligi Oaxu orolidagi Perl -Harborda AQSh harbiy -dengiz bazasiga qilingan hujumning 73 yilligiga bag'ishlangan xotira marosimida.

Kent Nishimura/Getty Images Ko'proq ko'rsat

1941 yilda Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumning boshqa fotosuratlarini ko'rish uchun bosishni davom eting.

29 fayldan 110 ta fayl- 1941 yil 7-dekabrda Pearl-Harborga uyushtirilgan hujum. Arizona shtatidagi USS Yaponiya hujumidan keyin olovda tasvirlangan. 1997 yil 7 -dekabr, yakshanba kuni, Qo'shma Shtatlarni Ikkinchi jahon urushiga olib kelgan hujumning 56 yilligi, jangda omon qolgan ikki dengiz flotining kullari jangovar kema ustidagi suvlarga sochilishi rejalashtirilgan. Bu boshqa kemada xizmat paytida hujumdan omon qolganlar yoki hujumdan oldin Arizona shtatida xizmat qilganlar uchun sharafdir. (AP Foto/AQSh Dengiz kuchlari, Fayl) Ko'proq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7 -dekabr, 110 -yil 31 -dekabr "Gavayi va Manila osmondan yapon bombardimonchilarining hujumiga uchradi." Yaponlarning Pearl -Harborga hujumi Amerikaning Tinch okeani va Evropa teatrlarida ishtirok etishiga olib keladi. Korporativ fayllar Jeyk Daniels ko'proq ko'rsat

32 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Gavayi orolining Pearl -Harborga uyushtirgan kutilmagan hujumi paytida cho'kib ketgan USS Arizona kemasidan tutun ko'tariladi. STF Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

34 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi fayl rasmida, kichik qayiqdagi dengizchilar G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatining USS ekipaj a'zosini Gavayi orolidagi Perl -Harborga qilgan hujumidan keyin suvdan qutqarishdi. (AP surati) STF Show Show Show Less

35 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda AQSh Harbiy departamenti tomonidan Yaponiya kinoxronikasidan olingan tasvirda Pearl -Harborga hujum paytida Gavayi oroli ustidagi yapon samolyotlari ko'rsatilgan. (AP surati/AQSh urush bo'limi) HOPD Show More Show Less

37 of 110 1941 yil 7-dekabrdagi faylda, Yaponiya samolyoti Gavayi orolidagi Perl-Harborga kutilmagan hujum paytida dengiz zenitlariga qarshi o'qqa tutilganidan so'ng, olovda erga qarab ketayotganida, oxirgi marta sho'ng'idi. (AP surati) AP faylining fotosurati Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

1941 yil dekabr, Pearl -Harbordagi 110 jangovar kema Arizona. 1941 yil 7 -dekabr. Yaponiya kuchlarining kutilmagan hujumi paytida jangovar kema bombardimon qilingan va vayron qilinganidan so'ng, rasm qisqa vaqt ichida olingan. O'ng tomondagi kema - qutqaruvchi. Hali ham kemada hilpirab turgan bayroq okean tubida kemalari to'lib toshgan. (AP surati) Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi fotosuratda Amerika kemalari Gavayi orolining Pearl -Harborga hujumi paytida yonib ketgan. (AP surati) STF Show Show Show Less

41 ning 110 -sanasi, bu noma'lum faylda, AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan Yapon torpedo samolyoti deb topilgan vayronalar 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda kutilmagan hujumdan keyin Pearl -Harbor tubidan qutqarilgan. Pearl -Harbor, arxeologlar tarixiy hujumda vafot etgan yapon uchuvchisining gumon qilishicha, bosh suyagi topilganida. Tinch okean dengiz floti muhandisligi qo'mondoni arxeolog Jeff Fong Associated Press agentligiga kashfiyot va bosh suyagini aniqlash bo'yicha olib borilayotgan ishlarni tasvirlab berdi. Uning aytishicha, dastlabki tahlillar bosh suyagi yapon uchuvchisiga tegishli ekaniga "75 foiz ishonch hosil qilgan". (AP surati, fayl) Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

43 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan taqdim etilgan rasmda, dengiz floti G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatiga, Pearl -Harborga hujum paytida dengizchini qutqarish uchun yaqinlashmoqda. Yaqinda arxeologlar tarixiy hujumda vafot etgan yapon uchuvchisidan bosh suyagi topilganida, Pearl -Harbor tubida qazish ishlari olib boruvchi kashfiyot qildi. Tinch okean dengiz floti muhandisligi qo'mondoni arxeolog Jeff Fong Associated Press agentligiga kashfiyot va bosh suyagini aniqlash bo'yicha olib borilayotgan ishlarni tasvirlab berdi. Uning aytishicha, dastlabki tahlillar bosh suyagi yapon uchuvchisiga tegishli ekaniga "75 foiz ishonch hosil qilgan". (AP fotosurati/AQSh dengiz floti, fayl) Anonim/HOPD Show Show Show Less

44 dan 110 AQShning uchta jangovar kemasi 1941 yil 7 dekabrda Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga uyushtirgan hujumi paytida havodan uriladi. Yaponiyaning AQShning Pearl -Harbordagi harbiy bazalarini bombardimon qilishi AQShni Ikkinchi jahon urushiga olib keladi. Chapdan: USS G'arbiy Virjiniya, Tennessi shtatida jiddiy shikastlangan, shikastlangan va USS Arizona cho'kdi. 7 dekabrda Pearl-Harborda sodir bo'lgan dahshatli voqeadan oltmish ikki yil o'tib, 2390 kishining umriga zomin bo'lgan yaponlarning hujumi haqidagi fikrlar, bundan ham battar kunlarni ko'rgan, urushlarda qatnashgan, minglab o'g'il va qizlarini yo'qotgan xalq uchun uzoq emas. (AP surati) Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

46 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda, Gonolulu shahri, Waikiki tumanidagi Lunalilo o'rta maktabi o'quvchilari, maktab binosining yonishini, markaziy binoning tomida, Yaponiya hujumi paytida bomba urishidan keyin, yonayotganini tomosha qilmoqdalar. Pearl -Harborda, Gavayi. (AP surati/fayl) Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi fayl fotosuratida 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiyaning Gavayi oroliga hujumidan keyin Pearl -Harborda joylashgan kemalarga katta zarar etkazilgani ko'rsatilgan. AQShga qarshi eng o'xshash hujum Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborni kutilmagan tarzda bombardimon qilishi edi. 1941 yil 7 -dekabr AQShni urushga olib keldi. Xalq Pearl-Harborning 10 yilligini hozirgidan farqli ravishda nishonladi. Xuddi 11 sentyabrning 10 yillik yubileyida bo'lgani kabi, xalq ham Pearl-Harborning yubileyini qanday o'tkazgani 1951 yilda dunyoda sodir bo'lgan voqealarga bog'liq edi. AP Show More Show Less Show

49 of 110 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda AQSh Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan taqdim etilgan USS Arizona fayli fotosurati Yaponiyaning Gavayi orolidagi Pearl -Harbordagi Pearl -Harborga hujumidan keyin olovda tasvirlangan. Hujum AQShning to'rtta jangovar kemasini cho'ktirib yubordi va AQShning 188 ta samolyotini yo'q qildi. Yana to'rtta jangovar kema, uchta kreyser va uchta esminets buzilgan. 2200 dan ortiq dengizchilar, dengiz piyodalari va askarlar halok bo'ldi. (AP fotosurati/AQSh dengiz floti, fayl) AQSh dengiz floti/HO Show Show Show Less

50 ning 110 USS Shaw, 1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi fotosuratda, Gavayi orolidagi Pearl -Harborga yaponlarning kutilmagan hujumi paytida portlashlar natijasida portladi. (AP fotosurati, AQSh dengiz floti, fayl) Ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

52 ning 110 -qismi Oklaxomadagi ag'darilgan kemaning pastki qismi Pearl -Harborda suvni sindirdi. Pentagon 388 ta harbiy xizmatchining qoldiqlarini aniqlashga urinib ko'radi.

Yaponiyaliklar tomonidan 110 Torpedo tomonidan bombardimon qilingan va bombardimon qilingan USS G'arbiy Virjiniya jangovar kemasi og'ir shikastlanganidan keyin cho'kishni boshlaydi, Merilend shtatidagi USS esa hali ham 1941 yil 7 dekabrda Gavayidagi Oaxu shtatidagi Perl -Harborda suvda. ASSOSIATED PRESS Ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Pearl -Harborda Yaponiya hujumi paytida asosiy binoning tomiga bomba urilishi oqibatida Gonolulu shahridagi Lunalilo o'rta maktabini qutqaruvchilarning 55 tasi evakuatsiya qilinmoqda. Associated Press Show Show Show Show Less

56 of 110 AQSh Gavayi: Ikkinchi Jahon urushi 1941 yil 7 dekabrda Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujumi - 1941 1941 ullstein bild/Getty Images More Show Show Show Less

Yaponiyaliklarning hujumidan keyin Pearl -Harbor harbiy -dengiz bazasi va USS Shaw -ning 58tasi yondi. Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi, Pearl -Harborga hujum paytida urib tushirilgan yapon samolyotining 110 ta qoldig'i 59. Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga uyushtirgan kutilmagan hujumi natijasida 110 USS Shaw esminetsining 61 -si portladi. Vaqt hayoti rasmlari/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

62 ning 110 G'arbiy Virjiniya va Tennessi kemalarining Pearl -Harborga hujumidan keyin yonayotgan fotosuratlari. Tug'ilgan sanasi: 1941 yil Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images Ko'proq ko'rsat

64 ning 110 -chi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi: Yaponiyaning AQShning Pearl -Harbor harbiy -dengiz bazasiga hujumi, Gavayi, 1941 yil 7 -dekabr. USS G'arbiy Virjiniya shtatida, Yaponiya bombalari va torpedalari zarbasidan keyin alanga. UniversalImagesGroup/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatadi

1941 yil 7 -dekabr, 65 -son: Gazeta Yaponiya havo kuchlarining Pearl -Harborga (Pearl -Harbor) hujumidan bir yarim soat o'tib, Honolulu markazida portlash sodir bo'lgani haqida xabar beradi. Uch Arslon/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

67 of 110 Amerika yengil kreyseri USS Feniks (CL-46) 1941 yil dekabrda Yaponiyaning Pearl-Harborga hujumidan keyin yonib ketganini ko'rsatdi. PhotoQuest/Getty Images More Show Show Less

68 ning 110 USS Kaliforniya, Yaponiya hujumidan keyin Pearl -Harborda (Pearl -Harbor) yonib ketdi. Fox Photos/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatiladi

Pearl -Harbordagi AQSh harbiy -dengiz bazasiga Yaponiyaning 110 ta hujumidan 70 tasi 1941 yil 7 -dekabr. Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images More Show Less

1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan 110 -sonli Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujum fronti faqat "Merilend" ozgina shikastlangan jangovar kemasini qoldirdi, "Oklaxoma" tutuni ostida qoldi. ullstein bild/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7-dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator Harbiy-dengiz flotining 110-sonli Pearl-Harborga qilgan hujumi, katta tutun bulutini keltirib chiqargan "Arizona" jangovar kemasining ko'rinishi. Doira ichida hujum qilayotgan yapon qiruvchi samolyoti bor. ullstein bild/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

74 of 110 Harbiy kemalar qatori portlashlar ko'rinishida, Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harbor, Gonolulu, Oaxu, Gavayi, 1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi hujumi chog'ida Amerikaning uchta kemasi shikastlangan. Chapdan o'ngga, USS G'arbiy Virjiniya, USS Tennessi va USS Arizona . Vaqtinchalik arxivlar/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

76 ning 110 dan AQShning uchta jangovar kemasi. Chapdan o'ngga, G'arbiy Virjiniya, Tennessi va Arizona, 1941 yil Ikkinchi jahon urushida Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujumidan keyin. Umumjahon tarixi arxivi/Getty Images More Show Less Show

1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan Pearl -Harborga qilingan 110 -sonli hujum, 1941 -yil 7 -dekabrda AQSh dengiz piyodasi torpedaga urilganidan keyin Ford orolining qurg'oqchasida "Shou" esminetsining portlashini kuzatmoqda. ullstein bild/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

Pensilvaniya shtatidagi USS jangovar kemasi oldida vayron bo'lgan vayronalar massasi 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Pearl -Harborga yaponiyaliklar tomonidan bombardimon qilingan USS Downes va USS Cassin esminetslarining qoldiqlarini tashkil qiladi. 2001 yil 7 -dekabr Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujum qilganiga 60 yil to'ldi. (Getty Images surati) Getty Images/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan 110 -sonli Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujum, Wheeler maydonidagi Curtiss P -40 Warhawk samolyotlarini vayron qildi - ullstein bildning vintage mulki. ullstein bild/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

82 of 110 USS Kaliforniya kemasi Ford oroli yaqinida cho'kib ketdi, yaponiyaliklar Pearl -Harbor, Gonolulu, Oaxu, Gavayi, 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda hujum paytida kemani torpeda qilishdi va bombardimon qilishdi. USS Shaw esminetsi chap tomonda yonib ketdi. Vaqtinchalik arxivlar/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiya Imperator floti Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan 110 -sonli Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujum, Tinch okean flotining flagmani Oglala minerayerining old qismidagi 1010 -Dock -Dock -ga hujumi, torpidoning orqa qismiga urilishi natijasida cho'kdi. "Xelena" engil kreyseri - ullstein bildning vint -mulki

1941 yil 85 -sonli olovda Pearl Harbor Honolulu maktabi. Yaponiyaning kutilmagan bombardimonidan keyin Gonolulu maktabi yonib ketdi. Aniq arxiv/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

1941 yil 86-sonli Pearl-Harbor tutun bilan to'lgan osmon. Pearl -Harbordan keyingi fotosuratda AQShning uchta yirik kemasi ko'rinadi: Shou, Elena va Oglala. Aniq arxiv/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

1941 yil 88 -sonli 1941 yil Pearl Harbor Gavayi reydining shikastlanishi. Pearl -Harbor hujumidan keyin Gavayi reydining samolyot qoldiqlari va shikastlanishi. Aniq arxiv/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

89 of 110 Yaponiya hujumi paytida, Dengiz havo stantsiyasida, Ford orolida, Pearl -Harborda (Pearl -Harbor) portlash. Dengizchilar, USS Shawning markaziy fonda portlashini, vayronagarchilik bilan ko'rishmoqda. USS Nevada ham orqa fonda ko'rinadi, uning kamonlari chapga burilgan. Fox Photos/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatiladi

1941 yil 7 -dekabrdagi 91 -son: AQShning Ikkinchi Jahon Urushiga olib kelgan yaponlarning hujumidan keyin Oaxu orolidagi Pearl -Harborda (Pearl -Harbor) USS Nevada shtatida yong'in sodir bo'ldi. MPI/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatiladi

92 of 110 USS Arizona Yaponiya hujumidan keyin Pearl -Harborda (Pearl -Harbor) g'azab bilan yonib ketdi. Uning chap tomonida USS Tennessi va cho'kib ketgan USS West Virginia. Hulton arxivi/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

AQShning Yaponiyaga qarshi urush e'lon qilishiga sabab bo'lgan Pearl -Harbor hujumi natijasida Yaponiya havo hujumidan yonayotgan Wheeler Field samolyotlari va angarlari. Vaqt hayoti rasmlari/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq

95 ning 110 qismi USS Shaw esminetsi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Amerika Tinch okeani floti joylashgan Pearl -Harborga (Pearl -Harbor) yaponiyaliklar hujumi paytida portladi. Keystone/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatiladi

1941 yil 7 -dekabr, 97 -son, 1941 yil 7 -dekabr: Pearl -Harborga (Pearl -Harbor) hujum paytida boshqa yapon samolyoti va qora tutun erga tushganini ko'rsatadigan yapon bombardimonchisidan olingan rasm. Keystone/Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatiladi

Ford orolining 110 -dan 98 -tasi 1941 -yil 7 -dekabrda Gavayida Pearl portiga yaponiyaliklar hujumi paytida havodan ko'rilgan. Surat yapon samolyotidan olingan. 2001 yil 7 -dekabr Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujum qilganiga 60 yil to'ldi. Getty Images ko'proq ko'rsatish kamroq ko'rsatish

100 dan 110 ta PEARL HARBOR, AQSh: Bu 07 dekabr fayli tasvirida AQShning Tinch okeani flotining Gavayidagi Pearl -Harbordagi uy bazasida alangalanib ketgan 360 ta yapon harbiy samolyotlari kutilmagan hujumdan so'ng, havo kemalari tasvirlangan. 2004 yil 7 dekabrda Amerikani keskin ravishda Ikkinchi jahon urushiga olib kirgan hujumning 63 yilligi nishonlandi. AFP PHOTO/FILES (Fotosuratda HO/AFP/Getty Images o'qilishi kerak) Afp/Getty Images More Show Less Show

101 of 110 Noma'lum ofitserlarning xotini, portlashni tergov qilmoqda va 1941 yil 7 -dekabr soat 8:15 da masofadan tutun chiqayotganini ko'rdi, qo'shnisi, keyin armiya styuardessasi Meri Naiden: "Bu samolyotlarning tepasida qizil doiralar bor", deb hayqirdi. Ular yaponlar! "It ko'targan bola va ayol chorakka qarab qochishadi. Mary Naiden/AP Photo Show Show Show Show Less

103 of 110 AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan taqdim etilgan bu rasmda 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda yaponiyaliklar hujum qilganidan keyin Gavayi orolidagi Perl -Harbor osmonini bir tutun tutun to'ldirdi. Old planda ag'darilgan mineraylovchi-USS Oglala, chapda esa bomba urilgan 10 ming tonnalik USS Helena kruiz kemasi ko'rinadi. USS Pensilvaniya ustki tuzilmasidan tashqari, o'ngda USS Merilend shtati yonmoqda. O'ng markazda Shaw vayron qiluvchi kemasi quruqlikda yonib ketgan. Anonim/AP fotosurati Ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq

104 of 110 Ushbu rasmda AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari, 6-sonli osma va Havo orolidagi Pearl-Harbordagi Ford orolidagi aeroportning qo'nish chizig'ining isinish aproni, hujum paytida ko'rsatilgan, 1941 yil 7-dekabr. Anonim/AP Rasm ko'proq ko'rsatish Kamroq ko'rsatish

106 of 110 In this photo provided by the U.S. Navy, giant hangar at the U.S. Naval Air Station at Pearl Harbor is fringed in flames caused by Japanese bombs which wrecked the installation, Dec. 7, 1941. Planes on aprons and runways were burned and shattered. Wreckage of some may be seen in foreground. Anonymous/AP Photo Show More Show Less

107 of 110 In this Dec. 7, 1941 file photo, American ships burn during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. (AP Photo) Associated Press Show More Show Less

109 of 110 Torpedo planes attack "Battleship Row" at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, seen from a Japanese aircraft. Ships are, from lower left to right: Nevada, Arizona, with Vestal outboard, Tennessee, with West Virginia outboard, Maryland, with Oklahoma outboard Neosho and California. West Virginia, Oklahoma and California have been torpedoed, as marked by ripples and spreading oil, and the first two are listing to port. Torpedo drop splashes and running tracks are visible at left and center. White smoke in the distance is from Hickam Field. Grey smoke in the center middle distance is from the torpedoed USS Helena. Naval History and Heritage Command Show More Show Less

75 years ago, the attack on Pearl Harbor shook America into the Second World War in 1941. It was three-quarters of a century ago, but the memory still rings true thanks to the graphic photos of the attack and the stories from the few living survivors.

What was once a smoke-filled, fiery war zone is now considered one of America's few paradise islands.

As America looks back, we remember the surprise Japanese bombing that killed 2,403 soldiers, sailors and Marines and injured thousands more. This event marks the start of America's involvement in WWII after declaring war on Japan.

Click through the gallery above to see a few of the most infamous photos from the attack and what the island, particularly the memorials of the attacks, look like now.


Not As Bad as First Suspected

Several 5-inch guns were removed and installed on other ships and shore batteries. Weeks later divers inspected her damage and learned it was not as bad as first suspected the ship could be refloated and repaired sooner than expected. On December 23 inspectors went through the upper decks, finding burn damage and opened lockers as if someone looted the ship in the aftermath. Larger items such as the main guns, masts and stacks were removed, lightening the ship in preparation for refloating her.

Next began the process of sealing her hull. As diver’s inspected the ship, they found a previously unseen torpedo hit at her stern. The ship had suffered extensive damage whole compartments were essentially open to the sea. Painstakingly, these holes were patched and covered in order to refloat the ship so permanent repairs could be made. Eventually, these efforts paid off and they were ready to return the battleship to life.


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Review

No matter how many books you've read about the Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, The Attack on Pearl Harbor: an Illustrated History will add to your understanding of the events of that morning. Illustrated with black-and-white photos and clear, skillful drawings and diagrams, this well-done, oversized paperback is a concisely written, blow-by-blow account of the attack, showing just where and how the Japanese struck and the damage caused. --Sunday Gazette-Mail

The Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor is depicted in every detail in an illustrated history that examines every phase of the battle with integrated text, historical photographs and diagrams. The Attack on Pearl Harbor by Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis re-creates the day's events and pays particular attention to the destruction of the battleship Arizona. Silhouette charts identify the role of major naval vessels and aircraft of both the United States and Japan. These drawings coupled with captured Japanese photos follow the attack in progress and give a pilot's view of the torpedo and bombing strikes on the U.S. Pacific Fleet. --Daily Press, Inc., Newport News, Virginia

This excellent illustrated history tells the Pearl Harbor story in a brilliant and concise way. Authors Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis record the reasons for the attack and touch on the original ambitions of Japan. . . . The mainspring of The Attack on Pearl Harbor is the loss of the USS Arizona. Diagrams and photographs depict in sequence the bomb's strike that led to the magazine's explosion. Touching survivors' stories recall the confusion as planes strafed the ship, dropped bombs and fires started. --Times Record News

The Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor is depicted in every detail in an illustrated history that examines every phase of the battle with integrated text, historical photographs and diagrams. "The Attack on Pearl Harbor" by Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis re-creates the day's events and pays particular attention to the destruction of the battleship Arizona. Silhouette charts identify the role of major naval vessels and aircraft of both the United States and Japan. These drawings coupled with captured Japanese photos follow the attack in progress and give a pilot's view of the torpedo and bombing strikes on the U.S. Pacific Fleet. --Daily Press, Inc., Newport News, Virginia

This excellent illustrated history tells the Pearl Harbor story in a brilliant and concise way. Authors Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis record the reasons for the attack and touch on the original ambitions of Japan. . . .
The mainspring of "The Attack on Pearl Harbor" is the loss of the USS Arizona. Diagrams and photographs depict in sequence the bomb's strike that led to the magazine's explosion. Touching survivors' stories recall the confusion as planes strafed the ship, dropped bombs and fires started. --Times Record News


This Is Why Japan Targeted 'Battleship Row' In The Attack On Pearl Harbor

Key point: These capital ships had to suffice since the American carriers were away.

During the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 the primary target was Battleship Row. These capital ships had to suffice since the American carriers were away. Among the battleships lined up alongside Ford Island was the USS West Virginia, a twenty-year-old warship with a crew of over a thousand. During the battle the ship took seven torpedo hits along the port side along with two bomb strikes around its superstructure. The ship rapidly flooded, settling on the floor of the harbor with her superstructure above water.

In the aftermath of the attack frantic efforts were made to save survivors trapped below decks on the sunken and damaged ships. Hulls were cut open and divers darted beneath the waves in desperate attempts to save them. The minesweeper Tern lay alongside the “Weevee,” as the battleship was nicknamed, playing water over the fires burning aboard her. When the fires were extinguished at 2PM, the Tern moved over to the Arizona. Commander D. H. Clark, the Fleet Maintenance Officer, reported on December 9 the West Virginia was “doubtful,” estimating twelve to eighteen months for repairs if she could be saved at all.

Stripped for Useful Items

Since the ship couldn’t be quickly salvaged, it was stripped for useful items. Guards were posted on the ship starting on December 8 to protect against looting, theft or espionage. Sentry duty aboard the half-sunken wreck of their former home was a sad time for them. During the quiets times some sailors reported hearing tapping noises coming from below decks. They believed the noise came from trapped crew members signaling desperately for help. There were some 70 men missing from the ship’s complement. Their officers told them it was only the sound of wreckage and loose items floating in and around the ship, banging into the hull.

Not As Bad as First Suspected

Several 5-inch guns were removed and installed on other ships and shore batteries. Weeks later divers inspected her damage and learned it was not as bad as first suspected the ship could be refloated and repaired sooner than expected. On December 23 inspectors went through the upper decks, finding burn damage and opened lockers as if someone looted the ship in the aftermath. Larger items such as the main guns, masts and stacks were removed, lightening the ship in preparation for refloating her.

Next began the process of sealing her hull. As diver’s inspected the ship, they found a previously unseen torpedo hit at her stern. The ship had suffered extensive damage whole compartments were essentially open to the sea. Painstakingly, these holes were patched and covered in order to refloat the ship so permanent repairs could be made. Eventually, these efforts paid off and they were ready to return the battleship to life.

Disturbing Discoveries

Pumps began to slowly send water flowing out of the ship. Decomposed bodies were found and carefully placed into waiting body-bags. Valuables were collected and cataloged. If the owners could be identified the items were returned the rest were auctioned for the crew’s emergency fund. On 17 May West Virginia was floating again after over five months. Work went on to prepare the ship for dry dock and finish cleaning out the flooded decks. Even a few .50-caliber machine guns were mounted in case of another Japanese air attack.

It was only on May 27 the most disturbing discoveries of the salvage operation were made. In the aft engine room, several bodies were found lying on steam pipes. They had evidently been able to survive a short time in an air pocket, suffocating when the oxygen finally ran out. Worse still was found in compartment A-111, a storeroom. When the door to this compartment was opened, only three feet of water was inside. On the shelves of the storeroom lay the bodies of three sailors, Louis Costin, 21, Clifford Olds, 20, and Ronald Endicott, 18. With them was a calendar with the dates December 7 to 23 marked off in red pencil. There were emergency rations and access to a fresh water tank in the compartment.

Each man had a watch, enabling them to mark the passage of time. The crew was horrified by the news, especially divers that had sounded the hull and listened for replies but heard nothing. The sentries who reported hearing banging below were angry, though whether anything could have been done at the time is debatable. The matter was a subject of quiet discussion among crew members for years after.

West Virginia was rebuilt and served out the war mainly as a fire support vessel for amphibious landings. She did serve at the Battle of Surigao Strait, the last big-gun ship battle. West Virginia was also present at the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. Decommissioned after the war, she was sold for scrap in 1959.


This Is Why Japan Targeted 'Battleship Row' In The Attack On Pearl Harbor

Key point: These capital ships had to suffice since the American carriers were away. During the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 the primary target was Battleship Row. These capital ships had to suffice since the American carriers were away. Among the battleships lined up alongside Ford Island was the USS West Virginia, a twenty-year-old warship with a crew of over a thousand. During the battle the ship took seven torpedo hits along the port side along with two bomb strikes around its superstructure. The ship rapidly flooded, settling on the floor of the harbor with her superstructure above water. In the aftermath of the attack frantic efforts were made to save survivors trapped below decks on the sunken and damaged ships. Hulls were cut open and divers darted beneath the waves in desperate attempts to save them. The minesweeper Tern lay alongside the “Weevee,” as the battleship was nicknamed, playing water over the fires burning aboard her. When the fires were extinguished at 2PM, the Tern moved over to the Arizona. Commander D. H. Clark, the Fleet Maintenance Officer, reported on December 9 the West Virginia was “doubtful,” estimating twelve to eighteen months for repairs if she could be saved at all. Stripped for Useful Items Since the ship couldn’t be quickly salvaged, it was stripped for useful items. Guards were posted on the ship starting on December 8 to protect against looting, theft or espionage. Sentry duty aboard the half-sunken wreck of their former home was a sad time for them. During the quiets times some sailors reported hearing tapping noises coming from below decks. They believed the noise came from trapped crew members signaling desperately for help. There were some 70 men missing from the ship’s complement. Their officers told them it was only the sound of wreckage and loose items floating in and around the ship, banging into the hull. Not As Bad as First Suspected Several 5-inch guns were removed and installed on other ships and shore batteries. Weeks later divers inspected her damage and learned it was not as bad as first suspected the ship could be refloated and repaired sooner than expected. On December 23 inspectors went through the upper decks, finding burn damage and opened lockers as if someone looted the ship in the aftermath. Larger items such as the main guns, masts and stacks were removed, lightening the ship in preparation for refloating her. Next began the process of sealing her hull. As diver’s inspected the ship, they found a previously unseen torpedo hit at her stern. The ship had suffered extensive damage whole compartments were essentially open to the sea. Painstakingly, these holes were patched and covered in order to refloat the ship so permanent repairs could be made. Eventually, these efforts paid off and they were ready to return the battleship to life. Disturbing Discoveries Pumps began to slowly send water flowing out of the ship. Decomposed bodies were found and carefully placed into waiting body-bags. Valuables were collected and cataloged. If the owners could be identified the items were returned the rest were auctioned for the crew’s emergency fund. On 17 May West Virginia was floating again after over five months. Work went on to prepare the ship for dry dock and finish cleaning out the flooded decks. Even a few .50-caliber machine guns were mounted in case of another Japanese air attack. It was only on May 27 the most disturbing discoveries of the salvage operation were made. In the aft engine room, several bodies were found lying on steam pipes. They had evidently been able to survive a short time in an air pocket, suffocating when the oxygen finally ran out. Worse still was found in compartment A-111, a storeroom. When the door to this compartment was opened, only three feet of water was inside. On the shelves of the storeroom lay the bodies of three sailors, Louis Costin, 21, Clifford Olds, 20, and Ronald Endicott, 18. With them was a calendar with the dates December 7 to 23 marked off in red pencil. There were emergency rations and access to a fresh water tank in the compartment. Each man had a watch, enabling them to mark the passage of time. The crew was horrified by the news, especially divers that had sounded the hull and listened for replies but heard nothing. The sentries who reported hearing banging below were angry, though whether anything could have been done at the time is debatable. The matter was a subject of quiet discussion among crew members for years after. West Virginia was rebuilt and served out the war mainly as a fire support vessel for amphibious landings. She did serve at the Battle of Surigao Strait, the last big-gun ship battle. West Virginia was also present at the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. Decommissioned after the war, she was sold for scrap in 1959. Originally Published September 17, 2018. This article originally appeared on the Warfare History Network. Image: Creative Commons. Read the original article.

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Battleship Row

Battleship Row was the grouping of seven U.S. battleships in port at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, when the Japanese attacked on 7 December 1941. Ώ] These ships bore the brunt of the Japanese assault. They were moored next to Ford Island when the attack commenced. The ships were Arizona, California, Maryland, Nevada, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennesseeva West Virginia. A repair ship (former coal ship), Vestal, was also present, moored next to Arizona. Ώ]


Ewa Plain Battlefield

Marine Corps Air Station Ewa was a United States Marine Corps air station located 7 miles west of Pearl Harbor.

The Battle of Ewa Plain began just before 8 AM on December 7, 1941 and was part of the larger surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) on the United States of America military base at Pearl Harbor and other installations on the island of Oahu, and other islands considered defensive positions within the Territory of Hawaii. Based on current knowledge of the battle, it appears that Ewa Field was attacked approximately two minutes before Pearl Harbor. The last of the Japanese threats from this campaign ended on December 31, 1941, when Japanese submarine forces ceased attacks in Hawaiian waters after a final bombardment on December 31 and then withdrew their boats and support craft back to Mainland Japan to regroup and resupply for the next phase of battle.

Burning Aircraft, Ewa Field, December 7, 1941

The Ewa Plain Battlefield is located in the southwestern corner of Oahu, Honolulu County, in a geographic area referred to as Ewa Plain, approximately 5.5 miles southwest of Ford Island (middle of Pearl Harbor). While the Battle of Ewa Plain encompasses three main population centers: Ewa Field, Ewa Villages, and Ewa Beach, only Ewa Field retains sufficient architectural, archeological, and/or landscape integrity to convey its historical significance. This includes retaining its integrity of location, setting, design, and association.


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