Yangi

Ursula Yorqin

Ursula Yorqin

Ursula Mellor, Jozef Mellorning qizi, 1835 yil 5 -iyulda tug'ilgan. Uning erta hayoti haqida ko'p narsa ma'lum emas, lekin u "kuchli saxiy, juda to'g'ridan -to'g'ri, bolaligida sodda, ammo shunga qaramay aqlli va mulohazali fikr ". (1)

1855 yil 13 sentyabrda Ursula Jon Bright & Brothers oilaviy firmasida ishlagan Jeykob Braytga uylandi. Bright radikal siyosat bilan chuqur shug'ullangan va Chartistik harakatni qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Keyingi bir necha yil ichida u beshta bola tug'di. O'g'il bolalardan ikkitasi difteriyadan vafot etdi. (2)

Oila Manchesterga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda Bright o'zining tijorat manfaatlarini rivojlantirdi, nafaqat paxta va gilam ishlab chiqarishda, balki Buyuk Britaniyada linotip mashinasini joriy etishda kashshof bo'ldi. Er -xotin radikal siyosat bilan shug'ullanishni davom ettirdilar va erkaklarga ham, ayollarga ham parlament franchayzi uchun kampaniya olib bordilar. (3)

1865 yil oktyabr oyida Elizabet Volstenxolme-Elmi Manchesterda ayollarni huquqlarini himoya qilish qo'mitasini tuzdi. U Ursula va Jeykob Brayt kirgan Liberal partiyaning mahalliy radikal a'zolari tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlandi. Yana bir faol a'zo Richard Pankhurst, (4)

1867 yil noyabrda Jeykob Brayt jamoatchilik uyida Manchester vakili etib saylandi. Bright endi ayollar saylov huquqining yana bir tarafdori Jon Styuart Mill bilan birlashdi. 1867 yildagi islohotlar to'g'risidagi qonun muhokamasida Mill ayollarga erkaklar bilan bir xil huquqlarni berishni taklif qildi. "Biz siyosiy inqiloblar haqida gapiramiz, lekin biz atrofimizda jim ichki inqilob sodir bo'lganiga etarlicha e'tibor bermaymiz: ayollar va erkaklar, tarixda birinchi marta, haqiqatan ham, bir -birlarining sheriklari ... Ayollar haqiqatan ham do'st, agar ayollar beparvo bo'lsa, erkaklar beparvo bo'ladi ... ikki jins ko'tarilishi yoki cho'kishi kerak ". (5)

1868 yilda Mill o'z umumiy o'rindig'idan mahrum bo'ldi va Brayt parlamentdagi sufratchilarning etakchisiga aylandi va ayollarning nogironliklarini olib tashlash to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasini o'z zimmasiga oldi. 1870 yilda Bright va ser Charlz Ventvort Dilke birinchi ayollarning saylov huquqi qonun loyihasini kiritdilar. U mag'lubiyatdan keyin 1871 yilda yana bir ayollarning saylov huquqi to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasini kiritdi. Liberallar partiyasi rahbari Uilyam Gladston uni mag'lubiyatga uchratdi va saylovda ovoz beradigan ayollar "chidab bo'lmas xarakterdagi yomonlik" bo'lishini aytdi. (6)

1870 yilda Ursula Brayt Jozefina Butler va Elizabet Volstenxolm bilan birgalikda Xotin -qizlar milliy assotsiatsiyasini tuzdi, bu tashkilot yuqumli kasalliklar to'g'risidagi aktlarni bekor qilishni talab qildi. Ushbu qonun politsiyachiga portlarda va armiya shaharlarida fohishalarni hibsga olishga va jinsiy yo'l bilan yuqadigan kasalliklarni majburiy tekshiruvdan o'tkazishga ruxsat berdi. Agar ayollar jinsiy yo'l bilan yuqadigan kasalliklardan aziyat chekayotgan bo'lsalar, ular tuzalguncha kasalxonaga yotqizilgan. Aytishlaricha, bu erkaklarni yuqtirgan ayollardan himoya qilishning eng yaxshi usuli. Hibsga olingan ayollarning ko'pchiligi fohishalik bilan shug'ullanmaganlar, lekin baribir ular kamsituvchi tibbiy ko'rikdan o'tish uchun politsiya bo'limiga borishga majbur bo'lishgan. (7)

Ursula Brayt o'n to'rt yil turmush qurgan ayollarning mulki qo'mitasi ijroiya qo'mitasining a'zosi bo'lgan. 1882 yilda turmush qurgan ayollarning mulk huquqi to'g'risidagi qonunning qabul qilinishi uning sa'y -harakatlari tufayli bo'lgan deb tan olindi. Elizabet Kedi Stanton "ketma -ket o'n yil davomida u ushbu qonun loyihasiga alohida e'tibor qaratdi ... uning harakatlarida, arizalarni yig'ishda, varaqalarni tarqatishda, yig'ilishlarda charchamaganligini" ta'kidladi. (8)

Qonunga ko'ra, turmush qurgan ayollar o'z mol -mulki bo'yicha turmush qurmagan ayollar bilan bir xil huquqlarga ega edilar. Shunday qilib, bu harakat turmush qurgan ayolga ota -onasidan sovg'a sifatida olgan mulkka egalik huquqini saqlab qolishga imkon berdi. 1882 yilda turmush qurgan ayollarning mulki to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilinishidan oldin, bu mulk avtomatik ravishda erining mulkiga aylangan bo'lar edi. (9)

Ursula Brayt lordlar palatasini bekor qilishdan manfaatdor edi, majburiy emlashga qarshi edi va Atlantikaning har ikki tomonida badiiy va siyosiy keng doiradagi do'stlarga ega edi. U, shuningdek, Enni Besantning yaqin do'sti edi va 1898 yilda Hindiston shimolidagi Theosophical shtabiga 3000 funt sterling berdi. (10)

Ursula Brayt 1915 yil 12 martda Londonning Kensington shtatidagi 82 Drayton bog'ida o'z uyida vafot etdi.

1866 yilda Ursula Brayt Jon Styuart Mill tomonidan parlamentga taqdim etilgan ayollarning saylov huquqini qo'llab -quvvatlash to'g'risidagi petitsiyaga imzo chekdi; u 1867 yilda Manchesterda tashkil etilgan birinchi Ayollar huquqlari jamiyatining a'zosi edi. U jamiyat va uning Londonda yashovchi singlisi uchun 1890 yilgacha, Pankhurstlarning talabiga binoan, Elizabet Volstenxolm Elmidan nafratlansa ham, ishlashni davom ettirdi. , Gladstounga keraksiz yordam bergan deb o'ylagan, u Ayollar Franshiza Ligasining faxriy kotibi etib tayinlangan. Ayollar huquqlari milliy milliy jamiyatidan farqli o'laroq, liga turmush qurgan ayollarni, shuningdek, bevalar va yigitlarning huquqlarini qo'llab -quvvatlashdan iborat edi. Uning ligadagi ishlari 1894 yildagi "Mahalliy boshqaruv to'g'risida" gi qonunga turmushga chiqqan ayollarning barcha mahalliy franchayzalarga bo'lgan huquqini kiritishga olib keldi.

Brights "radikal liberal" qarashlar bilan bo'lishdi va ayniqsa ayolning ishini ilgari surish bilan shug'ullanishdi. Ester o'z xotiralarida ular islohotchilar oilasi ekanligini ta'kidlagan. 1870 yilda ular Xotin -qizlar milliy assotsiatsiyasining ta'sischi a'zolari bo'lishdi va yuqumli kasalliklar to'g'risidagi aktlarni bekor qilishdi. Ursula Mellor Brayt butun umri davomida (1868–82) turmush qurgan ayollar mulki qo'mitasining ijroiya qo'mitasi a'zosi va xazinachisi (1874–82) bo'lgan.

Bolalar mehnatini simulyatsiya qilish (o'qituvchilar eslatmalari)

1832 yil Islohotlar to'g'risidagi qonun va Lordlar palatasi (Javob sharhi)

Chartistlar (javob izohi)

Ayollar va Chartistlar harakati (Javob sharhi)

Benjamin Disraeli va 1867 yildagi islohotlar to'g'risidagi qonun (Javob sharhi)

Uilyam Gladstoun va 1884 yildagi islohotlar to'g'risidagi qonun (Javob sharhi)

Richard Arkrayt va zavod tizimi (Javob sharhi)

Robert Ouen va Yangi Lanark (Javob sharhi)

Jeyms Vatt va Steam Power (Javob sharhi)

Avtomobil transporti va sanoat inqilobi (javob izohi)

Kanal maniasi (javob izohi)

Temir yo'llarning erta rivojlanishi (javob izohi)

Ichki tizim (javob izohi)

Ludditlar: 1775-1825 (Javob sharhi)

To'qimachilarning og'ir ahvoli (Javob sharhi)

Sanoat shaharlaridagi sog'liq muammolari (Javob sharhi)

19 -asrda sog'liqni saqlash islohoti (Javob sharhi)

(1) Ester Brayt, Qadimgi (1927) 7 -bet

(2) The Times (1899 yil 9 -noyabr)

(3) Alan Ruston, Jeykob Brayt: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(4) Sandra Stenli Xolton, Elizabet Volstenxolme-Elmi: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(5) Jon Styuart Mill, Jamoatlar palatasidagi nutqi (20 may, 1867)

(6) Silviya Panxurst, Ayollar saylov huquqi harakati tarixi (1931) 47 -bet

(7) Ray Strachey, Sababi: Buyuk Britaniyadagi ayollar harakati tarixi (1928) 217-218 betlar

(8) Elizabet Krouford, Ursula Bright: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(9) Rey Straxey, Sababi: Buyuk Britaniyadagi ayollar harakati tarixi (1928) 275 -bet

(10) Elizabet Krouford, Ursula Bright: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)


'Omeladan uzoqlashganlar ' tahlil

"Omeladan uzoq yurganlar" - amerikalik yozuvchi Ursula K. Le Guinning qisqa hikoyasi. U har yili ilmiy fantastika yoki fantastika uchun beriladigan "Eng yaxshi qisqa hikoya" nominatsiyasida 1974 yilda Gyugo mukofotiga sazovor bo'lgan.

Le Guinning ushbu o'ziga xos asari 1975 yilda "Shamolning o'n ikki choragi" to'plamida paydo bo'lgan va u keng antologiyaga aylangan.

"Omeladan uzoqlashadiganlar" ning an'anaviy syujeti yo'q, faqat u takrorlanuvchi harakatlar majmuini tushuntiradi.

Hikoya, aholisi har yili yozgi bayramini nishonlayotgan "dengiz bo'yida baland minorali" pokiza Omelas shahrining tavsifi bilan boshlanadi. Bu sahna quvnoq, dabdabali ertakga o'xshaydi, "qo'ng'iroqlar" va "qaldirg'ochlar baland ko'tariladi".

So'ngra, hikoyachi shunday baxtli joyning fonini tushuntirishga urinadi, garchi ular shahar haqida hamma tafsilotlarni bilmasalar. Buning o'rniga, ular o'quvchilarni o'zlariga kerakli tafsilotlarni tasavvur qilishga taklif qilib, "bu muhim emas. O'zingizga yoqqanidek", deb ta'kidlaydilar.

Keyin hikoya festivalning ta'rifiga qaytadi, uning gullari va pishiriqlari, nay va nimfaga o'xshash bolalar otlarida yalang'och poyga qilishadi. Haqiqat bo'lish juda yaxshi ko'rinadi va hikoyachi so'raydi:

Hikoyachining keyingi izohi shundaki, Omelas shahri bitta kichkina bolani yerto'ladagi nam, derazasiz xonada butunlay tanazzulga uchraydi. Bola to'yib ovqatlanmagan va iflos, yiringli yaralar bilan. Hech kimga hatto yaxshi so'z aytishga ham ruxsat berilmagan, shuning uchun u "quyosh nuri va onasining ovozi" ni eslasa ham, hamma narsa insoniyat jamiyatidan olib tashlangan.

Omelada hamma bola haqida biladi. Hatto ko'pchilik buni o'z ko'zlari bilan ko'rish uchun kelgan. Le Guin yozganidek: "Hamma biladi, u erda bo'lishi kerak". Bola - bu butun shaharning qolgan quvonch va baxtining bahosi.

Ammo hikoyachining ta'kidlashicha, vaqti -vaqti bilan bolani ko'rgan kishi uyga bormaslikni afzal ko'radi - buning o'rniga shahar bo'ylab, darvozadan va tog'lar tomon yuradi. Hikoyachi boradigan joyi haqida hech qanday tasavvurga ega emas, lekin ular ta'kidlashicha, odamlar "qaerga ketayotganlarini bilishadi, go'yo Omelasdan uzoqlashganlar".


Do'stlar: Liza Kudrouning singlisi uning er -xotini edi

Ursulaning sahnalari Do'stlar ular tez -tez Fibening yonida bo'lishgan, lekin Liza Kudrou egizak bo'lmaganligi sababli, prodyuserlik guruhi bu g'oyani sotish uchun qandaydir fokuslardan foydalanishga majbur bo'lgan. Liza Kudrou ikkala qismni ham suratga oldi, lekin o'zaro ta'sirga ishonish uchun u boshqa rolni o'ynashi kerak edi, shuningdek, ular birgalikda bo'lish g'oyasini yaxshiroq berish uchun xarakterni orqadan ko'rsatishi kerak edi. Liza Kudrovning dubli uning singlisi Xelen edi, u xuddi balandligi va bo'yi bilan bir xil edi. Shunday bo'lsa -da, Fib va ​​Ursula sahnalarini suratga olish Liza uchun qiziq emas edi.

Bilan suhbatda EW 2019 yilda rejissyor Kevin S. Brayt Lisa Kudrouning egizaklari bilan sahnalarni suratga olishni yoqtirmasligini, chunki u dublli aktyorlikni yoqtirmasligini ma'lum qildi. Uning singlisi uning juftligi bo'lgani uchun unga qiyinroq edi, lekin Brayt stressni qo'shib qo'ydi.u singlisini qo'ydi, chunki dubl uning boshida ko'proq edi”. Bu noqulaylik va noqulaylik yakuniy mahsulotga aylanmadi va Fibi va Ursulaning sahnalari o'z maqsadiga xizmat qildi - va agar ular qachonlardir noqulay bo'lganlarida, egizaklarning munosabatlari xuddi shunday bo'lgani uchun edi. Lisa Kudrouning baxtiga, Do'stlar Ursula unchalik ko'p bo'lmagan, shuning uchun u bu jarayondan bir necha marta o'tishi kerak edi.


Tarix va#8230 qiziqarli bitlar!

Ona Shipton g'ori Bu Angliyaning eng qadimiy sayyohlik joyidir. Odamlar 1630 yildan beri tashrif buyurishadi. Bu hudud go'zal peyzajli park bo'lib, allaqachon sehrli joyga atmosferani qarz beradi.

Bolaligimda men bu voqeani bilmasdim Shipton ona, u g'orda yashaydigan mahalliy jodugar edi. Jodugar qismi butun voqeani aniq aytmaydi.

Afsonaga ko'ra, ona Shiptonning haqiqiy ismi Ursula Sonteyl edi. U Agataning qizi edi, u o'zini 15 yoshida homilador, lekin turmushga chiqmagan deb topdi, u otasining ismini aytishdan bosh tortdi va ota -onasi uni qo'llab -quvvatlamadi. qishloq. Bechora Agata Knaresboro qal'asi ostidagi Nidd daryosi bo'yidagi Knaresboro chekkasidagi g'ordan boshpana topdi. Va u erda, 1488 yildagi bo'ronli kechada, momaqaldiroq gumburlab, yengil yomg'ir yog'ib, galalar esib, Ursulani tug'di.

Tug'ilganidan ko'p o'tmay, Beverli Abboti Ursulaga qiziqib, uni mahalliy oilaga joylashtirdi. Uning onasi Nottingemshirdagi monastirga yuborilgan va u bir necha yildan so'ng vafot etgan.

Bechora Ursulaning burni katta, egri, beli egilgan, oyoqlari burishgan edi. U tayoq bilan yurishi kerak edi. Chiroyli bola bo'lmasa -da, Ursula chaqqon edi va aql -zakovati bilan ustozlarini hayratda qoldirdi. Ammo u qisqa vaqt maktabga bordi, boshqa bolalar uni mazax qilishdi. Ursulaning qasos sochlarini tarashini yoki bolalarni yiqitib yiqilishini va hech kim yonida bo'lmaganini da'vo qilishgan.

Oxir -oqibat, u o'zi tug'ilgan g'orga qaytib, o'rmonlarning yolg'izligini afzal ko'rdi. 24 yoshida u Yorklik yosh duradgor Tobias Shipton bilan uchrashdi va unga uylandi. Ba'zilarning aytishicha, u uni sehrlab qo'ygan, chunki u o'zini o'ziga jalb qilish uchun juda jirkanch edi. Ularning birgalikdagi umri qisqa edi, chunki u 2 yildan so'ng, farzand ko'rmasdan vafot etdi. ‘Mother ’ Shipton ismi yillar o'tib, Ursula qishloqning eng keksa ayoliga aylandi.

Ursula tirikchilik qilib, so'raganlarning kelajagi va taqdirini aytib berdi. Tez orada u Knaresboro Payg'ambar nomi bilan mashhur bo'ldi.

Ursulaning bashoratlari mashhur bo'ldi. Qirol uning bashoratlarini eshitish uchun Londondan xabarchilar yubordi, lekin u Kardinal Uolsining nishoniga aylandi. Uolsi Ursula bashoratlaridan biriga aylandi. U unga aytdi, garchi u Yorkni ko'rsa -da, lekin u hech qachon unga qadam qo'ymaydi, Volsi esa Yorkka etib kelganida, uni jodugar sifatida yoqib yuboradigan ulkan piro qurishini aytdi.

Voqea sodir bo'lganida, Uolsi Nyu -Yorkning chekkasida joylashgan Kavud shahriga etib keldi, u erda uni Xoinumberlendning 6 -chi Genri Persi xiyonat qilgani uchun hibsga olishdi. U Londondagi sud jarayoniga qaytayotganda, Uolsi kasal bo'lib, 1530 yil 29 -noyabrda Lesterda vafot etdi.

Shiptonning onasi, shuningdek, 1665 yildagi qora o'lim va 1666 yilda Londonda sodir bo'lgan Buyuk olov haqida bashorat qilgan. Uning boshqa bashoratlari orasida samolyotlar, mashinalar, ingliz islohoti, London va Crystal Palace, Amerika fuqarolik urushi va Frantsuz inqilobi va, ehtimol, Internet

“Dunyo bo'ylab fikrlar ko'z ochib yumguncha uchib ketadi ”.

Va, albatta, u dunyoning oxirini bashorat qildi:

” Dunyo baland ko'prik uch marta qulaganda tugaydi ”.

Knaresborodagi baland ko'prik shu paytgacha ikki marta tushdi va#8230.

Ona Shipton 1561 yilda 73 yoshida vafot etdi. Cherkov dafn qilishdan bosh tortganidan so'ng, uning qabrlari tarixda yo'qolgan.

Lekin, albatta, bizda hali ham "Shipton ona g'ori" va uning yonida "Istak qudug'i" bor.

Sizning xohishingiz amalga oshishi uchun siz qo'lingizni quduq suviga qo'yishingiz va jimgina xohishingizni tabiiy ravishda quritib qo'yishingiz kerak va u amalga oshguncha sirligingizni saqlashingiz kerak.

Men u erga bolaligimda borganimni, orzu qilingan quduqni ziyorat qilganimni va o'z xohishimni bildirganimni eslayman. Men hech qachon Shipton onamni Rojdestvo uchun qo'g'irchoq va bolalar aravachasini so'raganim uchun kechirmaganman va uning o'rniga qo'g'irchoq aravachasini olganman.

Onam Shipton va#8217s g'oridan oldin ham toshbo'ron qiladigan quduq bor. Quduq bir chaqirim er osti tabiiy ko'ldan keladigan buloqdan oziqlanadi. Suv er yuzasiga chiqish uchun suvli qatlam deb ataladigan g'ovakli toshlar guruhidan o'tadi va juda ko'p miqdordagi minerallar eriydi. Sehrli suv hamma narsani toshga aylantiradi, ayiqchani aylantirish uchun 3 oy vaqt ketadi.

Beech prospektida farishta o'ymakorligi

Ona Shipton va#8217s g'ori - tashrif buyuradigan ajoyib joy. O'yin maydonchalari va bolalar uchun trek viktorinasi, daraxtlar orasidagi ajoyib o'ymalar va hatto Knaresborough Castle ’s Ravens va Raven Keeper bilan uchrashish imkoniyati.

Knaresborough Castle ’s Raven, aprel, uning qo'riqchisi bilan

Ona Shiptonning o'zi sizga o'z hikoyasini aytib beradi va Kardinal Uolsi uzoq emas, payg'ambarga yomonlik va tahdid solishga harakat qilmoqda. Va, albatta, sizning xohishingiz amalga oshishi uchun har doim imkoniyat bor va#8230 ..

Maqola va barcha fotosuratlar Sharon Bennett Konnoli mualliflik huquqi, 2015 y.

Manbalar: Ona Shipton va#8217s g'orlari uchun qo'llanma kitobi http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net Shipton onaning bashorati Shon Devid Morton tomonidan piramidtlc.org sirlibritain.co.uk

Mening kitobim, O'rta asrlar jahon qahramonlari, hozirda Buyuk Britaniyada Amberley Publishing, Amazon UK va butun dunyo bo'ylab Kitob depozitariysida mavjud. U Kindle -da Buyuk Britaniyada ham, AQShda ham mavjud va 2018 yil 1 -maydan Amazon -dan Hardback -da sotiladi.

Siz "Kuzatish" tugmachasini bosib, bizning Facebook sahifamizni yoqtirishingiz yoki Twitterda menga qo'shilish orqali yangi maqolalarni birinchi bo'lib o'qishingiz mumkin.


Ursula Yorqin

Ursula Mellor Yorqin o Ursula Mellor (1835 yil 5 -iyulda - Kensington, 1915 yil 5 -mart) va aktivlar britànica dels a la propietat de les dones casades.

Ursula Yorqin
Biografiya
Nayxement1835 yil 5 -iyul
Mort1915 yil 12 -mart (79 ta)
Kensington (Anglaterra)
Faol muhit
Ocupació Faol va ovoz berish huquqi
Familiya
CònjugeYoqub Bright
To'ldiradiEster Bright
Pare Jozef Mellor (uz)

Brght va néixer 1835. El seu pare, el seu germà i el seu avi, Frederik Pennington, van destacar pel seu suport als drets de les dones. [1] 1855 yilgi yozilishicha, Jeykob Brayt, har bir Manchesterda Parlamentga tegishli. "Manchester Yunayted" klubi ham o'z mablag'larini jamlagan.Ayollar saylov huquqi bo'yicha Manchester jamiyati) 1867 yil. [2]

Quant l'Associació nacional de dones per a la revocació de les lleis de malalties contagiosesXonimlar yuqumli kasalliklar aktlarini bekor qilish milliy assotsiatsiyasi) es va formar 1869, Yorqin davr fondi. Esdevingué la tresorera del Comitè de la propietat de les dones casadesUylangan ayollarning mulkiy qo'mitasi) men va romandre faollar, 1882 yilda,Uylangan ayollarning mulk huquqi to'g'risidagi qonun 1882 yil). Aql -idrok bo'lsin, bu sizning e'tiboringizni jalb qiladi. Això va ser muhim, chunki siz "Yorqin" va "o'ylab ko'ring", deb javob berasiz. [3]

1894 yilda mahalliy hukumat kafolat berdi.Mahalliy boshqaruv to'g'risidagi qonun 1894 yil) que va donar el vot a les dones en les eleccions mahalliy aholi. [3] Ta'kidlash joizki, tumanlar va tumanlar tomonidan taqdim etiladi. La Seva única filla, Ester Bright, interessada en la teosofia. Ursula hech qanday davrda emas, balki Anni Besantda ham, sevgilisi uchun ham 3000 funt sterling. [1]

Kensingtonda 1915 yil yozda, har bir kishi o'z hayotini saqlab qoladi. Bir vaqtning o'zida, Elizabet Krouford va boshqa birovning fikriga ko'ra, bu sizning sevimli mashg'ulotlaringizdir. [1]


Hissiy farovonlik

Bredfordda o'tkazilgan tergov Ursulaning o'z joniga qasd qilish tarixiga ega ekanligini, yaqinda yangi maktabda boshlanganini va uning onasi Nikki Xarlou Ursulaning otasidan ajralganini eshitdi.

2017 yil oxirida Xarlou xonim o'z shifokoriga qizining hissiy farovonligi haqida ikki marta gapirdi, lekin uchrashuv yuz bermadi.

Murabbiyning aytishicha, Xarlou xonim, shifokorlar unga o'z maktabi Lightcliffe akademiyasidan maslahat so'rashini va maktab ularga shifokorlarga borishni maslahat berishini aytgandan so'ng, o'zini "his qilib qo'ydi".

Halifax GP shifokori Stiven Klezbiga murojaat qilib, shunday dedi: "Menimcha, biz bilan aloqa qilishda qiyinchiliklar bor, ularni hal qilish kerak, rozi bo'lasizmi?"


Qanday qilib Smitsonlik Coelacanth miyasini yo'qotdi va yana qaytdi

1938 yilgacha tirik selanant topish ("822SEE-luh-kanth" deb aytiladi) sizning bog'ingizda velosiraptorni ko'rishi ehtimoldan yiroq emas edi. Janubiy Afrikaning Hind okeani sohilida 80 yil oldin, uzoq kutilgan, yo'q bo'lib ketadigan baliqning kashf etilishi, ajablanarli emas edi. O'sha paytdagi darsliklarda Devon davridan boshlab, taxminan 360 million yil ilgari, toshqo'nmaslardan ma'lum bo'lgan, baliqsimon baliqlar, taxminan 70 million yil oldin, dinozavrlar bilan birga yo'q bo'lib ketganligi aytilgan.

Bundan sakkiz o'n yillar ilgari yosh ayol Marjori Kurtenay-Latimer tomonidan topilgan coelacanth kashfiyoti haqidagi hikoya aytilgan va aytilgan, shu jumladan yaqinda HHMI BioInteractive kompaniyasining ushbu ajoyib topilmaning tafsilotlari va qo'g'irchoqbozlikning abadiy jozibasi bilan tasvirlangan ajoyib videoda. va animatsiya.

Tirik coelacanthlar Hind olamining g'arbiy qismida va 1997 yildagi Indoneziyaning Sulavesi qirg'oqlari yaqinidagi chuqur suvli yashash joylarida tarqalishining cheklanganligi tufayli uzoq vaqt davomida ilmiy dunyoga noma'lum edi.

Kashf qilinganidan so'ng, ilmiy to'plam oddiy sur'atlarda davom etdi va butun dunyo bo'ylab namunalar soni 300 ga yaqinni tashkil etdi. Smitson milliy baliqlar kollektsiyasida, Milliy Tabiat tarixi muzeyida, katta yoshli selakant namunasi saqlanadi. Latimeria chalumnae, 1960-yillarning o'rtalarida Afrikaning sharqidagi Komor orollari yaqinida olingan.

1968 yil o'rtalarida, Alabama tibbiyot universiteti anatomiya professori, marhum doktor X. Norman Shnitslein (1927-2004), asosan, Milliy Sog'liqni Saqlash Institutlari tomonidan moliyalashtiriladigan tadqiqotlar uchun coelacanth namunasini sotib oldi. baliq miyasi anatomiyasi. Baliq miyalarining shaklini o'rganib, Shnitslein va uning hamkasblari odamlarning va boshqa sut emizuvchilarning miyasini yaxshiroq tushunishgan. U NIH axborot byulleteni uchun o'z falsafasini tasvirlab berdi: "Bizning yondashuvimiz" qiyosiy anatomiyaga yondashuvimiz "haqiqatan ham tabiat va hayot va tabiat bo'yicha tajribalar va hayotning turli shakllari bo'yicha o'zgarishlarni o'rganishdir." ”

Qo'lga tushganda, coelacanth namunasining vazni taxminan 160 funtni tashkil etdi va uzunligi 5 futga etadigan, og'irligi 200 funtga etadigan va 60 yoshgacha yashaydigan kattalar uchun o'rtacha 5 yarim futdan kamroq o'lchandi. yillar.

Doktor X. Norman Shnitslein 1968 yil oxirida Smitson institutiga koelakant sovg'a qildi. (Milliy sog'liqni saqlash institutlari (FS No 603))

Kollektorlar namunani saqlash uchun formalin (formaldegid eritmasi) bilan in'ektsiya qilishdi va uni Sharqiy Afrikadan AQShga jo'natishdi, Schnitzlein laboratoriyasiga etib kelishganida, uning miyasiga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri to'kilgan formalinli formalinli hammom bor edi. Shnitslein o'z tadqiqotlari uchun miyani olib tashladi va qolgan namunani 1968 yil oxirida Smitson institutiga sovg'a qildi. Muzeyning fotosurati va uning miyaning qora va oq chizilgan chizilgan rasmlari, Shnitzlein tomonidan kitob uchun yozilgan bob. umurtqali miyaning anatomiyasi to'g'risida.

Coelacanth miyasi kichik, og'irligi taxminan uch gramm. Ba'zida sayohat paytida kimdir Smitson namunasini yutib yubordi, ehtimol u chiriy boshlagani uchun. Uning jinsi noma'lum. Miyasiz, ichi bo'sh namunalar Merilend shtatining Suitlend shahridagi Smitson muzeylarini qo'llab -quvvatlash markazida etil spirti bilan to'ldirilgan katta idishda yotadi. (Muzeydagi yana bir ko'rgazma-"Ocean Hall"-Janubiy Afrikadan qarzga olingan namuna.) Yalpi parchalanish tarixiga qaramay, namunaning ahvoli yaxshi va u hali ham kollektsiyaga tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun "ko'rish kerak". .

Men qarasam, uzoq umr ko'radigan ajoyib baliqlar tirik qolganini ko'raman. Tirik seelakant xuddi qanotli suyaklari va dumli yoki dumli suzgichlarining o'ziga xos cho'zilgan o'rta qismi bo'lgan 300 million yillik qoldiq qarindoshlariga o'xshaydi. Hayotda coelacanths-chiroyli chinni ko'k, o'ziga xos krem ​​rangli dog'lar. Men coelacanths bilan suzishni orzu qilaman, lekin ko'pchiligimiz hech qachon tirikni ko'rolmaymiz, chunki ular chuqur dengizda yashaydilar va kamdan -kam 300 futdan pastroq chuqurlikka tushadilar. Bu coelacanthlar uchun yaxshi, chunki hamma xavf ostida qolmoqda.

Bir necha yillar oldin, Smitson va#8217s coelacanth hikoyasi qiziqarli burilish yasadi. Miya anatomiyasini o'rganish uchun Schnitzlein laboratoriyasi ko'p asrlik texnikani qo'lladi: to'qima gistologiyasi. Gistolog mutaxassisi miya to'qimalarining kichik bir qismini kerosinli hammomga qo'yadi, bu mumni tabiiy shaklini ushlab turadi va uni blok qilib kesadi. Keyin, maxsus asbob mikrotomdan foydalanib, texnik parafin blokini qalinligi taxminan 0.0002 dyuym bo'lgan ingichka bo'laklarga bo'laklaydi. Nihoyat, texnik bo'limlarni himoya qilish uchun slaydlar ustiga yupqa shisha qoplamani o'rnatadi. Shunday qilib, mikroskopning kattalashtiruvchi va yorituvchi kuchi alohida to'qimalarni ko'rinadigan qilib qo'yishi mumkin edi.

Tabiat tarixi muzeyining Okean zalida ko'riladigan yana bir selenxant Janubiy Afrika suv biologik xilma -xilligi institutidan qarzga olingan. (Don Xurlbert, NMNH)

1973 yilda Shnitslein Janubiy Floridadagi Tibbiyot kollejiga ko'chib kelganida, u miyadagi slaydlar to'plamini o'zi bilan olib ketdi. U 1994 yilda nafaqaga chiqqanida, USF tibbiyot maktabi baliq miyasi slaydlari to'plamlarini saqlamoqchi emas edi. Schnitzlein kollektsiyani Tabiat tarixi muzeyining ilmiy xodimi va Floridadagi Sankt -Peterburgdagi Floridadagi baliq va yovvoyi tabiatni tadqiq qilish laboratoriyasining baliq reproduktiv biologi Garri Grierga berdi. Grier xavfsiz saqlash uchun slaydlarni shkafga qo'ydi.

Ammo ular turgan bino buzilishi rejalashtirilganida, kimdir axlat qutisiga mo'ljallangan qutilarni tashqariga ko'chirdi. Smitsoniyalikning coelacanth tanasi bor edi, lekin uning miyasi yo'q edi va u axlatga tashlanmoqchi edi. Grier muzey bu qimmatbaho to'plamni xohlashini bilardi va uni qutqarib qoldi. 1998 yilda u Schnitzlein kolleksiyasini va#8212125 qutilarini baliq miyalarining gistologik slaydlarini to'plab, Smitsonga barcha yirik baliq guruhlarini yubordi.

Baliq miyasi kollektsiyasining marvaridi - muzey miyasi gistologik slaydlarining beshta qutisi, 1 dan 3 gacha va 5 dan 6. raqamli 4 -quti yo'qolgan va yo'qolgan deb taxmin qilinadi.

Grier, shuningdek, bizning tselakant namunamizni sotib olish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan harflar, fotosuratlar va boshqa hujjatlarning oltin konini topdi va Smitsonga topshirdi. Bugungi kunda miya slaydlari kollektsiyasi barcha yog'och qutilarni yangi plastik qutilarga almashtirish uchun muzey mutaxassisi Jeff Kleyton tomonidan nazorat qilinib, yangilanmoqda.

Miya slaydlari o'nlab yillar saqlanganidan keyin yo'qolgan va ulardan foydalanish yoki talqin qilish qiyin bo'lgan. Yaxshiyamki, xiralashgan gistologik slaydni qayta tiklash mumkin. Yangilanishning bir qismi sifatida, muzey va#8217s gistologi Xelen Vimer oddiy tartibni o'zgartiradi. Lampochka namlangan. Slaydlardagi parafin quyilgan to'qimalarning bo'laklari yangi dog 'olib, so'ngra yangi shisha qoplamani olishi mumkin. Qayta ishlangan slaydlar yangi kabi yaxshi va endi miya anatomiyasi bo'yicha keyingi avlod olimlari uchun tayyor. Tana ham, miya ham Milliy Baliqlar To'plamida ilmiy namunalar sifatida abadiy qolishi mumkin.

Tahririyat eslatmasi: 14.09.2018: Doktor Norman Shnitsleinning o'g'lidan xat keldi va biz uni o'quvchilarimiz uchun bu erda qayta nashr qildik.

Coelacanth haqidagi maqolangiz uchun tashakkur. Doktor X. Norman Shnitsleyn mening otam edi va sizning ko'plab ilmiy tadqiqotlaringiz bilan, menimcha, agar siz uni taniganingizda, siz va u juda yaxshi do'st bo'lar edingiz. Men sizning maqolangizni aka -ukalarimga yubordim, chunki u ko'plab yoqimli xotiralarni qaytaradi. Bizga, ayniqsa, otamizning fotosurati juda yoqdi, uni biz hech kim eslamaganmiz.

Iltimos, menga otamning coelacanth sotib olgani haqida ma'lumot berishga ruxsat bering. . . Bu uning baliqchilik tadqiqotchilik faoliyatidagi muqaddas qadam edi. U meni bolaligimda baliq ovlashga olib kelganida, biz har doim formaldegidli bankalarda ushlagan narsamizning boshini qutqarardik, keyinchalik ularning miyasini olib tashlaymiz. Birmingemdagi Alabama universitetida bo'lganida, u har xil baliq namunalarini oldi. U, ayniqsa, o'pka baliqlarining ko'p navlari bilan qiziqardi. Shuningdek, u coelacanthga ega bo'lgan paytda, uning kabinetidagi tankda xuddi shunday taqdirga mo'ljallangan ikkita elektr ilon baqirdi.

Bir necha oylik Madagaskarga maktub yozgandan so'ng, coelacanth nihoyat Birmingemga yo'l oldi, lekin qayerdadir adashib qoldi. O'tgan haftalar, u kelishi kerak bo'lgan paytda, men uni telefonda qayg'urib, qaerdaligini aniqlashga urinayotganini eslayman. T

u coelacanthni nihoyat Atlanta aeroportidagi yuklash joyidan topdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, u yuborilgan tobut o'lchamidagi quti dahshatli hidga ega edi va ehtimol o'lik narsa bor edi, shuning uchun hech kim unga tegmoqchi emas edi.

Celacanth nihoyat kelganida, hamma uni ko'rishni xohlardi. Esimda, otam bu katta metall qutini ochib, formaldegid bilan namlangan tülbent bilan qoplangan yirtqichni ochdi. Uning nurlari kam o'quvchilaridan biri ulkan baliqni qayerdan olganini so'radi. Men dadamni, hazil-mutoyibada, Birelxem tashqarisidagi Purdi ko'lida "pushti ko'zli do'zax" bilan ovutganini aytganini hech qachon unutmayman. Ko'p iste'dodli odam, mening otam rasmingiz fonida selakant tasviri saqlangan yog'ochdan yasalgan ramka yasagan.

Meni ushbu sayohatni otamning selakanti bilan o'tkazganingiz uchun tashakkur. Va uni maqolangizda eslatganingiz uchun yana bir bor rahmat. Biz hali ham uni sog'indik.

Lin Parenti haqida

Lin Parenti - tadqiqotchi olim va Smitson milliy tabiat tarixi muzeyida baliqlar kuratori. U o'z tadqiqotlari uchun Gavayidagi tropikada baliq yig'adi (Zeehan Jaafar surati)


Ursa Kichik yulduz turkumi

Ursa Kichik turkumi shimoliy osmonda joylashgan. Burjlar nomi lotincha "kichik ayiq", "kichik ayiq" va "kichik ayiq" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Buyuk Ayiq turkumini uning katta qo'shnisi Ursa Major tasvirlaydi.

Kichik Ursa birinchi marta 2 -asrda yunon astronomi Ptolomey tomonidan kataloglangan. Tanib olish oson, chunki unda mashhur Little Dipper asterizmi mavjud. Ursa Minor, shuningdek, shimoliy osmon qutbining joylashishini belgilash bilan ham ajralib turadi, chunki u Polaris, Shimoliy Yulduz, tutqichning uchida joylashgan.

Burjni miloddan avvalgi 625-555 yillar oralig'ida yashagan va Yunonistonning yetti donishmandlaridan biri (6 -asr boshlarida donoligi bilan tanilgan faylasuf) sifatida tanilgan faylasuf va munajjim Tales Miletus yaratgan deb ishoniladi. Bundan tashqari, Thales yunonlarga faqat yulduz turkumini tanishtirgan bo'lishi mumkin. U Finikiya oilasidan kelib chiqqan deb ishonilgan va Finikiyaliklar Ursa Minorni navigatsiyada tez -tez ishlatar edilar, chunki Shimoliy qutbga juda yaqin joylashgan bu yulduz turkumi haqiqiy shimolga ajoyib qo'llanma edi. Yunonlar ba'zida yulduz turkumini Finikiya deb atashgan. Kichik ayiq nomi bilan mashhur bo'lishidan oldin (Ικρὰ Ἄρκτος), Ursa Minor itning dumi yoki Cynosura nomi bilan mashhur edi (dastlab Ουρα yunon tilida).

FAKTLAR, JOYLASH va AMP XARITASI

Ursa Minor - 56 -chi yulduz turkumi, 256 kvadrat graduslik maydonni egallagan. U shimoliy yarim sharning uchinchi kvadrantida (NQ3) joylashgan va uni +90 ° dan -10 ° gacha kengliklarda ko'rish mumkin. Qo'shni burjlar - Camelopardalis, Cepheus va Draco.

Ursa Minorasi Ursa Major turkumlari oilasiga mansub bo'lib, Coma Berenices, Boötes, Camelopardalis, Canes Venatici, Corona Borealis, Draco, Leo Minor, Lynx va Ursa Major bilan bir qatorda.

Ursa Minor sayyorasi tasdiqlangan bitta yulduzni o'z ichiga oladi va Messier ob'ektlari yo'q. Burjdagi eng yorqin yulduz - Polaris, Shimoliy Yulduz (Alpha Ursae Minoris), aniq kattaligi 1,97. Burj bilan bog'liq bitta meteor yog'inlari bor: Ursidlar.

Kichik Ursa beshta yulduzni o'z ichiga oladi. Xalqaro Astronomiya Ittifoqi (IAU) tomonidan rasman tasdiqlangan yulduzlarning to'g'ri nomlari - Baekdu, Kochab, Ferkad, Polaris va Yildun.

IAU va Sky & ampTelescope jurnali tomonidan Ursa Kichik burjlar xaritasi

Kichik Ursa odatda ikki xil afsona bilan bog'liq. Birida, yulduz turkumi Ida, kichik bolaligida Krit orolidagi Zevsga g'amxo'rlik qilgan nimfani, Adrastey bilan birga, Ursa Major katta turkumining timsoli. Zevsning onasi Reya Zevsni yoshligida otasi Krondan himoya qilish uchun orolga yashirgan. Kronus, bolalaridan biri uni ag'darib tashlaydi, degan eski bashoratdan qo'rqib, besh farzandini tug'ilgandan keyin yutib yubordi. When Zeus was born, Rhea tricked Cronus into swallowing a stone instead, and Zeus eventually fulfilled the prophecy. He freed his brothers Poseidon and Hades and sisters Hera, Hestia and Demeter, and became the supreme god of the Olympians.

In a different myth, the constellation represents Arcas, son of Zeus and the nymph Callisto. Callisto had sworn a vow of chastity to Artemis, but was later unable to resist Zeus’ advances and the two had a child, Arcas. When Zeus’ wife Hera found out about the betrayal and the child, she turned the nymph into a bear. Callisto spent the next 15 years wandering in the woods and avoiding hunters.

Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, photo: Till Credner

One day, she came face to face with her son. Scared, Arcas drew a spear, ready to kill the bear. Luckily, Zeus saw the scene and intervened before it was too late. He sent a whirlwind that scooped the mother and son up to the heavens, where Callisto became Ursa Major and Arcas, Ursa Minor. Arcas, however, is more frequently associated with the constellation Boötes, the herdsman. In a slightly different version of the myth, it is the goddess Artemis who turns Callisto into a bear for breaking her chastity vow.

In an older myth, the seven stars that form the Little Dipper were said to represent the Hesperides, seven daughters of Atlas, who tended to Hera’s orchard (Garden of the Hesperides) where a tree of golden, immortality-giving apples grew.

The Little Dipper

The stars that form the Little Dipper asterism are Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris), Yildun (Delta Ursae Minoris), Epsilon Ursae Minoris, Anwar al Farkadain (Eta Ursae Minoris), Akhfa al Farkadain (Zeta Ursae Minoris), Pherkad (Gamma Ursae Minoris), and Kochab (Beta Ursae Minoris).

A close view to the Polaris trinary star system, credit: NASA, ESA, N. Evans (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), and H. Bond (STScI)

MAJOR STARS IN URSA MINOR

Polaris – North Star – α Ursae Minoris (Alpha Ursae Minoris)

Polaris, the closest bright star to the north celestial pole since the High Middle Ages, is the brightest star in Ursa Minor. It has an apparent magnitude of 1.985 and belongs to the spectral class F7:Ib-II. The star is approximately 434 light years distant from Earth.

The easiest way to find Polaris in the night sky is to follow Dubhe and Merak, the two bright stars at the end of the Big Dipper asterism in Ursa Major, upwards and then look for the nearest bright star.

Alpha Ursae Minoris is actually a multiple star, consisting of the bright giant Alpha Ursae Minoris A, two smaller and dimmer companion stars Alpha UMi B and Alpha UMi Ab, and two more distant stars, Alpha UMi C and Alpha UMi D.

The brightest component in the Alpha UMi system is a bright giant (II) or supergiant (Ib) star belonging to the spectral class F8. It has a mass six times that of the Sun. Alpha UMi B, or Polaris B, discovered by William Herschel in 1780, is a main sequence star of the spectral type F3, and Alpha UMi Ab is a dwarf star in a very close orbit.

Polaris is classified as a Population I Cepheid variable. The star’s variability was confirmed in 1911 by the Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung.

When Ptolemy observed Polaris, it was a third magnitude star, but today it is 2.5 brighter, having changed to its current second magnitude in the meantime.

Because of its brightness and proximity to the pole, Polaris is an important star in celestial navigation and has been known by many different names, including Stella Maris (sea star), Alruccabah, Phoenice, Lodestar (guiding star, derived from the Old Norse leiðarstjarna), Cynosūra (from the Greek κυνόσουρα, meaning “the dog’s tail”), Angel Stern, Star of Arcady, Yilduz, Mismar (needle or nail), Tramontana, Navigatoria and Pole Star.

Kochab – β Ursae Minoris (Beta Ursae Minoris)

Kochab, Beta Ursae Minoris, is a giant star belonging to the spectral type K4 III. It has a visual magnitude of 2.08 and is 130.9 light years distant from the solar system. It is the brightest star in the bowl of the Little Dipper.

Kochab and Pherkad, Gamma Ursae Minoris, are sometimes called the Guardians of the Pole because they appear to be rotating around Polaris. From 1500 BC to 500 AD, the two stars served as twin pole stars, being the closest bright stars to the north celestial pole. Neither of the two, however, was as close to the pole as Polaris currently is.

Kochab is 130 times more luminous than the Sun and has about 2.2 solar masses.

The star’s traditional name comes from the Arabic al-kawkab, which means “the star” and is short for al-kawkab al-šamāliyy, or “the north star.”

Pherkad – γ Ursae Minoris (Gamma Ursae Minoris)

Pherkad, Gamma Ursae Minoris, is an A-type star with an apparent magnitude of 3.05, approximately 487 light years distant. It has the stellar classification A3 lab, which means that it is an intermediate luminosity supergiant. It is a very fast rotating star, with a rotational velocity estimated at 180 kilometres per second. Its radius is 15 times solar and it is 1,100 times more luminous than the Sun.

Gamma Ursae Minoris is classified as a shell star, one that has a disk of gas surrounding its equator which causes variations in the star’s magnitude.

The star’s traditional name, Pherkad, is derived from the Arabic farqad, meaning “calf,” short for the phrase aḫfa al farkadayn, which means “the dim one of the two calves.”

Yildun – δ Ursae Minoris (Delta Ursae Minoris)

Delta Ursae Minoris is a white main sequence dwarf of the spectral type A1V, approximately 183 light years from Earth. It has a visual magnitude of 4.35.

The star’s traditional name, Yildun, comes from the Turkish word for “star,” yıldız. The name is sometimes also spelled Vildiur, Jildun, Yilduz and Gildun.

Akhfa al Farkadain – ζ Ursae Minoris (Zeta Ursae Minoris)

Zeta Ursae Minoris is a main sequence dwarf belonging to the spectral type A3Vn. It is in fact on the verge of becoming a giant star, with 3.4 times the mass of the Sun, 200 times the luminosity, and a surface temperature of 8,700 kelvins. Zeta Ursae Minoris is also classified as a suspected Delta Scuti variable.

The star’s traditional name comes from the Arabic aḫfa al-farqadayn, which means “the dimmer of the two calves.”

Zeta Ursae Minoris has a visual magnitude of 4.32 and is 380 light years distant.

Anwar al Farkadain – η Ursae Minoris (Eta Ursae Minoris)

Eta Ursae Minoris is a yellow-white main sequence dwarf star belonging to the spectral class F5 V. It is 97.3 light years distant from Earth and has a visual magnitude of 4.95. It is visible to the naked eye.

The star’s traditional name, Anwar al Farkadain, comes from the Arabic phrase ’anwar al-farqadayn, which means “the brighter of the two calves.”

ε Ursae Minoris (Epsilon Ursae Minoris)

Epsilon Ursae Minoris is a triple star system consisting of Epsilon Ursae Minoris A, a yellow G-type giant which is also classified as an eclipsing spectroscopic binary star, and another component, the 11th magnitude star Epsilon Ursae Minoris B, which is orbiting the primary binary star system from a distance of 77 arc seconds.

Epsilon Ursae Minoris A is also classified as an RS Canum Venaticorum type variable star. The luminosity of the binary system changes as a result of the components eclipsing each other, and the overall brightness varies from magnitude 4.19 to 4.23 with a period of 39.48 days.

Epsilon Ursae Minoris is approximately 347 light years distant from Earth.

DEEP SKY OBJECTS IN URSA MINOR

Ursa Minor Dwarf (PGC 54074, UGC 9749)

The Ursa Minor Dwarf is a dwarf elliptical galaxy in Ursa Minor. It has an apparent magnitude of 11.9 and is approximately 200,000 light years distant. It is a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way.

Most stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf are old and there is little to no star forming activity going on in the galaxy.


Here’s how to find the Big Dipper and Little Dipper

View at EarthSky Community Photos. | Prateek Pandey in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India created this composite image – showing the Big Dipper asterism within its constellation Ursa Major the Great Bear on March 5, 2021. Thank you, Prateek!

The Big Dipper is one of the easiest star patterns to locate in Earth’s sky. It’s visible just about every clear night in the Northern Hemisphere, looking like a big dot-to-dot of a kitchen ladle. As Earth spins, the Big Dipper and its sky neighbor, the Little Dipper, rotate around the North Star, also known as Polaris. From the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere, the Big and Little Dippers are in the sky continuously, always above your horizon, circling endlessly around Polaris. Given an unobstructed horizon, latitudes north of the 35th parallel (the approximate location of the Mediterranean Sea and Tennessee’s southern border) can expect to see the Big Dipper at any hour of the night for all days of the year.

As for the Little Dipper, it is aylanma qutbli – always above the horizon – as far south as the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north latitude).

If you can spot the Big Dipper, then you’re on your way to finding the Little Dipper and the North Star, Polaris, too.

Just remember the old saying spring up and fall down. On spring and summer evenings in the Northern Hemisphere, the Big Dipper shines at its highest in the evening sky. On autumn and winter evenings, the Big Dipper sweeps closer to the horizon.

No matter what time of year you look, the 2 outer stars in the Big Dipper’s bowl always point to Polaris, the North Star. Polaris marks the end of the handle of the Little Dipper. View larger. | Big and Little Dippers at different seasons, and different times of night, as captured by Matthew Chin in Hong Kong.

Here’s how to find Polaris and the Little Dipper. Notice that the Big Dipper has two parts, a bowl and a handle. Notice the two outer stars in the bowl of the Big Dipper. They are called Dubhe and Merak, and they’re known in skylore as The Pointers. An imaginary line drawn between them points to Polaris, the North Star. And, once you have Polaris, you can find the Little Dipper, too … if your sky is dark enough.

That’s because Polaris marks the end of the Little Dipper’s Handle.

So why isn’t the Little Dipper as easy to pick out as the Big Dipper? The answer is that the stars between Polaris and the outer bowl stars – Kochab and Pherkad – are rather dim. You need a dark country sky to see all seven of the Little Dipper’s stars.

The Big Dipper isn’t a constellation. It’s an asterism, or noticeable pattern of stars. The Big Dipper is a clipped version of the constellation Ursa Major the Greater Bear, with the Big Dipper stars outlining the Bear’s tail and hindquarters.

In the star lore of the Mi’kmaq nation in northern Canada, the Big Dipper is also associated with a bear, but with a twist. The Mi’kmaq see the Big Dipper bowl as a Celestial Bear, and the three stars of the handle as hunters chasing the Bear. In the Mi’kmaq tale of the Celestial Bear, in autumn, the hunters finally catch up with the Bear, and it’s said that the blood from the Bear colors the autumn landscape. In another version of the story, the Celestial Bear hits its nose when coming down to Earth, with its bloody nose giving color to autumn leaves. When the Celestial Bear is seen right on the northern horizon on late fall and early winter evenings, it’s a sure sign that the hibernation season is upon us.

The Little Dipper is also an asterism, these stars belonging to the constellation Ursa Minor the Little Bear. In ancient times, the Little Dipper formed the wings of the constellation Draco the Dragon. But when the seafaring Phoenicians met with the Greek astronomer Thales around 600 B.C., they showed him how to use the Little Dipper stars to navigate. Thereby, Thales clipped Draco’s wings, to create a constellation that gave Greek sailors a new way to steer by the stars.

In Thales’s day, the stars Kochab and Pherkad (rather than Polaris) marked the approximate direction of the north celestial pole, the point in the sky that is directly above the Earth’s North Pole.

To this day, Kochab and Pherkad are still known as the Guardians of the Pole.

Astronomers have found that the stars of the Big Dipper (excepting the pointer star, Dubhe, and the handle star, Alkaid) belong to an association of stars known as the Ursa Major Moving Cluster. Here are the stars of the Big Dipper, at their various distances from Earth. Image via AstroPixie.

Astronomers sometimes speak of the fixed stars, but know the stars aren’t truly fixed. Stars harakat qilmoq in space. Thus the star patterns that we see today as the Big and Little Dippers will, slowly but surely, drift apart over time.

But even 25,000 years from now, the Big Dipper pattern will look nearly the same as it does today. Astronomers have found that the stars of the Big Dipper (excepting the pointer star, Dubhe, and the handle star, Alkaid) belong to an association of stars known as the Ursa Major Moving Cluster. These stars, loosely bound by gravity, drift in the same direction in space.

In 100,000 years, this pattern of Big Dipper stars (minus Dubhe and Alkaid) will appear much as it does today! But there will be some differences, as illustrated in the drawing below:

Stars of the Big Dipper 100,000 years ago, today, and 100,000 years from now. Image via AstroPixie.

The Big Dipper is a favorite target of sky photographers. Enjoy the photos below, from the EarthSky community.

The Big Dipper over a pool in the Utah desert, caught from a canyon littered with the rock art and ruins of ancestral Pueblo people. Image via Marc Toso. Stars in the Big Dipper via EarthSky Facebook friend Ken Christison. He captured this photo in September 2013.

Bottom line: You can find the Big Dipper and Little Dipper in northern skies any time of year. The North Star, Polaris, is located at the end of the Little Dipper’s handle.


1 Rachel Was The Hardest Part To Cast

Rachel Green was the last and the hardest part to cast and according to David Crane, "she could be a really unlikable character." The trio knew Rachel had to go to someone who made it into a likable character. They saw a lot of women and none of it made sense until Jennifer Aniston auditioned.

Like Matthew Perry, Jennifer was already committed to a show called Muddling Through. In her case, it was more than just a pilot. She'd already shot 6 episodes of this show, but that didn't deter the creators from shooting the first 3 episodes of Do'stlar while she was still signed to Muddling Through. But thankfully, it was only picked up for another 3 episodes before being canceled, paving way for Jennifer Aniston to create magic.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Урсула превращается в Ванессу. Русалочка 1989 год. (Dekabr 2021).

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