Yangi

Elsi Inglis

Elsi Inglis

Elsi Inglis, Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasida ishlagan Jon Inglisning ikkinchi qizi (1820–1894), 1864 yil 16 -avgustda Hindistonning Naini Tal shahrida tug'ilgan. 1878 yilda otasi nafaqaga chiqqanida inglizlar oilasi qaytgan. Shotlandiyaga borib, Edinburgga joylashdi.

1878 yilda Elsi Edinburg yosh xonimlar ta'limi institutida o'qishni boshladi va o'n sakkiz yoshida bir yil Parijdagi maktabni tugatdi.

Elsi Inglis 1886 yilda Sofiya Jeks-Bleyk ayollar uchun Edinburg tibbiyot maktabini ochgunga qadar bo'sh vaqtini o'tkazdi. Otasining yordami bilan u shifokor sifatida o'qishni boshladi. Doktor Jeks-Bleyk Inglisni arzimas jinoyat deb hisoblagan ikkita talabani ishdan bo'shatganida, u otasidan va uning boy do'stlaridan pul oldi va raqib tibbiyot maktabi-Shotlandiya ayollarini tibbiy ta'limi assotsiatsiyasini tashkil etdi. Keyinchalik u o'n sakkiz oy Glazgo qirollik kasalxonasida o'qidi. O'qishni tugatgandan so'ng, u 1890 yilda Elizabet Garret Anderson tomonidan ochilgan ayollar uchun yangi kasalxonaga ishga kirdi.

Elsi Inglis ayollarning ovoz berish huquqini qo'llab -quvvatladi va Edinburgda talaba bo'lgan paytda Markaziy saylov huquqi jamiyatiga qo'shildi. 1892 yilda u kampaniyada faollashdi va ayollarning tibbiy ta'limi to'g'risida nutq so'zlash uchun Yelizaveta Volstenxolm-Elmi taklifiga rozi bo'ldi. U shu davrda Milliy Saylov Jamiyatlari Ittifoqiga qo'shildi.

1894 yilda Inglis Edinburgga qaytdi va Edinburg ayol tibbiyot maktabida talaba bo'lgan doktor Jessi MakGregor bilan amaliy mashg'ulot o'tkazdi va 1898 yilda tibbiyot talabalari uchun qarshiliklar zalini ochdi. Keyingi yili Inglis ayollar tibbiyot kollejida ginekologiya kafedrasi o'qituvchisi etib tayinlandi. U, shuningdek, Jorj maydonida ayollar uchun kichik kasalxona ochdi.

Muallif Elizabet Krouford kabi Suffragett harakati (1999) ta'kidlaganidek: "Tibbiyot ishidan tashqari, 1900 yildan boshlab u Shotlandiyada juda faol saylov huquqi tashviqotchisi bo'lib, haftasiga to'rttagacha yig'ilishlarda qatnashib, mamlakatning kengligi va bo'ylab sayohat qilar edi. 1909 yildan. Edinburg milliy saylov huquqi jamiyatining faxriy kotibi bo'lgan Elsi Inglis yangi tashkil etilgan Shotlandiya saylov huquqlari jamiyatlari federatsiyasining kotibi bo'ldi.

Buni muallif Rebekka Jennings bahslashdi Buyuk Britaniyaning lesbiyan tarixi (2007), Inglis lezbiyan edi va ko'p yillar Flora Myurrey bilan yashadi, u keyinchalik Luiza Garret Anderson bilan ishqiy munosabatda bo'lgan.

Inglis saylov huquqlari jamiyatlari milliy ittifoqining ovozini olish strategiyasining kuchli tarafdori edi. U Yelizaveta Garret Anderson va Elizabet Volstenxolme-Elmi bilan birgalikda 1912 yil 26-iyulda "Ayollar uchun ovozlar" da chop etilgan maktubga imzo chekdi.

Birinchi jahon urushi boshlanganda, Inglis Luiza Garret Andersonga Ayollar shifoxonasi korpusiga joylashish uchun ariza bilan murojaat qilgan, biroq ularga ko'ngillilar yetarli ekanligi aytilgan. Endi Inglis ayollarning tibbiy bo'limlariga G'arbiy frontda xizmat ko'rsatishga ruxsat berishni taklif qildi. Biroq, Harbiy idora, "Mening yaxshi xonim, uyga borib, jim o'tir" degan so'zlarni rad etdi. Endi Inglis bu g'oyani Shotlandiya ayollar huquqlari jamiyatlari federatsiyasiga etkazdi, ular kasalxonalar qo'mitasini tuzishga rozi bo'lishdi. Saylov huquqi jamiyatlari milliy ittifoqining "Umumiy sabab" jurnali, shuningdek, mablag 'so'rashni e'lon qildi va u Shotlandiya Xotin -qizlar kasalxonalarini Tashqi Xizmatlar Tashkilotini (SWH) tashkil etishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Uning biografi Lea Leneman ta'kidlaganidek: "Urush idorasi ayollarga tibbiy yordam ko'rsatish g'oyasini rad etgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin boshqa ittifoqchilar yordam so'rashdi va frantsuzlar ham, serblar ham taklifni qabul qilishdi. Birinchi birlik ketdi. 1914 yil noyabrda Frantsiya uchun va ikkinchi bo'linma 1915 yil yanvar oyida Serbiyaga jo'nab ketdi. Inglis SWHning mablag 'yig'ish va tashkiliy tomonini nazorat qilish istagi va bu sohada xizmat qilish istagi o'rtasida bo'lindi, lekin aprel o'rtalarida boshliq Serbiyaning birinchi bo'linmasining tibbiy xodimi kasal bo'lib qoldi va uning o'rniga Inglis chiqib ketdi. Yozda u yana ikkita kasalxona bo'limini tashkil qildi.

1915 yilga kelib, Shotlandiya ayollar shifoxonasi bo'limi 13 -asrda Royaumont Abbeyida 200 o'rinli yordamchi shifoxonani tashkil qildi. Uning jamoasida Evelina Xaverfild, Ishobel Ross va Sitsli Xemilton bor edi. 1915 yil aprel oyida Elsi Inglis ayollar tibbiy bo'limini Serbiyaga olib ketdi. 1915 yil yozida Avstriya hujumi paytida Inglis qo'lga olindi, lekin oxir -oqibat amerikalik diplomatlar yordamida Britaniya hukumati Inglis va uning tibbiy xodimlarini ozod qilish to'g'risida muzokara o'tkazishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Inglis Frantsiya, Serbiya, Korsika, Salonika, Ruminiya, Rossiya va Maltada xizmat ko'rsatadigan o'n to'rtta tibbiy bo'limni tashkil qildi. 1916 yil avgustda London saylov huquqi jamiyati Inglis va sakson ayolni ittifoqchilar uchun kurashayotgan serb askarlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun moliyalashtirdi. Rossiyada ishlaydigan shifokorlar va hamshiralarni ko'rgan davlat amaldorlaridan biri shunday dedi: "Agar ayollar shunday bo'lsa, Angliya ajoyib mamlakat".

Ishobel Ross 1917 yil fevral oyida inglizlar bilan Bolqon frontiga tashrif buyurganini eslaydi: "Ingles xonim bilan men lager ortidan va xandaqlardan o'tdik. Shamol shovqinidan, simlar chig'anoqlari orasidan hushtak chalib, qanday dahshatli edi. Jasadlarning yarmi ko'milganini va o'qlar, maktublar, gaz niqoblari, bo'sh qobiqlar va xanjarlarga to'la joylarni ko'rish edi. Biz ham dala telefonini uchratdik. Erni belkurak bilan sindirish uchun bizga asrlar kerak bo'ldi. er juda qattiq edi, lekin biz jasadlarni iloji boricha ko'mdik. Bizni dafn qilish uchun yana qaytib kelish kerak bo'ladi, chunki bu juda charchagan ish. "

1917 yil mart oyida Inglis Evelina Xaverfild bilan kelishmovchiliklarga duch keldi. U keyinroq shunday deb yozgan edi: "Umid qilamanki, Qo'mita tushunadi, Haverfild xonim bilan men kelajakdagi rejalar bo'yicha kelishmovchiliklarga qaramay, oramizda hech qanday yomonlik yo'q. Haverfild xonim saxiy va ochiq fikrli, Biz har doimgidek, haqiqat bilan yuzma -yuz uchrashishga tayyormiz. Bizni har birimiz bo'linmaning muvaffaqiyati haqida o'ylaymiz va bizning fikrlarimiz turlicha ... Qo'mita bizning oramizda qaror qabul qilishi kerak! bajardi ".

Florensiya Farmboro u Podgaytsida xizmat qilayotganda uchrashganlardan biri edi. "Podgaytsida ingliz ayol shifokori (doktor Elsi Inglis) boshchiligida bir guruh ingliz hamshiralari boshqaradigan ingliz kasalxonasi bor. Men ular bilan o'z ona tilimda suhbatlashishdan juda xursand bo'ldim. Frantsiyadagi ittifoqchilar fronti haqidagi so'nggi yangiliklarni bilib oling. Ular juda yaxshi ayollar, ingliz va Shotlandiya hamshiralari. Ularning hammasi bir necha yillik mashg'ulotlarga ega. Men o'zimni xuddi olti oylik kurs deb bilganimdagidek, o'zimni ancha xom his qilaman. Harbiy kasalxonadagi VAD, Angliyada, Qizil Xoch fronti bo'linmasini tugatish uchun hech qachon etarli deb hisoblanmagan.

Elsi Inglis Rossiyada bo'lganida kasal bo'lib qoldi va Britaniyaga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi. Saraton kasalligiga chalingan Inglis 1917 yil 25 -noyabrda Nyukasl -Upon -Taynga keldi, ammo mahalliy shifokorlar uni qutqara olmadilar va ertasi kuni vafot etdi. Tashqi ishlar bo'yicha davlat kotibi Artur Balfur uning o'limi haqida shunday izoh berdi: "Elsi Inglis g'ayrat, maqsad kuchi va xushmuomalalikning ajoyib birikmasi edi. Bu jahon urushi tarixida ham qilgan ishlari, qilgan qahramonligi va haydovchiligi bilan. qudrati va soddaligi bilan Elsi Inglis abadiy sharafga sazovor bo'ldi ".

1889 yilda Elsi Inglis "Ayollar saylov huquqi foydasiga deklaratsiyani" imzoladi, lekin 1892 yilda Londonga uy-jarroh lavozimini egallash uchun ko'chib kelganida, u faol saylov huquqi ishchisiga aylandi. 1900 yilda u Shotlandiyada juda faol saylov huquqi kampaniyasi bilan shug'ullangan, haftasiga to'rttagacha yig'ilishlarda qatnashib, mamlakat bo'ylab sayohat qilgan. 1909 yildan boshlab Edinburg milliy saylov huquqi jamiyatining faxriy kotibi bo'lgan Elsi Inglis bo'ldi. yangi tashkil etilgan Shotlandiya saylov huquqi jamiyatlari federatsiyasi (NUWSS) kotibi.

Qattiq sovuq edi. Isitmasi bo'lmagan bemorlar titrab ketishdi va ozgina iliqlik olish uchun yirtilgan kiyimlarini to'g'rilashga urinishdi. Ularning kiyimlari chuvalchanglar va hasharotlar bilan o'ralgan, tanalari esa bit bilan. O'lgan erkaklar erga bir -biriga tegib ketishdi, shuning uchun ular bir -biriga tegib ketishdi. Boshqalar esa o'pkaning pnevmoniyasiga chalingancha ko'ksini qisib o'tirardi. Yaralardan qon va yiring oqib chiqdi. Bemorlarning ba'zilari qo'llarini cho'zishdi, lekin ularning aksariyati nima bo'lganiga e'tibor bera olmas edi. Dizenteriyaning oxirgi bosqichida yetmish g'alati askar devor bo'ylab egilib yotib, oriqlab, o'lib ketishdi. Vaqti -vaqti bilan ular tashqariga chiqib ketishdi. Hech qanday sanitariya -gigiyena qoidalari yo'q edi va o'tloqning uchastkasi iflos edi.

Bu ayollarning qiyinchiliklarga qanday chidashi g'ayrioddiy; ular yordamdan bosh tortadilar va yaradorlarni o'zlari olib yuradilar. Ular dengiz kemalari kabi ishlaydi. Agar ayollar shunday bo'lsa, Angliya buyuk mamlakat ekanligi ajablanarli emas.

Podgaytsida ingliz xonim-shifokor boshchiligida ingliz hamshiralari guruhi boshqaradigan ingliz kasalxonasi bor (doktor, men ular bilan o'z ona tilimda suhbatlashishdan juda xursand bo'ldim. Frantsiyadagi ittifoqchilar fronti.

Ular juda yaxshi ayollar, o'sha ingliz va Shotlandiya hamshiralari. Harbiy shifoxonada VAD sifatida olti oylik kurs Angliyada hech qachon Front Line Qizil Xoch bo'linmasini tugatish uchun etarli deb hisoblanmasligini bilganimdan, men o'zimni xuddi o'zimni aniq his qilyapman. Men 1915 yildagi Buyuk chekinish va 1916 yilgi hujumni boshdan kechirganimga ishonishmadi. "Siz bularning barchasini boshdan kechirishga kuchingiz yetmaydi, dedi doktor xonim" va juda yosh, - deb qo'shib qo'ydi u, - menimcha, men seni o'z jamoamga tanlamagan bo'lardim. "Men Rossiyada mashg'ulot o'tkazganimdan yashirincha xursand bo'ldim!"

Men hayron bo'ldim va xavotirlanmadim, toza tuzli mayda torbalar ba'zida ochiq yaraga joylashtirilganini va mahkam bog'lab qo'yilganini ko'rdim. Ehtimol, bu yangi usul; Qiziq, bu Ittifoq frontida sinab ko'rilganmi.

Bu tuz sumkalari - kichik bo'lsa -da, chidab bo'lmas og'riq keltirishi kerak; askarlar tepib, baqirishlari ajablanarli emas; tuz yirtilgan go'shtga qattiq kuyishi kerak. Bu, albatta, tozalovchi, lekin, albatta, juda qattiq!

Meni yordamga chaqirgan shifokor-xonim tomonidan o'tkazilgan operatsiyada, erkakning chap sonida katta ochiq yara bor edi. Ikkita kichkina sumka tuz solinguncha hammasi yaxshi o'tdi, shundan keyin shovqin boshlandi. Men odamning yig'lagani tomni ko'taradi deb o'yladim; hatto shifokor ayol ham noqulay ko'rinardi. "Aqlsiz odam", - dedi u. "Bu bir lahzalik og'riq. Ahmoq odam! U o'zi uchun nima yaxshi ekanligini bilmaydi."

Bizni dafn qilish uchun yana qaytib kelishimiz kerak bo'ladi, chunki bu juda charchagan ish.

Elsi Inglis g'ayrat, maqsad kuchi va xushmuomalalikning ajoyib birikmasi edi. Jahon urushi tarixida Elsi Inglis qilgan ishlari, qilgan qahramonligi, harakatlantiruvchi kuchi va soddaligi bilan abadiy sharafli o'rinni egalladi.

Urush davridagi boshqa kasblar turmushga chiqmagan yosh ayollarni faol ravishda rag'batlantirdi va o'z harakatlari bilan urushga katta hissa qo'shgan bir qator ayollar boshqa ayollar bilan munosabatda bo'lishdi. Ayollarning yaqin do'stligining aniq mohiyatini ayollarning o'zlari ularga qanday qarashlari haqida aniq dalillar bo'lmagan taqdirda talqin qilish qiyin. SWH asoschisi doktor Elsi Inglis bir necha yil Edinburgda doktor Flora Myurrey bilan birga yashagan, doktor Luiza Martindeyl va Luiza Aldrix-Bleyk ham ayollar bilan yashagan. Emili Xamerning ta'kidlashicha, Evelina Xaverfild, bir qator ayollarning ixtiyoriy tashkilotlari asoschisi, Ayollar favqulodda korpusi va Ayollar ixtiyoriy zaxiralari, lezbiyan va sobiq Vera Jek Xolm sufregetining sevgilisi bo'lgan. Ikki ayol urush paytida Serbiyada doktor Elsi Inglis bilan yaqin ishlagan va 1920 yilda Xaverfild vafot etganida, Xolme Serbiyada tez tibbiy yordam mashinasida va yuk mashinasida haydovchi bo'lib ishlagan.


Elsi Inglis

Elsi Inglis 1864 yil 16 -avgustda Hindistonning Himoloy etaklaridagi Naini Tal shahrida tug'ilgan. Uning otasi Jon Inglis 1870 -yillarning imperialistik siyosatiga qarshi bo'lsa -da, Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasida xizmat qilgan. Jon nafaqaga chiqdi va ikki yil davomida o'z oilasini Tasmaniyaga ko'chirdi, 1878 yilda Edinburgga ko'chib o'tdi. 1878 yildan 1882 yilgacha Inglis Edinburg yosh xonimlar ta'limi institutida o'qidi. U o'n sakkiz yoshida Inglis Parijdagi maktabni tugatgan. Inglis tibbiyot bilan shug'ullanishni xohlayotganini bilar edi va xayriyatki, 1886 yilda Sofi Jeks-Bleyk Edinburg tibbiyot maktabini ochdi, u erda Inglis tibbiy o'qishni boshladi. Biroq, 1889 yildagi talabalar qo'zg'oloni Inglisni otasi va uning nufuzli do'stlari ko'magida raqib maktab - Ayollar tibbiyot kollejini yaratishga olib keldi. Inglis o'n sakkiz oy davomida Glazgo Qirollik kasalxonasida o'qidi, Edinburg va Glazgodagi shifokorlar va jarrohlar kollejlarida litsenziyaga ega bo'ldi.

Inglisning birinchi lavozimi Elizabet Garret Andersonning Londondagi ayollar uchun yangi kasalxonasida tibbiyot xodimi edi. Inglis 1894 yilda Edinburgga qaytib kelishidan oldin Dublinda qisqa lavozimni egalladi, u erda umumiy amaliyotni ochdi. 1899 yilda Inglis Edinburg MB MBni tugatdi va Ayollar tibbiyot kollejida ginekologiya o'qituvchisi etib tayinlandi. Inglis, Jessi Makgregor bilan hamkorlikda, 1894 yilda ayollar va bolalar uchun kichik shifoxona ochdi.

1904 yilda Inglisning kichkina shifoxonasi Oliy ko'chaga ko'chib o'tdi va "The Hospice" deb nomlandi. 1905 yilda Inglis 1911 yilda The Hospice bilan birlashtirilgan Bruntsfild kasalxonasining katta maslahatchisi etib tayinlandi.

Inglis 1914 yilda urush e'lon qilinganida ellikka yaqin edi, lekin uning g'ayratli va vatanparvarligi uni Urush idorasiga o'z xizmatlarini taklif qilishga undadi, lekin faqat rad etishdi. Inglis hech qanday to'sqinlik qilmasdan, ayollardan tashkil topgan mustaqil kasalxona bo'limlarini tuzishga intildi. Tez orada mablag 'va qo'llab -quvvatlash so'rovi nafaqat saylov huquqi tarafdorlarini jalb qildi. Inglis 1914 yil oktyabr oyida Kingsway Hall zalida "ayollar urushga qanday yordam berishi mumkin" mavzusida ilhomlantiruvchi ma'ruza qildi. Yangi tashkilot, Shotlandiya Xotin -qizlar shifoxonalari Tashqi Xizmatlar Shifoxonalari (SWH) va frantsuzlar ham, serblar ham taklifni qabul qilishdi. barcha ayol tibbiy bo'limlari. Birinchi bo'linma 1914 yil noyabrda Frantsiyaga, ikkinchisi 1915 yil yanvarda Serbiyaga jo'nab ketdi. Inglis 1915 yilda Serbiyaga bosh vrachi bo'lib ketdi.

Kuzda Serbiyaga bostirib kirdi va Inglis kasalxonasini nemislar egallab olishdi. U 1916 yil fevralgacha uyga yuborilgunga qadar internatda bo'lgan. Britaniyaga qaytgach, Inglis Serbiyada yordam so'radi. 1916 yil 3 aprelda Inglis oq burgut ordeni bilan bezatilgan birinchi ayol bo'ldi. Keyingi bir necha yil ichida Serbiyaga shifoxonalar va yordam ko'rsatish urinishlari sinab ko'rildi va muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi. Inglis 1917 yil sentyabrgacha Ruminiyadagi bo'linmasida qoldi va Serbiya bo'linmasiga qaytdi.

Inglis saraton kasalligiga chalinganini bilar edi va sentyabr oyining oxirigacha jarroh bo'lib ishlay olmasdi, garchi u bo'linmani boshqarishni davom ettirsa ham. Siyosiy vaziyat tez yomonlashib borayotgan bo'lsa -da, Inglis serblar Rossiyadan ko'chirilmaguncha ketishdan bosh tortdi. Birlik nihoyat chiqib ketgach, Inglis uyiga telegraf yubordi: "Hammasi qoniqarli va mendan boshqa hamma narsa yaxshi". Inglis va uning bo'linmasi Nyukaslga qo'ndi va ertasi kuni, 1917 yil 26 -noyabrda singillari huzurida Inglis vafot etdi. Uning jasadi Din qabristoniga yotqizilishidan oldin, Inglisning jasadi Sankt -Geyls soborida yotardi. SWH urush paytida o'z ishini davom ettirdi, qo'shimcha birliklar yubordi va ish uchun pul yig'di. Qolgan mablag '1925 yil iyulda Edinburgda Elsie Inglis memorial tug'ruqxonasini tashkil qilish uchun ishlatilgan.

Ko'zga ko'ringan yutuqlar

1892 yilda Inglis Edinburgdagi qirollik shifokorlar va jarrohlar kolleji litsenziyasi va Glazgo vrach va jarrohlar fakulteti litsenziyasiga ega bo'ldi.


Men nima uchun Edinburg Elsi Inglisning xotirasini oyoq osti qilishni davom ettirayotganini tushunmayapman. Bu befarqlik va befarqlik tufayli sodir bo'ladi, lekin xato qilishda hech qanday alomat yo'q.

O'tgan oy Elsining sharafiga elchixona qarorgohi - Belgradda elchi Denis Kif (o'ngdagi rasmda) va uning jamoasining ilhomlantirgan tashabbusi bilan rasman tan olingan. U Serbiya prezidenti Tomislav Nikolich bilan (chapdagi rasmda) esdalik nishonini ochdi.

Buyuk Britaniya elchixonasi, Belgrad

Parlamentda, shuningdek, Shotlandiya ayollar shifoxonalarida avstraliyalik ko'ngillilarning roli to'g'risida taqdimot bo'lib o'tdi, u SWH tomonidan qurilgan ikkinchi tug'ruqxona bilan faxrlanadi va Elsining ishi uchun yodgorlik sifatida xizmat qiladi. 1999 yilda havo hujumi).

Bu orada, Edinburgda, birinchi kasalxonalar e'tiborsiz qolishda davom etmoqda. U 1988 yilda yopilgan va sayt sotilgan. Bu Shotlandiya Parlamentidan bir qadam narida, u erda Elziga haykal qo'yish kerakmi va qayerda bo'lishi kerakligi haqida munozaralar bo'lib kelgan - u va uning SWH hamkasblari meros sifatida xohlagan narsaning ma'nosini to'liq yo'qotib qo'yishgan.

Glasgow Herald -dan reklama, 1918 yil 29 -may

Va Elsi Inglisning ismi ikki bemor vafotidan keyin saytdagi sobiq qariyalar uyi yopilgandan so'ng, tavakkalchilik mojarosi bilan bulg'angan. Crown Office politsiya tergovidan uch yil o'tgach, hali o'z xulosasini e'lon qilmagan.

Bu hozir juda noaniq joy - uni qurish uchun 1918 yilda boshlangan ommaviy e'tiroz ortida katta ishtiyoqni ko'rsatish uchun unchalik ko'p narsa yo'q.

Ularning maqsadi aniq edi- Elzining hayotini kambag'al Edinburglik onalar va ularning chaqaloqlariga yordam berish ishini davom ettirish. Uning Katta ko'chadagi Xospisasi juda tor edi, shuning uchun yangi kasalxonaga ega bo'lish istagi bor edi.

AQSh Milliy tibbiyot kutubxonasi izni bilan

O'sha paytda tirik yodgorliklar unchalik g'ayrioddiy emas edi. Klan Makra Jamiyati Kintail va Glenshiel cherkovlaridagi tuman hamshirasini "bu g'isht va ohakka pul isrof qilishdan ko'ra yiqilgan jasur klanlarni yod etishning eng yaxshi shakli deb hisoblardi", deb aytdi. 1926 yilga kelib, hamshira Yelizaveta Makfi (yuqorida) BSA mototsikli bilan bu vazifani bajardi.

Asl poydevor toshi hanuzgacha tashqi devorda ikkita o'yma va xuddi shu ayol, Mona Chalmers Uotson (qiz do'sti Geddes) apellyatsiyaning asosiy tarafdoridir.

U Edinburg universitetining birinchi tibbiyot bitiruvchisi ayol edi va Elsi singari qizg'in sufragist edi. Mona va uning shifokori eri Duglas Elzining yaqinidagi Uolker ko'chasida tibbiy amaliyotdan o'tdilar.

Uning shaxsiy yutuqlari g'ayrioddiy edi. Boshqa narsalar qatorida, u Ayollar yordamchi qo'shinlari korpusining asoschisi va birinchi komendanti va Edinburg ayol fuqarolar uyushmasining birinchi prezidenti edi.

Monaning plakatlari 2006 yilda uning avlodlari tomonidan tiklangan. Boshqa har qanday shaharda siz buni jamoat tashkiloti tomonidan kutiladi - lekin, albatta, Edinburgda emas.

Endi siz ularni Shotlandiya ayollari yodgorliklari xaritasida ko'rishingiz mumkin (ko'rib chiqishga arziydi!).

Plitalar Elsi tarafdorlarining ko'lami va ishtiyoqi haqida tushuncha beradi. Umumiy obligatsiyalarga SWH bilan xizmat ko'rsatish, saylov huquqi harakati, ovqatlanishni yaxshilash, tibbiy va hamshiralik tashkilotlari va, birinchi navbatda, kambag'al ayollar va ularning oilalari farovonligi haqida qayg'urish kiradi.

Bularning barchasi qat'iyat, topqirlik va jasoratni talab qildi. Bu hozirgi tahqirlashning haqiqiy tayog'i, chunki Edinburg ularni va ularning harakatlarini tarixdan o'chirmoqchi.

O'ylaymanki, bu asosan bexabarlikdan kelib chiqadi, lekin boshqalar ular ko'rgan noto'g'ri qarashlardan ko'ra ko'proq narsani aniqlay oladilar.

Yorqin joylar bormi? Ha - NHS Lothian xodimlariga o'z martabalarini rivojlantirish uchun grantlar va burslarni taklif qiladigan "Elsie's" yangi sxemasi joriy etildi.

Bu yaxshi boshlanish. Va pushti ko'zoynak bilan o'tmishga tegishli kasallik saroylariga orqaga qarashning ma'nosi yo'q. Ba'zi onalar Memorial kasalxonasida yomon tajribaga ega bo'lishdi. Qadimgi Bruntsfild kasalxonasi, bolalar uchun aravachada va eng yuqori qavatda hech qanday ko'targichsiz uchrashuvga chalingan ona uchun ham ayollar uchun yaxshi emas edi.

Yillar davomida ehtiyojlar, amaliyotlar va talablar o'zgaradi. O'tgan avlodlar o'rnatgan asosiy tamoyillarni hisobga olish uchun ozgina aql va tasavvur kerak.

Eski aktivlarni sotish jinoyat emas. Elsi Inglisning ruhini daryo bo'yida sotish, albatta. Bu merosning eng kuchli himoyachilaridan biri men 1993 yilda Herald uchun intervyu bergan shubhasiz buxgalter Xelen Lou edi.

O'tgan oy Edinburg qal'asida birinchi vazir Nikola Sturgeon tomonidan boshlangan yana bir rivojlanish hali ham imkoniyat berishi mumkin. Bu sarlovhasi Edinburg dunyodagi birinchi shahar bo‘lib, barcha huquqli onalarga oilaviy hamshiralar bilan hamkorlik dasturini taklif qildi.

Qizig'i shundaki, "Hospice" bundan 100 yil oldin xuddi shunday kashshoflik ishini olib borgan. U High Streetdagi bolalar klinikalarini va sog'liqni saqlash tashrif buyuruvchilarni "bechora, chirigan" uylarga kirishni taklif qildi. 1905 yilga kelib u akusherlarni tayyorlash bo'yicha taniqli markazga aylandi va o'zining birinchi sut omborini qurdi.

Xavfsiz sut ta'minoti zarur bo'lgan ovqatlanishni ta'minlash uchun zarur edi, lekin davolanmagan etkazib berishda o'lik bakteriyalar, ayniqsa sil kasalligi bor edi. 1923 yilda Mona va Duglas Chalmers Uotson Shimoliy Bervik yaqinidagi Fenton-Barns fermasini meros qilib olishdi va ular silni sinovdan o'tkazgan sut ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha Evropaning etakchisiga aylanishdi.

Hatto eng kambag'al onalar ham Simpsonda bepul ko'rsatilgandan ko'ra, Hospice xizmatlari uchun pul to'lashni afzal ko'rishgan. Edinburg shahar kengashi oxir -oqibat uning xizmatlarini tan oldi va butun shahar bo'ylab "Hospice" misolini takrorladi.

"Yuqori ko'chadagi xospis" va#8211 Elsi Inglisdan, Eva Shou Maklaren (1920)

Hech shubha yo'qki, Amerikada ishlab chiqilgan va Koloradoda joylashgan oilaviy hamshiralik hamjamiyati - bu birinchi marta kam ta'minlangan onalar va ularning bolalari uchun katta foyda keltiradigan ajoyib dastur.

Biroq, men Shotlandiya hukumatining e'lonlari yoki tadqiqot maqolalarida kambag'al Edinburglik onalar va ularning bolalariga yordam berish bo'yicha hech qanday ma'lumot topa olmadim.

Bu unchalik ajablanarli emas. Siyosat tsikllarda ishlab chiqiladi, chunki undagi hamma narsa yangi –, shuning uchun Kongress kutubxonachisi Daniel Boorstinning o'tmishni his qilmasdan siyosat qilish, kesilgan gullarni ekish va eng yaxshisiga umid qilish kabi, degan gumonni e'tiborsiz qoldiradi.

Ajablanarlisi shundaki, tarix 1890 -yillarga borib taqaladigan g'ayrioddiy hamshiralik g'oyalari almashinuvi bilan to'lib toshgan, qachonki Matron Rebekka Strongning Glazgo qirollik kasalxonasi uchun o'quv sxemasi Yel universitetida hamshiralar maktabining tashkil etilishiga ilhom bergan bo'lsa.

Elsining yaqin do'stlaridan biri Xelen Makkenzi va uning eri Lesli 1928 yilda Hydenda (Kentukki) Chegara hamshiralik xizmatining birinchi shifoxonasining ochilish marosimining faxriy mehmonlari bo'lishdi, u kelib chiqishi tog'lar va orollar tibbiy xizmatidan kelib chiqqan.

Yana bir yaqin do'st va Hospice asoschilaridan biri Jessi Makgregor Edinburgni tark etib, Koloradoda jarrohlik kasbini egalladi. Ammo u menenjit bilan kasallanib, 1906 yilda Denverda vafot etdi. Elzining o'zi 1913 yilda AQShga tashrifi chog'ida Xospis Michigan shtatidagi tug'ruqxonada bo'lishini xohlagan modelni topdi.

Uning rejalari urush va uning 1917 yildagi bevaqt o'limi tufayli cheklangan edi. Yuz yilligiga qadar uni Edinburgda eslab qolishlarini so'rash ortiqcha emasmi? Yoki biz shunchaki Belgradga ketishimiz kerakmi?

Shotlandiya buyuk gobelenida shlyapali Elsi Inglis

Manbalar/qo'shimcha o'qish

Lansetdagi Lyusi Inglisning tarjimai holi

Birinchi jahon urushi qahramonlari Kathryn J. Attwood, Chikago Review Press, 2014 yil

XIX asr oxiri va yigirmanchi asr boshidagi tibbiyotdagi ayollar Edinburg, Elaine Tomsonning misoli, Edinburg universiteti nomzodlik dissertatsiyasi 1998 (203-240-betlarga qarang)

Mona Chalmers Uotsonning Oksford DNB tarjimai holi

Lotian sog'liqni saqlash xizmatlari arxivi ular Gospospiya va Memorial shifoxonasining asosiy manbalarini saqlaydi


Elsi Inglis - Tarix

Meri Slessor missionerlik bo'yicha dastlabki mashg'ulotlarini o'tkazgan kunlarda, taxminan 1878 va Edinburgdagi qulay uyda, o'n to'rt yoshli qiz Elsi Inglis yashar edi. U va uning kenja singlisi Eva so'nggi paytlarda Hindistondan ota -onalari bilan kelishgan va bir muncha vaqt Tasmaniyada bo'lib, uylariga qaytishgan. Shunday qilib, ikkita opa -singil "Auld Riki" ning tumanlari va yomg'irlari uchun yangi bo'lishdi, ularning xotiralari qudratli tog'lar yoki inglizlarga Devonshir manzarasini taklif etuvchi janubiy orolning yashil go'zalligi haqidagi uzoq tasavvurlarga to'la edi.

"Charlotte Square" dagi qizlar maktabining sokin qadr -qimmati, "aholisi" va "8212" aholisi bilan mashhur bo'lgan maydon, bu qizlarni o'z tajribalarida va hech bo'lmaganda, maydon bog'ida, zerikarli qilib qo'ydi. o'yinlar uchun joy bor edi, nega maktab o'quvchilari undan foydalana olmadilar? Bu savol Elsi Inglis tomonidan maktab direktorlariga berilgan edi, hozircha hech kim bunday narsa haqida o'ylashga jur'at eta olmagan. Unga aytishicha, agar u maydonda uy egalarining har birining shaxsiy roziligini olsa, bu ishni qilish mumkin. Keyin Elsi Inglis, bitta jasur hamrohi bilan, har bir uyni aylanib chiqib, hech qanday rad javobisiz uchrashgan xo'jayinning roziligini so'radi va shu vaqtdan boshlab, Charlotte maydonidagi qizlarga o'ynashga ruxsat berildi. o'sha ‘grim palisaded Square bog'larida. ’

Hamkorlariga bu voqea Elsi Inglisni deyarli qahramonona jasur qilib ko'rsatdi. Bu, haqiqatan ham, maqsadga muvofiq ruhni, ko'rishga tayyor bo'lgan ob'ektni ko'rishda va qiyinchiliklardan qo'rqmasligini ko'rsatdi.

Maktab kunlari o'tgach, Elsi unga ochiladigan hayot rejalariga to'la edi. Bu o'tgan asrning saksoninchi va saksoninchi kunlari edi, ayollar ishtiyoq bilan mehnat qilib, to'liq ta'lim olish, kasbiy tayyorgarlik va martaba, hatto ularga to'liq fuqarolik beradigan saylov huquqidan umid qilar edilar.

Elsi Inglis tibbiyot doktori bo'lishga qaror qildi. Va bir necha yillar davomida ayollar tibbiyot doktori ilmiy darajasiga qabul qilingan bo'lsada, ularning yo'llarida hali ko'p qiyinchiliklar bor edi: erkaklar va ayollarning darslariga ruxsat berilmagan, yoki bitta palatadagi amaliy ishlar ko'pincha dushmanlik qilgan. ularning o'qishga kirishi va undan yuqori to'lovlar olindi. Elsi Inglis uchun u katta fikrli otasini qo'llab-quvvatlashi va uni har qanday qiyinchilikda qo'llab-quvvatlashi yaxshi edi. Bu shunday bo'ldiki, Elsi va uning otasi har doim alohida do'st bo'lganlar, u ko'p qalbli bolalarga bo'lgan muhabbatga to'la, lekin qisman vaziyatdan va qisman tabiiy hamdardlikdan, bu eng kichkina bola, lekin bitta va aqlli Elsi edi. , mustaqil fikrlaydigan —haddi uning bosh hamrohi bo'ldi. Ayniqsa, bu onasi vafotidan va "8212" shunday dono, yaxshi onadan keyin sodir bo'ldi, bu Elzining qarindoshlaridan biri aytganidek, taxminan o'n to'qqiz yoshida sodir bo'lgan edi, "O'sha kundan boshlab Elsi barcha otasining yukini yelkasiga oldi." ’ buning evaziga unga o'z ishiga har tomonlama ko'mak va hamdardlik bildirdi.

1892 yilga kelib Elsi Inglis vrachlik malakasini oldi, keyin u Londonning Euston yo'lidagi ‘New ayollar kasalxonasida uy-jarroh sifatida tajriba orttirish uchun uyini tark etdi. Birinchi ingliz ayol vrach Garret Anderson tomonidan tashkil etilgan bu shifoxonada faqat tibbiy xodimlar ishlaydi, shuning uchun ham tibbiyotga qiziqqan ayollarni tashvishga soluvchi birinchi o'rinda edi.

Va doktor Inglis emas edi shunchaki professional ayol u Browning bilan aytgan bo'lishi mumkin ’s Fra Lippo Lippi, ‘Bu dunyo biz uchun hech qanday nuqta ham, bo'sh joy ham yo'q: bu juda yaxshi ma'noni anglatadi va uning ma'nosini topish mening go'shtim va ichimlikimdir. ’

U, xususan, tibbiy tajribalaridan kelib chiqib, ayollar sog'lig'ini va hattoki, mehnat qobiliyatini, dam olishsiz, ishga juda ko'p singdirish orqali buzishini tushundi. Shuning uchun, uning London postidan otasiga yozgan xatlarida raqslar va teatrlar, kasalxona g'iybatlari bilan bir qatorda buyuk shahar haqidagi ekspeditsiyalar haqida ham aytilgan, bu ham hazillarga to'la. Masalan: ‘Bu erda ob -havoni yaxshi ko'raman, men hamma bemorlarga quyosh, quyosh, quyosh nuri yozaman. Har bir qavatda faqat ikkita balkon bor, va hamshira Rouzning aytishicha, u bemorlarni panjara ustiga osib qo'yishni xohlardim, aks holda joy bo'lmaydi. ’ Va o'sha maktubda: ‘ raqs juda yaxshi edi, men har bir raqsni raqsga tushardim: u erda ajoyib pol va yoqimli musiqa bor edi. Bugun ertalab operatsiya o'tkazdik, shuning uchun ko'rasizmi, raqslar hayotning jiddiy ishiga xalaqit bermaydi. ’

Uning keyingi tajribasi Dublindagi mashhur Rotunda kasalxonasida bo'ldi. U otasiga ajoyib irlandcha so'zlar va kulgili hikoyalarni yozdi. Doktor Inglisga keksa ayol duch kelganida, u: "Ded, sen hech qanday shifokor emassan", - dedi. kim aytdi, u tug'ilishidan oldin bilganman! ’

1894 yil boshida doktor Inglis Edinburgdagi uyiga qaytib keldi, u uyga uyga qaytdi, chunki u sevikli otasining sog'lig'i yomonlashayotganini ko'rdi va hatto uning tezligini ham ko'rmadi. Qaytganidan bir oy o'tgach, u vafot etdi va u chet eldagi birodariga xat yozdi: ‘U har doim o'lim to'xtab qolishiga ishonmasligini, lekin abadiy o'sib borishini va o'rganishini aytgan. . Xudo uni keyingi safariga baraka bersin. Usiz hayotimni tasavvur qila olmayman. ’

Doktor Inglis uchun bu judayam katta yo'qotish edi, chunki u tibbiy ishidan tashqari, u endi ish uchun ishlay boshlagan edi, shuning uchun o'sha paytlarda ayollarning saylov huquqi yonib ketdi, ya'ni ayollarmi yoki yo'qmi degan savol. parlament ovoziga ega bo'lishi kerak.

Ayollar uchun janob Inglis kabi qobiliyatli va taniqli erkaklarning yordamidan boshqa hech narsa yordam bermadi.

Shunday bo'lsa -da, Elsi Inglisdan ko'ra, kamdan -kam ayollar yolg'iz qolish imkoniyatiga ega edilar. O'zining axloqiy jasorati va mustaqilligi bilan u boshqalarga kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatdi, shuning uchun u tez orada nafaqat Edinburgda, balki umuman Shotlandiyada ham saylov huquqining etakchisiga aylandi.

And the facts which more than all else fired her feelings and her will were daily before her in medical work among the poorest women the fact that many laws—and all ‘man-made’—bore specially hardly upon married women. For instance, the law that no wife could undergo an operation without her husband’s consent, a frightful injustice! Dr. Elsie used to quote a case she knew, where a husband refused his consent to an operation, and thus left his wife to a lingering and suffering death. There were many such cases and through all else the general feeling that women were somehow ‘outside the law’, and therefore could be treated anyhow.

So Dr. Inglis spoke and wrote and organized without intermission for the gaining of ‘Women’s Votes’, but always she advocated peaceful methods: she was strongly opposed to the attempt to gain lawful privileges by unlawful means.

After her father’s death, Dr. Inglis began her practice as a doctor in Edinburgh she and a friend set up house together, living in happy partnership, united, in spite of many differences of opinion only the large-minded can do that.

Dr. Inglis always gave herself with special sympathy to the help of her poorer patients, although she had also many among the rich. For instance, seeing the need of far more accommodation for poor women than the public hospitals could provide, she worked out a scheme for a Maternity Home in a very poor district. This was opened in 1904 under the name of the Hospice, and succeeded so well that after a few years it had become one of the few centres then in Scotland for the training of women students of medicine in the special needs of women. From that centre there also arose a children’s clinic, a ward for special cases, and provision for district nurses to visit patients in their homes. All these things are nowadays but commonplaces clinics and district-nurses are the well-known health-machinery, so to speak, of every town, and every district of large towns, but in the early days of this century they arose only as the result of pioneer work, and generally the pioneer work of women.

So, if we walk along the Edinburgh High Street in imagination, as we have done before, we shall see very different things from those of past centuries. No longer will our eyes fall on armed noblemen, or Highland gentlemen in kilt and bonnet, no longer in late afternoons shall, we watch great ladies in hooped petticoats and with powdered hair, leaving their sedan-chairs to attend dances or card parties in those high stone-built houses. For now these same stone-built houses, in spite of their beautiful interiors, large rooms, painted ceilings, and carved mantelpieces, have become the over-crowded ‘rookeries’ of the very poor.

The richer folk have moved away from the picturesque, but inconvenient buildings, of the sixteenth and later centuries, to brighter modern dwellings on the west and south of the city. And as the rich moved away, the poorer took their places, moving from even narrower and darker houses, in yet older districts. And the surroundings of the High Street and the Canongate are true slums now ‘you may turn away from those thoroughfares, even on a summer-day to see people disappearing into entries of impenetrable darkness to live in rooms where it is always night.’

If, however, we wait and watch a while, we may see a more hopeful sight—the slight figure of a woman whose face is bright and purposeful—whose fair hair gives a touch of sunshine to her presence, and whose firm quick step, as she passes from one dark entry to another, suggests that she is occupied with some helpful work. There were endless stories told among the poor about Dr. Inglis, of her skill and her kindness, her interest in every detail of their lives, because, as she so fully recognized, it was not merely for their illness that a doctor was needed, but often to advise where ‘prevention, better than cure,’ could be brought about through sensible ways of life. Thus, she wrote to one of her richer patients, ‘I want you never to miss, or delay meals to go to bed reasonably early and to take an interest in outside things.’ And if a child was ill and died, her sympathy with the mother in her loss was as fully given as if she herself had known such losses.

Her own home was always a centre of bright social life she had many friends and relatives in Edinburgh her nieces and nephews looked on her as the best possible friend and comrade. She did not allow her own many-sided busy life to absorb her energies wholly. Her evenings were generally times of leisure, and her holidays largely spent with the young folks whom she loved.

Elsie Inglis was thus leading the kind of life which was fitting her, unconsciously, to play a hard and heroic part in one of the greatest crises of the history of the world.

When the European War broke out in 1914, the way of duty for most men, that is, for men of military age and strength, was clear for women, not so clear. In all past ages, women bor helped magnificently through times of war they have nursed and worked in the fields, backed up the fighters in every way but the very high organization of all departments of work in our modern days makes it more difficult than of old for interchanges of work to be profitably made.

Thus, very soon after that terrible week beginning on August 4th, 1914, a great meeting of women was summoned in London, and the leaders of the Suffrage movement strongly appealed to those present emas to give up their peace-time work: ‘Go on with your work till you bilish you can help elsewhere.’ Nothing wiser or more helpful could have been said.

But where the work of doctoring and nursing was concerned, duty seemed clear even for women their services edi needed.

Unfortunately, the authorities at the War Office refused to allow women-doctors to co-operate with the Royal Army Medical Corps, or even to take out hospital units of their own to serve on our own ‘Fronts.’ Dr. Inglis was, as we may imagine, foremost in demanding leave to do this she could see the probability—or certainty, rather---of appalling need on every ‘Front’ but when she approached the English authorities, an official said to her, ‘My good lady, go home and sit still.’ (!!)

Difficulties acted like spurs to Elsie Inglis they only stimulated her brain and will-power. ‘If the English Government will not have us, let us offer ourselves to other Allied Governments the need is pressing everywhere’: so she spoke to her fellow-workers.

Before long the organization known as the ‘Scottish Women’s Hospitals’ took shape, and its first hospital was opened in France, under the French Red Cross, at the Abbaye de Royaumont, before the close of 1914.

Dr. Inglis’ letters after visiting this hospital are full of picturesque touches: for instance:

‘You’ve no idea of the conditions to which the units came out here, and they have behaved like perfect bricks. . . . There were no fires, no hot water, no furniture, no blankets. . . .The units have scrubbed out the whole place, put up beds, stuffed mattresses, etc., etc. The wards are perfect now. And when Madame came she said, "What it is to belong to a practical nation!"

On her way back through Paris, Dr. Inglis had an interesting little experience. Sitting alone in a corner of the cathedral of Notre Dame, she suddenly felt as if there were a living presence behind her when she rose to leave the church, she saw for the first time that she had been sitting just in front of the statue of Joan of Arc. ‘I kerak like to know what Joan wanted to say to me’, was her comment afterwards.

As the awful days passed, there rose need of more medical help on several Fronts farther away than France. Happily, our Foreign Office and our Admiralty departments were willing to forward the work of the S.W.H., for British subjects could not wisely work abroad, exposed to war-time dangers, without the countenance of their own Government. The little country of Serbia (once called Servia) had been overrun by the Austrian armies and left stricken with an awful epidemic of typhus fever raging among its tens of thousands of prisoners and wounded men. To this country one unit of the S.W.H. went out early in 1915, under Dr. Soltau, and when she broke down with diphtheria, Dr. Inglis, herself, took charge.

Though there were other units at work, one under the Red Cross, and one under Lady Paget, there was a constant appeal for more and more doctors, nurses, equipment. For three months the frightful epidemic raged.

Here are some pictures of experiences in Serbia during the late autumn of 1915:

‘These poor little people (Serbians), you cannot imagine anything more miserable than they are. They have been fighting for years for their independence, and now, it all seems to end. I went into Craiova yesterday in the car. . . .The road was crowded with refugees, all their goods piled on their rickety ox-wagons, little children on the top. . . .The bridges are down, and trucks standing anywhere. . . .There’ll be famine soon, as well as cold in this corner of the world.’

Then, the unit were taken prisoners and had to work under the orders of Austro-German authorities. They had to take a journey in horse-boxes, and later, to lie on the floor of the station at Belgrade, ‘eight sentries and all their charges lying on the floor together’, an officer guarding the door.

Later Dr. Inglis describes the condition of a hospital, ‘when biz arrived’:

‘The hospital compound was a truly terrible place, sights and smells beyond description. We dug rubbish into the ground, built incinerators, and cleaned, and cleaned, and cleaned. That’s an Englishman’s job all over the world. Our three untrained English girl orderlies took to it like ducks to water . . . and they did it magnificently.’

Lekin u erda edi beautiful natural things amid all this misery ‘Never shall we forget the beauty of the sunrises, and the glory of the sunsets, with cool clear sunlit days between, and wonderful starlit nights.’

There was terrible overcrowding in these hospitals under foreign occupation, for instance ‘Hospital space designed for 400 beds had to deal with 900, and later with 1200, often 3 men to 2 beds, and mattresses on the floor.’

In February 1916 that unit was sent home, but Dr. Inglis ‘never forgot the tragedy of Serbia’, and worked always to get more help sent to the people she loved.

In the autumn of that year, 1916, Dr. Inglis went out with a fresh unit to the Russo-Roumanian Front, where another section of Serbs, the Jugoslavs, were fighting. Her letters about their long journey, first by transport through the Baltic, then by land through Russia, are amusing. On board, there were all sorts of amusements organized by the younger members of the unit, dances, fancy dress, obstacle races, and other competitions. ‘I do love to see the girls enjoying themselves’, she writes home, ‘they’ll have plenty of hard work later on.’

By the end of September, they had reached Odessa, via Moscow, and were ‘off to our Division, with only two little field hospitals.’ But very soon, they found themselves in the midst of a most awful retreat, the second retreat experienced by Dr. Inglis.

‘You cannot imagine’, she writes to her sister, ‘what war is, just behind the lines, and in a retreat. . . . We arrived at Braila to find 11,000 wounded, and only one of them a surgeon. The wounded had overflowed into empty houses, and were lying about in their uniforms, their wounds not dressed for 4 or 5 days.’. . .‘So we just turned up our sleeves, and went in!’

Only doctors and nurses know what bu means!

At Reni, on the Danube, where the river crosses the frontier of Roumania and Russia, the unit stayed for eight months this seems to have been for all of them a happy and restful time in spite of the ordinary hospital routine. Dr. Elsie writes:

‘We are never absolutely without wood, as a Cossack regiment sends a squad of men across the Danube to cut it for us. .The Danube is frozen right across, the first time for seven years. . . . We have plenty of sun and it will soon be quite hot.’

Again, ‘A Greek priest came yesterday to bless the hospital, and we have put up icons (images) in each of the four wards. . . I have bought little lamps to burn in front of the icons as they always have them. . . .We are going to have the evening hymn sung every evening at 6 o’clock.’

And then follows a good jest:

‘There is rivalry, I hear, between the Armoured Car men and the British Red Cross men about the capabilities of the different Sisters. (We, it seems, belong to the Armoured Car men.) A B.R.C. man said, ‘Our Sisters are so smart that they get a man on to the operating table 5 mins. after the first one went off.’ ‘That’s nothing’, said an Armoured Car man, ‘the Scottish Sisters get the second man on before the first one goes off.’

Again Dr. Inglis writes: We had a very interesting Easter. We learnt both the Russian greeting and its answer: ‘Christ is risen’.—‘He is risen indeed’ so we made our greetings in Russian fashion. We are very happy here, except that we are idle. Our patients are delightful, and the hospital is in good order. The Steppe is a fascinating place to wander over, little valleys with villages hidden away in them, and flowers. We have been riding our transport horses, rather rough, but quite nice and gentle. We ride astride, of course.’

In the autumn the unit had to return to England. The Serbs were out of Roumania, and the changes consequent on the Russian revolution had affected all doings on the Eastern European Front.

They travelled, as before, via Moscow and Archangel, and then by sea to England. But the pleasure of facing homewards was dimmed by the realization that Dr. Inglis was gravely ill. She tried to make light of her suffering, insisted on getting up each day or, when lying down, in making plans for a fresh expedition abroad. Yet she could not walk for five minutes without exhaustion, and none who knew her could be blind to the great change in her appearance and her powers.

As the ship neared Newcastle, Dr. Inglis went up on deck to say good-bye to the Serbian officers who had accompanied the party to England.

‘She stood unsupported, her face ashen, drawn like a mask, dressed in her worn uniform coat with the faded ribbons. As the officers kissed her hand and thanked her, she said a few words to each.’

After this, the end came swiftly. The unit went together to a hotel at Newcastle, where Dr. Inglis, entirely exhausted, lay waiting to see the relatives who were sent for. She lay there for about thirty-six hours, able to talk and send messages to friends and to colleagues in her work her mind entirely clear, her physical powers ebbing rapidly she was very brave and quiet. ‘It will be grand to start a new job over there’, she said to her niece, ‘although there are two or three jobs here I should like to have finished first.’

On the night of Monday, November 26th, 1917, she passed very peacefully to the unseen land.

‘Her people brought her back to the city of her fathers. . .Over her hung the torn banners of Scotland’s history. On her coffin, as she lay looking to the east in high St Giles’, were placed the flags of Great Britain and Serbia.’ After the funeral service, the coffin was placed on a gun-carriage.


Elsie Inglis

Iain Macintyre at the end of his excellent talk mentioned books on Elsie Inglis and some of us weren’t quick enoughto make a note of these. For those who are interested the books Ian Suggested were

Elsie Inglis: Founder of Battlefield Hospitals Run Entirely by Women (Scots’ Lives)
Leah Leneman
Published by NMSE – Publishing Ltd (1998)

In the Service of Life: Story of Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women’s Hospitals
Leah Leneman
Published by Mercat Press , 1994

SHADOW OF SWORDS
Margot LAWRENCE
Published by Michael Joseph London 1st edn, 1971

Elsie Inglis: The Woman with the Torch (Illustrated Edition) (Paperback)
Eva Shaw McLaren
Published by Dodo Press, United Kingdom (2009)

and the book on Royaumant is:

Angels of Mercy: A Womens Hospital on the Western Front 1914 – 1918
Eileen Crofton
Published by Birlinn Ltd (2013)


Elsie Inglis is a Scottish WWI History Hero

As non-Scots, be reassured that History Heroes will not pronounce on whether the Scottish people should vote ‘no’ or ‘yes’ but we do have a Scottish WWI History hero to talk about: Elsie Inglis. We think she’s a great reminder of how the most important values should and do transcend this kind of debate.

Elsie Inglis was born in 1864. She was a Scottish doctor, who set up the Scottish Women’s Hospitals Unit in World War I to serve the Allies. She originally approached the British War Office to offer her services but they rejected her, saying, “My good lady, go home and sit still”. Delightful! Elsie Inglis ignored them, thankfully, and soon had established all-women hospital units in France, Serbia, Corsica, Salonika and Russia. Inglis’ units improved hygiene and reduced epidemics raging in Serbia and she became the first woman to be awarded the Serbian Order of the White Eagle. Local citizens and the Serbian army built a memorial to Elsie Inglis in 1915 in Mladenova in her honour. Inglis died of cancer in 1917.

One of the many great points about Elsie Inglis’ work and particularly relevant today is that women from all nationalities joined the Scottish Woman’s Hospital units and all were proud to be called ‘Scottish Women’. Where they came from was less important than the fact that they knew they were a part of something very good.

Elsie Inglis, WWI Founder of the Scottish Women’s Hospital


Medical practice

She returned to Edinburgh in 1894 where she set up a medical practice with Jessie MacLaren MacGregor, who had been a fellow student, and also opened a maternity hospital (The Hospice) for poor women alongside a midwifery resource centre, which was a forerunner of the Elsie Inglis Memorial Hospital. The Hospice was within 219 High Street, on the Royal Mile, close to Cockburn Street

A philanthropist, she often waived the fees owed to her and would pay for her patients to recuperate by the sea-side. She was a consultant at Bruntsfield Hospital for women and children, and despite a disagreement between Inglis and the hospital management, the Hospice joined forces with them in 1910.

Her dissatisfaction with the standard of medical care available to women led to her becoming politically active. She was the secretary of the Edinburgh National Society for Women's Suffrage in the 1890s and she played a role in the early years of the Scottish Federation of Women's Suffrage Societies, acting as honorary secretary from 1906 to 1914.


Elsie Inglis (1864-1917)

Elsie Inglis was a Scots doctor and suffragist. She worked to set up the Scottish Women's Hospitals.

She was born in Naini Tal, India, as her father worked in the Indian civil service. Her family later returned to Scotland and Elsie studied to become a doctor at the Edinburgh School of Medicine for Women that had been opened by Dr Sophia Jex-Blake.

Elsie gained qualifications from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Edinburgh, and the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. In 1894 she opened The Hospice - a maternity hospital for the poor in Edinburgh. Elsie Inglis became an active suffragist.

When Elsie first suggested teams of women doctors and nurses be sent to the Western Front during the Great War, the War Office replied ‘My good lady, go home and sit still.'

Undaunted, Elsie raised thousands of pounds and worked to set up the Scottish Women's Hospitals Unit. It provided medical units staffed by women in France, Russia, Corsica, Romania and Serbia. Elsie went to work with her teams of nurses in Serbia. She died of cancer in 1917 and was buried in Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh.


Birinchi jahon urushi

Despite her already notable achievements it was her efforts during the First World War that brought her fame. She was instrumental in setting up the Scottish Women’s Hospitals for Foreign Service Committee, an organisation funded by the women’s suffrage movement with the express aim of providing all female staffed relief hospitals for the Allied war effort. The organisation was active in sending teams to France, Serbia and Russia. She herself went with the teams sent to Serbia where her presence and work in improving hygiene reduced typhus and other epidemics that had been raging there. In 1915 she was captured and repatriated but upon reaching home she began organising funds for a Scottish Women’s Hospital team in Russia. She headed the team when it left for Odessa, Russia in 1916 but lasted only a year before she was forced to return to the United Kingdom, suffering from cancer.


In the Service of Life: The Story of Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Women's Hospitals

For someone wanting to know all about the Scottish Women’s Hospitals – this is the perfect book. Leneman has written a fair and unbiased account of this wonderful organization. The author charts the start of the organization,the highs and the lows. She also highlights the difficulties faced by the organization having two committees – one in Scotland and one in London, which often created miscommunications and misunderstanding. I found it fascinating too, how quite a few committee members really For someone wanting to know all about the Scottish Women’s Hospitals – this is the perfect book. Leneman has written a fair and unbiased account of this wonderful organization. The author charts the start of the organization,the highs and the lows. She also highlights the difficulties faced by the organization having two committees – one in Scotland and one in London, which often created miscommunications and misunderstanding. I found it fascinating too, how quite a few committee members really had no idea what the members faced when dealing for instance with French or Serbian officials, appalling conditions, shortages of supplies, etc. Frequently committee members went to France for instance to check up why “so much money was being spent” on food – jam in particular.

For me Leneman is the ideal person to write this book. If there is a leader of a particular unit who is not keeping all her staff under control – we will know about it. It isn’t whitewashed. The author will often explain the apparent causes whether it be miscommunication or personality clashes and of course it is inevitable with so many women from varying backgrounds, that there will be clashes.

The book contains a lot of details about all the units whether they are in France, Russia, Serbia, Roumania or Greece. She also has time to highlight the major players in each unit. My only criticism would be that she hasn’t included a complete list of all fourteen units and their main locations.

This is a readable and informative book about a little known part of WWI history. Tavsiya etiladi.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Dr Elsie Inglis: Britains Unsung First World War Hero. Forces TV (Oktyabr 2021).

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