Yangi

Jon Somervil

Jon Somervil


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Jon Somervill Shotlandiyaning Ayr shahrida tug'ilgan. U 1890 yilda Bolton Vanderersga qo'shilishidan oldin Ayr Parkhausda o'ynagan.

O'ng qanot himoyachisi Somervil shunday izchil o'yinchi edi, unga "Surefoot" laqabini berishdi. 1890-91 yillarda Bolton 25 ochko bilan Birinchi Ligada 5-o'rinni egalladi. Keyingi mavsumda ular 26 o'yinda 36 ochko to'plab, 3 -o'rinni egallashdi.

1893-94 yilgi mavsumda Bolton Angliya Kubogi finaliga chiqish uchun Small Heath (4-3), Nyukasl Yunayted (2-1), Liverpul (3-0) va Sheffild Uensdini (3-2) mag'lub etdi. Afsuski, Bolton "Gudison Park" da bo'lib o'tgan finalda "Notts County" ga 4: 1 hisobida yutqazdi.

Bolton Wanderers 10 (1894-95), 4 (1895-96), 8 (1896-97) va 11 (1897-98) o'rinlarni egalladi. 1898 yilgi mavsumda Somervill Boltonning futbolchi-menejeri sifatida ishlagan. Afsuski, klub boshqaruvdagi birinchi mavsumida 17 -o'rinni egalladi va ikkinchi divizionga tushib ketdi.

1899-1900 yillarda Bolton Sheffild Uensdidan keyin ikkinchi o'rinni egalladi va birinchi divizionga qaytdi. Lori Bell o'sha mavsumda 23 gol bilan eng yaxshi to'purar bo'lgan. Somervill mavsum oxirida futbolchi sifatida faoliyatini yakunladi. U klub uchun 293 marta kubok va ligada o'ynagan.

Somervil bosh murabbiy bo'lib qoldi. Klub kurashni yuqori pog'onada davom ettirdi va 1902-03 yilgi mavsumda ular oxirgi o'rinni egallashdi va yana ligaga tushib ketishdi. Bolton Somervillga ishondi va 1904-05 yilgi mavsumda klub "Liverpul" dan keyin ikkinchi o'rinni egalladi va yana birinchi divizionga ko'tarildi. Bolton ikkita yaxshi mavsum o'tkazdi, ular 1907-08 yilgi mavsumda yana ligaga tushib ketishidan oldin 6-o'rinni egallashdi. Bolton 1908-09 yilgi mavsumda Ikkinchi divizion chempionligini qo'lga kiritib, ortga qaytdi.

Bolton Wanderers yana yuqori saviyada kurash olib bordi va 1910 yil yanvar oyida, klub birinchi divizionning pastki qismida mustahkam o'rnashib olganidan so'ng, Jon Somervill ishdan bo'shatildi va uning o'rniga Miles Settl keldi. Somervil klubni tark etgach, Futbol Ligasi o'yinchisiga aylandi.


Qora Los Anjeles kashshofi

Los -Anjelesning yangi multikulturalizm bilan mashg'ul bo'lishining kutilmagan natijalaridan biri, shaharning ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy kashshoflari orasida taniqli taniqli odamlar bo'lganligini unutish tendentsiyasidir.

Asrning boshlarida, masalan, Jon Aleksandr Somervil nafaqat USC stomatologiya maktabini bitirgan birinchi qora tanli, balki Los -Anjelesning etakchi mulk ishlab chiqaruvchilari va fuqarolik faollaridan biriga aylandi.

1902 yilda tug'ilgan Yamaykada universitet stipendiyasi uchun imtihondan o'tolmagach, 20 yoshli Somervil San-Frantsiskoga suzib ketdi. Bay Area -ning jismoniy go'zalligi uni hayajonga soldi, lekin Karib dengizining eng yaxlit madaniyatlaridan birida o'sgan odam Amerika irqiy munosabatlarining keskin haqiqatlariga tayyor emas edi.

Teri rangi tufayli oziq -ovqat, boshpana va ish bilan ta'minlanishdan bosh tortgan Somervill boshqa variantlarni qidira boshladi. U janubi Kaliforniyadagi apelsinzorlarning qorli tog'lar fonida joylashtirilgan reklama fotosuratlarini uchratib, uni topishga qaror qildi.

Bir necha oy ichida yosh muhojir Janubiy Kaliforniyaga joylashdi. Ikki yil boulingda ishlaganidan so'ng, Somervill 250 dollar tejab, USC stomatologiya maktabiga o'qishga kirdi. Birinchi kuni sinfdoshlari, agar u ishdan bo'shatilmasa, iste'foga chiqish bilan tahdid qilgan. Ammo maktab unga yopishib qoldi va oxir -oqibat tortishuvlar so'ndi.

Somervill 1907 yilda o'z sinfini birinchi bo'lib tugatdi va keyinchalik davlat stomatologiyasi imtihonini shu vaqtgacha qayd etilgan eng yuqori ball bilan topshirdi. U Los -Anjelesning qora biznes tumanining markazi bo'lgan 4 -ko'cha va Brodveyda amaliyotni yo'lga qo'ydi.

Bir necha yil ichida u AQSh fuqarosi bo'ldi va ko'p o'tmay, 1800 yilda San -Pedro ko'chasida o'zining birinchi uyini sotib oldi. O'sha paytda u Savdo -sanoat palatasining birinchi qora tanli a'zosiga aylandi.

1912 yilda Somervil Vada Uotsonga uylandi, u ham USCda qatnashgan. Bir necha yil ichida u USC stomatologiya maktabini bitirgan ikkinchi qora tanli va Kaliforniyada stomatologiya amaliyotini o'tagan birinchi afroamerikalik ayol bo'ldi.

Bu asrning birinchi o'n yilligida Los -Anjelesning qora tanli aholisi uch baravar ko'paydi - 2131 dan 7599 gacha. 1910 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olish shuni ko'rsatdiki, qora angelenolarning 36,1 foizi o'z uylariga ega, Nyu -Yorkdagi 2,4 foizga nisbatan, janubdan oq ishchilar oqimi tufayli kamsitish va cheklash shartnomalari tobora keng tarqalgan.

Ko'proq qora tanlilar Los -Anjelesga ko'chib kelgach, ularni qamoqqa olish choralari ko'rildi. Somervillalar Los Anjeles Milliy Assn bo'limini tashkil etishdi. 1913 yilda yashash xonasida rangli odamlarning rivojlanishi uchun.

Birinchi jahon urushidan so'ng, Los-Anjeles afroamerikaliklarning yangi oqimini boshdan kechirdi va 1920 yilga kelib-shaharning qora tanli aholisi 18000 kishidan oshganda, bu hududda uy-joy tanqisligi keskinlashdi.

Somerville talabni qondirish uchun La Vada deb nomlangan 26 xonadonli uy qurdi. U 1925 yilda ochilgan, o'sha yili "Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Co."-keyin Amerikaning qora tanli eng yirik biznesi-14-ko'cha va Markaziy xiyobonda ochilgan.

Los-Anjelesning zamonaviy mehmonxonalari qora tanlilar uchun cheklanmaganligi sababli, Somervil o'zining muvaffaqiyatli kvartirasini ta'qib qilib, 41-chi ko'chada va Markaziy xiyobonda sayt sotib olib, Somerville mehmonxonasini qurdi.

1928 yil iyun oyida mehmonxonaning ochilish marosimiga 5 mingdan ortiq kishi tashrif buyurdi. O'sha yili bu G'arbiy Sohilda NAACPning birinchi milliy konventsiyasi bo'lib o'tdi. Musiqachilar Dyuk Ellington va Kont Basi, raqqosa Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, komediyachi Eddi "Rochester" Anderson va yozuvchilar Langston Xyuz va Veb B. Du Bois mehmonxonaning tez -tez mehmonlari qatorida edi.

Bir necha oy ichida qo'shni mulk sotib olindi va afsonaviy Club Alabam qurildi.

Somervill 1929 yildagi qimmatli qog'ozlar bozoridagi qulashdan qattiq aziyat chekdi va mehmonxonasini sotishga majbur bo'ldi, uni yangi egalari shoir Pol Lourens Dunbar nomi bilan Dunbar deb nomladilar. Bu nom ostida u yigirma yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida Los -Anjelesning blyuz va jazz sahnasining markazi bo'lib kelgan.

Somervill moliyaviy ahvolini tiklashga muvaffaq bo'ldi va bir necha yil ichida o'zini siyosiy va fuqarolik faoliyatiga tashladi. 1936 yilda u Kaliforniya shtatining Demokratik partiyasi qurultoyida birinchi qora tanli delegat bo'ldi.

O'n uch yil o'tgach, u nafaqat avtobiografiyasini-"Rangli odam" ni nashr etdi, balki Politsiya komissiyasiga tayinlangan birinchi qora tanli bo'ldi. 1954 yilda Angliya qirolichasi Yelizaveta II Angliya-Amerika munosabatlariga qo'shgan hissasi uchun uni Britaniya imperiyasi ordeni zobiti deb e'lon qildi.

1972 yilda, er -xotinning 60 yillik to'yidan ko'p o'tmay, Vada Somervil vafot etdi. Jon Somervil, o'shanda 91, bir necha oydan keyin vafot etgan.

Yelkanli kema akvarelining tasviri yozilgan yozuv, avval uning kabinetiga, keyinroq uyiga osilgan, uning hayotga bo'lgan munosabatidan dalolat beradi: "Sizning kemangiz kirib kelishini kutmang. Qabul qiling va uni kutib oling".


Ta'sischilar

1920 -yillarda doktor. Jon va Vada Somervill Los -Anjelesning progressiv qora tanli juftligi edi. Asli Yamaykadan bo'lgan Jon Janubiy Kaliforniya universitetining stomatologiya maktabiga o'qishga kirgan birinchi qora tanli odam edi. 1912 yilda turmush qurgan Vada, USC stomatologiya maktabini bitirgan birinchi qora tanli ayol edi.

Somervilles, o'sha davrning eng professional qora tanli ziyolilari kabi, Rangli odamlarni rivojlantirish milliy assotsiatsiyasida faol bo'lgan. Ular tashkilotning LA filialini topishga yordam berishdi. Er -xotin WEB Du Boisni do'st deb hisoblashdi va fuqarolik hayotida faol rol o'ynashdi.

Ammo o'z jamoalari va ularning keng uyidan tashqarida, hozirda USC yaqinidagi G'arbiy Adams tepaligida joylashgan Sugar Hill tepaligida, Somervillalar irqchilik tarafdorlari bo'lgan mamlakatda ikkinchi darajali fuqarolar sifatida qabul qilingan.

"Doktor Somervil, u San -Frantsiskoga ketayapti va rangi tufayli turar joy topa olmaydi. Shunday qilib, hafsalasi pir bo'lib, o'z mehmonxonasini qurishga qaror qiladi", deydi tarixchi va yozuvchi Robert Li Jonson.

Yo'lakka o'rnatilgan plakat Dunbar Hotel 's tarixi haqida gapiradi. (Xadli Mires LAist uchun)

Jon o'zining va Vadaning yangi loyihasi bo'lib o'tadigan joyini tan oldi. Ular Somerville mehmonxonasini ishga tushirish uchun eng yaxshi vaqtni tanladilar.

"1920-1930 yillar mobaynida jamoaga musiqachilar va musiqa o'qituvchilarini ijro etuvchi professional toifadagi afro-amerikaliklar yanada ko'proq keldi", deb yozadi Bette Yarbrou Koks o'z kitobida. Markaziy xiyobon: Bu ko'tarilish va kuz. Bu o'rta va yuqori toifadagi afro-amerikaliklar, birinchi navbatda, markaziy xiyobon atrofida joylashdilar, u erda qora angelenolar irqchilik uy-joy shartnomalari bilan qurshab olingan edi.

1920-yillarga kelib, Los-Anjelesda bir qancha muvaffaqiyatli qora tanli mehmonxonalar joylashgan edi, ular orasida Ida B. Uellsning Janubiy mehmonxonasi va Klark mehmonxonasi ham bor edi, lekin Somerville mehmonxonasi boshqacha bo'lardi.

Somervillilar o'z tasavvurlarini yaratish uchun 250 ming dollar qarz olishdi - 100 dan ortiq xonali zamonaviy, zamonaviy mehmonxona, art -deco qabulxonasi, maxsus mebel, kafe, restoran, go'zallik salonlari, gul do'koni va stenograflar ofislari. 1928 yil 23 -iyunda ochilish marosimiga kamida 2000 kishi tashrif buyurdi.

"Bu janob NAACP" deb nomlanuvchi doktor X. Klod Xadsonning aytishicha, "bu biznikiga qaraganda, saroy edi". Los Anjeles Tayms 1983 yilda.

"Shunday qilib, Dunbar quriladi va NAACP ning G'arbiy Sohilidagi birinchi qurultoyiga mezbon bo'ladi. Dunbar mehmonxonasining o'ziga xos xususiyati shundaki, u yangi edi. Ular eski mehmonxonani ta'mirlayotganga o'xshamasdi. Dunbar - bu Markaziy prospektning faxri ", deydi Jonson.

Edit Ruzvelt, 1950 yil yanvar, Los -Anjelesdagi Vada Somerville va#x27s uyiga yetib keldi.

Somervilles uchun mehmonxona oddiy uy emas, balki madaniyat va fuqarolik huquqlari faolligining aloqasi edi.

"Bu qora Amerikaning kelajagi haftaning har kecha qabulxonasida muhokama qilinadigan joy edi", dedi fuqarolik huquqlari etakchisi va bo'lajak mulkdor Seles King III. Los Anjeles Tayms 1983 yilda "WEB Du Bois kabi odamlar, shifokorlar, huquqshunoslar va o'qituvchilar va boshqa mutaxassislar o'rtasida juda jiddiy munozaralar bo'lib o'tdi. Bu erda ularning ko'pchiligi o'z xalqining turmush tarzini yaxshilash rejalarini birlashtirgan."

1929 yildagi qimmatli qog'ozlar bozori Somervilles orzusini puchga chiqardi. 1930 yilga kelib, ular mehmonxonaga egalik huquqidan mahrum bo'lishdi, garchi ularning martaba va fuqarolik rahbarligi hali tugamagan edi. Vada gazetani boshqaradi va ko'plab xayriya va madaniy tashkilotlarni boshqaradi, Jon esa nashr etilgan muallif va Los -Anjeles politsiya kengashiga tayinlangan birinchi qora tanli odam bo'ladi. Ularning ikkalasi ham 1972 yilda vafot etgan.


LINTON oilaviy daraxti

Jorj Croasdeyl LINTON (1802-1863) Lyuis Kolbert LINTON (1803-1876) Moris Piter LINTON (1807-1872) Robert Genri LINTON (1809-1884) Jeyms LINTON, Jr. (1812?) Enn Kroasdeyl LINTON (1815-1895) Debora Kerolin LINTON Ridj (1819-1894), Jeremiya Kroasdeyl LINTON (1821-?)

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Laura Ellikott LINTON (1766-1825) Tomas LINTON (1768-1829) Jeyms LINTON (1764-1854) Uilyam LINTON (1772-1848) Sara LINTON (1774-1817)

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Jeykob LINTON (1732-1774) Rebeka LINTON Atkinson (1734-1810) Devid LINTON (1736-1739) Ishayya LINTON (1739-1775) Uilyam LINTON (1742-1802) Marta LINTON (1744-1744) Elizabeth LINTON Xannes (1751-1795) )

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Sara LINTON (1692-1692) Anna LINTON (1694-1699) Meri LINTON Blekshou (1695-1769) Jozef LINTON (1697 va ndash1747) Benjamin LINTON (1703-1773) Jon LINTON (1706-1761)

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Baron Rojer LINTON (1641-1715) va amp Doroti Nyuberg (1641-1681)

Sir Knight Roger LINTON (1660 va ndash1753) shifokori Jeyms LINTON (1661 va ndash1730) Jon LINTON (1662 va ndash1709) Benjamin LINTONni (1664 va ndash1709) emigrant Devid LINTON (1665 va ndash1739) emigrant Anne LINTGN16 va 1667

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Rojer LINTON (1641 va ndash1715) Artur LINTON (1648 va ndash1708) Jon LINTON (1650 va ndash1709) Tomas LINTON (1660 va ndash?)

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Artur LINTON (1590-1646) Laird va Isabella (1590 va ndash?)

Artur LINTON (1614-1662) va Jon LINTON (1616-?)

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Jon LINTON (1560-1632) Baron Caberston va boshqalar Rebekka KABERSTON (1565-1634)

Artur LINTON (1590 va ndash1646) Tomas LINTON (1592 va ndash1653) Robert LINTON (1600 va ndash1674)

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Valter LINTON (1533-1633) Traquayr grafi, hazinaning lord komissari

& amp; Margareta Margaret KARR (1535 & ndash1590)

Jon LINTON (1560 va ndash1632) Artur LINTON (1562 va ndash1646)

Artur LINTON (1505-?) Laird Traquair va Agnes GRAHAM xonim Traquayr (1507 va ndash1587)

Uolter LINTON (1533-1633) Jon LINTON (1547-?) Robert LINTON (1548-?) Margaret LINTON Tomson (1655-1586)

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Sir Knight Artur LINTON (1475-?) Qal'a Lord Linton Tvid bo'yicha & amp Kristin Styuart (1475-1557) Lady Traquair

Catharina LINTON (1496 va ndash?) Isabella LINTON (1498 va ndash?) Kristina LINTON (1501 va ndash?) Artur LINTON (1505 va ndash1585) va Richard LINTON (1507 va ndash1570)

Richard LINTON (1445-1484) Linton qal'asining baroni, Tvid va Izabella (1447-?) Xonim

Tomas LINTON (1469 va ndash1493) Isibell LINTON (1472 va ndash?) Artur LINTON (1475 va ndash1538) Uilyam LINTON (1477 va ndash1536) Patrik LINTON (1479 va ndash1547)

Richard Linton (1415-?) Qal'aning Linton ustidan Tvid va Ledi Lynton

Ser Knight Uilyam de Linton (1385-?) qal'a Linton ustidan Tvid, Pibl, Shotlandiya va

Rabbiy Uilyam de LINTON (1364-?) Qal'a Linton Tvid, Pibl, Shotlandiya va Ledi Lintone ustidan

Ser Knight Uilyam de LINTON (1385-?)

Uilyam de LINTON (1340-?) Tvid, Pibl, Shotlandiya va Ledi Linton qal'asi

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Uilyam de LINTON (1318-1339) Tvid bo'yicha Linton qal'asi va amp Salmata LONG (1321 va ndash1384)

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Uilyam de LINTON I (1297-1325) Tvid, Pibl, Shotlandiya va Ledi Linton qal'asi

Tomas de LYNTON (1310-?) Va Uilyam de LINTON (1318-1339)

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Richard de LINTON (1273-1325) Baron qal'asi Linton Tvid bo'yicha & amp Agnes PERCY (1275 va ndash1325)

Richard de LINTON (1273 va ndash1325) - Filipp de LINTONning o'g'li (1251 va ndash1297) Bervik konstebeli. Richard 1273 yilda Shotlandiya, Roxburghshire, Parish Linton, Linton Tower shahrida tug'ilgan va 1325 yilda Castle Linton Upon Tyne, Northumberland, Shotlandiya vafot etgan. Richard Lady Agnes PERCYga (1275 va ndash1325) 1294 yilda Middltonda (Northumberland, Angliya) uylandi.

Richard LINTON (1295 va ndash1356) Uilyam LINTON (1297 va ndash1325) Agnes LINTON (1299 va ndash?) Genri LINTON (1301 va ndash?) Persi LINTON (1302 va ndash?) Mariya LINTON (1306 va ndash?)

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Filipp de LINTON (1251-1308) Bervik konstebi va amp Magileania CARTERWRIGHTER (1252 va ndash1286)

Uilyam de LINTON (1272 va ndash?) Richard de LINTON (1273 va ndash1325) Bernard de LINTON (1275 va ndash) Meggi LINTON (1278 va ndash?) Krouford LINTON (1280 va ndash?) Reginald LINTON (1282 va ndash?) Karter LINTON (1284 va ndash?)

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Lord Uilyam Van SOMERVILLE (1223-1283) Baron Lintone va Margaret (1225-1299) G'arbiy Lintondan

Valter SOMERVILLE (1250-1296), Filipp de LINTON (1251- 1297 yildan keyin) va Adam de LINTON (1254-1297)

Lord Uilyam Jon SOMERVILLE (1198-1230) Baron Lintone Linton minorasi va amp

Elizabet de OLIPHUNT (1200-?) ning Klessford qal'asi

Uilyam Van SOMERVILLE (1223-1283)

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William de SOMERVILLE (1175-1215) Baron Linton minorasi va Margaret de NEWBIBBING (1177-1225)

Jon SOMERVILLE (1198-1230) va Uilyam SOMERVILLE (1200-1282)

Lord Jon de SOMERVILLE (1150-1194) Carnwath va boshqalar Ketrin XALIDAY (1160-1198) Moffatning vorisi

Rojer SOMERVILLE (11170-1280) va Uilyam SOMERVILLE (1175-1215)

Lord Rojer SOMERVILLE (1118-1190), Vichnor, Staffordshir, Angliya

Edilen Le BOTELER (1120-1185), Ingleby, Derbisshir, Angliya.

Rojer SOMERVILLE (1149-1201) va Jon SOMERVILLE (1150-1194)

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Lord Gaulter de S & EacuteMERVILLE (1071-1165) Barron Vychnor va Cecily de LUNSIE (1094-?) Stokton vorisi

Uilyam SOMERVILLE (1112-1176), Uolter SOMERVILLE (1114-1142) va Rojer SOMERVILLE (1118-1190)

Lord Gaulter de S & EacuteMERVILLE (1030-?) Caen etnarxi, S & eacutemerville Nord va amp Lady S & EacuteMERVILLE (1030-?)

Gaulter de S & EacuteMERVILLE (1071-1165)

Sir Knight Gaulter "Walter" de S & EacuteMERVILLE (1000-1049) Graveron, Evreux, Somme Valley, S & eacutemerville of Nord & amp

Lady S va eacutemerville (taxminan 1000 -?)

Gaulter de S & EacuteMERVILLE (1030-?)

Linton Research Fund Inc., Nashr va nusxasi 1987-2020

LINTON & amp BIRD yilnomalari, VI jild, 1-son, Bahor va nusxa 2011, ISSN 1941-3521

LINTON & amp BIRD Solnomalari XII jild, 1-son, Bahor va nusxa 2017, ISSN 1941-3521

"Tashrifingiz uchun tashakkur, uzoqroq turing, keyin qaytib keling" Terri Lui Linton va 2007 yil nusxasi

Linton Research Fund Inc., nashr va nusxasi 1987-2018

Quyida: Shotlandiya LINTON gerbi va amp Crest , Pen & amp Ink rasm, Terri Lui Linton tomonidan, va nusxasi 1977 Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan Linton Research Fund Inc., Nashr va nusxa 1987, yozma ruxsatisiz to'liq yoki qisman ko'paytirish taqiqlanadi.


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Summerville oilasining dastlabki kelib chiqishi

Summerville familiyasi birinchi marta Staffordshirda topilgan, bu erda & quot; olijanob oilaning avlodi Uiknor xo'jayini Walter de Somerville va Gloucester okrugidagi Aston Somervil edi, ular Angliyaga G'olib Uilyam bilan kelgan va ikkita o'g'lini qoldirgan. Ingliz va Shotlandiya Somervilllarining ajdodlari. & quot [3] [4]

Boshqa manbada biroz boshqacha tushuncha bor: & quot; Normanning ismi Ser Gualter de Somervil edi. U Xordnord shahrining lordiga aylandi, uning shahri Stafford va uning avlodlari 12 -asrning oxirlarida katta mulkka ega edilar. Lanark va Shotlandiyaning boshqa joylarida Uilyam de Somervil Aleksandr II ning nikohida tayinlangan baronlardan biri edi. (hukmronligi 1214 yilda boshlangan) Roksburg qal'asidagi turnirda mashq qilish. Bu Uilyamning avlodi, Jeyms, o'n uchinchi lord Somervil, qarindoshi Uilyam Somervil bilan kelishib, boyligini ancha oshirdi. Warwick va Somerville-Aston shirkatlari. Gloucester. & quot [5]

Blekning ta'kidlashicha, & quot; William de Somerville, Shotlandiyada birinchi bo'lib, Devid I poezdida kelgan va Lanarkshirda erlarni olgan. Uilyam ketma -ket beshta edi, oxirgi o'limi 1282 yilda. & Quot [6]

Bu ssenariylarning ikkalasi ham haqiqat bo'lishi mumkin, chunki Shotlandiya Devid I (1084-1153) Shotlandiya qiroli (1124-1153) va fathdan 20 yil keyin tug'ilgan. Shotlandiyada, bu yoki boshqa shaklda, ismning ko'plab ro'yxatlari mavjud, jumladan: Robert de Sumeruilla, 1177 yildagi Shimoliy Bervik rohibalariga Dankan, Fayf grafligi tomonidan berilgan nizomga guvoh bo'lgan Robert de Sumeruilla, akalit, akolit. 1255 yilda Linton cherkovi va 1492 yilda Edinburgda charter guvohi bo'lgan Samolyot Uilyam Somervel. [6]

& [Carwath, Lanarkshire, Shotlandiya] cherkovidagi Cowthalley qal'asi ko'p yillar davomida 12 -asrda mamlakatning eng boy va qudratli oilalaridan biri bo'lgan Sommervillesning baronial qarorgohi bo'lgan va Uilyam , birinchi Baron, Robert Bryusning qat'iy tarafdori bo'lgan, bahsli toj vorisi paytida. & quot [7]

Angliyada Jakobus de Somervill Devonda 1273 yildagi "Yuz forumlar" kitobida, Robert de Somervil va Rojer de Somervil Edvard I hukmronligi davrida Staffordshirda ro'yxatga olingan. [3]

Staffordshir shtatining Barton-Under-Needvud shahrida oilaning erta filiali topilgan. & quot; Barton-Need-Under-Vudvud ‚ÄĚkitobida Bertune nomli qadimiy qirollik Needwood o'rmoni bo'linib ketgan beshta palatadan biriga nom berilgan. Konfessor Eduard Genri de Ferrersga berdi, undan Somervillesga, keyin esa Derbi quloqlariga o'tdi, ulardan biri 1263 yilda isyon natijasida mulkni yo'qotdi.


Mishel Evgen Chevreul (1786-1889)

Bo'yash san'ati bo'yicha bir qancha tajribalar o'tkazgan frantsuz Chevreul Charlemagne Lisesi kimyo professori, Parijdagi Fanlar Akademiyasi va London Qirollik Jamiyati a'zosi edi. U 100 yildan oshiq umrida mato, suv, havo, quyosh va issiqlik ta'sirida bo'yoqlar o'zgarishini va turg'unligini o'rgangan. Shuningdek, u havodagi kislorod va namlik nur ta'sirida ranglarning parchalanishiga qanday ta'sir qilishini o'rgangan. Rang kontrasti bo'yicha tadqiqot natijalarini e'lon qilgan hujjatlardan biri (1839 yilda frantsuz tilida [2] va 1854 yilda ingliz tilida) deb nomlangan. Ranglarning uyg'unligi va kontrasti tamoyillari.

S.D.ning so'zlariga ko'ra. Hamfri o'z kitobida Suratga olish tizimi1849 yilda Albani tomonidan nashr etilgan ikkinchi nashr: C. Van Bentuysen, Xant va Chevreul haqiqatan ham muhim o'yinchilar edi:

“Yorug'likning o'simliklar o'sishi va o'sishiga ta'siri juda qiziq va qiziqarli. Bu mavzu bilan bog'liq faktlar janob Chevreul, janob Xant va ser Jon Xerschel tomonidan o'rganilgan. Oxirgi janoblarga biz antotip jarayonining nashr etilishiga olib kelgan so'rovlar uchun qarzdormiz. ”

Bu shon -shuhratning 15 daqiqasidan ko'p!


Jon Somervill - Tarix

Sent -Luis tez -tez Head Eastning tug'ilgan shahri sifatida tilga olinsa -da, asl a'zolari Illinoys janubida o'sgan. Dastlab TimeAtions nomi bilan tanilgan guruh Baxter Forrest Twilightning taklifiga binoan Head East nomini oldi. 1969 yil 6 -avgust guruh rasman "Sharqiy Sharq" ga aylangan kun sifatida tan olingan va ular birinchi konsertini Sent -Luisdan janubi -sharqda, Illinoys shtatining Karbondeyl shahrida o'tkazgan.

Dastlab aka -uka Rojer va Larri Boyd, Stiv Xyuston, Jon Shlitt va Dan Piperdan tashkil topgan guruh kelgusi to'rt yil davomida ko'plab a'zolarning kelishini va ketishini ko'radi. Bosh qo'shiqchi Jon Shlitt va barabanchi Stiv Xyuston tez orada guruhni tark etib, mashg'ulotlariga e'tibor qaratishdi va 1973 yilda Jon va Stiv to'la vaqtli a'zolar sifatida qaytib kelguniga qadar, ularning o'rnida bir qancha a'zolar chiqish qilishdi. Vaqtinchalik vokalchilar va barabanchilar orasida Enni Uilyams, Joel Motel, Betsi Kreuger, Deyl Innes va Jan Mullen vokalda, Bill Mochnik, Toni Juodis, Dan Odum va Bill Keister barabanlarda.

Ularni birinchi oltita albomidan o'tkazadigan tarkib 1973 yilda Illinoys shtatidagi Champaign/Urbana shahrida shakllana boshladi, u erda Rojer Boyd va Jon Shlitt Illinoys universitetining talabasi bo'lgan (Stiv Xyuston Charlestondagi Sharqiy Illinoys universitetida o'qigan), Illinoys, Champaign/Urbanadan janubda bir soatdan kam). Gitarachi Den Piper 1972 yilda jo'nab ketdi va uning o'rniga qisqa muddat Greg Uilyams keldi. 1973 yil oxirida guruh yangi gitarist uchun tanlovlar o'tkazdi va Mayk Somervill bu tanlovda qatnashgan boshqa ko'plab odamlar orasidan tanlandi. Ko'p o'tmay, bir necha oy oldin ketgan Rojer Boyd klaviaturani to'ldirgan Dikki Xarnining o'rniga guruhga qo'shildi. 1974 yil yoziga kelib, Dan Birni Larri Boydni bas gitara chalib, Rojer Boyd, Stiv Xyuston, Jon Shlitt va Mayk Somervillga qo'shildi. Birni bundan oldin Mayk Somervilning akasi Skott bilan guruhda o'ynagan.

Ular o'sha yozda Illinoys shtatining Pekin shahridagi "Golden Voice" studiyalariga kirib, o'zlarining "Flat As A Pancake" deb nomlangan birinchi albomining treklarini yozib olishgan va ular "Piramida Records" yorlig'ida chiqarishgan. A & ampM Records tez orada guruhlarning mashhurligini, piramidaning sotuvi va sotilishini qayd etdi va Head & A & ampM yorlig'iga imzo chekdi. Flat As A Pancake 1975-yilda A & ampM-da qayta chiqarildi va 1978-yilda Gold sertifikatiga sazovor bo'ldi (500 000 ta rekord savdoda). Hech qachon hech qanday sabab bo'lmagan va Love Me Tonight albomlari Billboard Hot 100 singllar jadvalida joylashtirilgan. Hech qachon hech qanday sabab bo'lmagan, shundan beri u klassik rok radiosining asosiy qo'shig'iga aylangan va mamlakatning ko'p joylarida eng tez -tez ijro etiladigan klassik rok -madhiyalaridan biridir.

1976 yilda Head East "Get Yourself Up", keyin 1977 yilda "Lucky", 1978 yilda o'zini Sharqiy Head va "East East Live" albomlarini chiqardi. va 1979 yildagi Aqldan ozgan tur. Bu vaqt mobaynida guruh katta konsert o'yinini o'tkazdi va muntazam ravishda katta maydonlarda katta tomoshabinlar uchun bosh rolni ijro etdi. Ammo bu mashhurlik jadvalda ko'rinmadi, chunki siz "Head East" nomli albomidan shu vaqt ichida Billboard Hot 100-ni buzgan yagona singl.

1980 yil 12 aprelda Rojer Boyd, Dan Birni, Stiv Xyuston, Jon Shlitt va Mayk Somervillning so'nggi konserti Nebraska shtatining Kearni shahridagi Kearni shtat kollejida (hozirda Kernidagi Nebraska universiteti deb nomlanadi) o'ynadi. Guruh birlashuvchi bo'lishni to'xtatdi va birgalikda o'ynashni to'xtatish to'g'risidagi qaror Kernida tugagan gastrol tugashidan oldin qabul qilingan edi. Jon Shlitt giyohvandlik muammosi tufayli guruhni tark etdi va bir necha oy davomida o'zining "Jonni" guruhini ochishga harakat qildi, lekin tez orada musiqa biznesidan voz kechdi. Jon giyohvandlik va alkogol bilan bog'liq muammolarini yengdi va 1985 yilda zamonaviy xristian musiqasida Petra guruhining etakchi qo'shiqchisi sifatida o'z faoliyatini boshladi. Dan Birni va Mayk Somervill ham Head East bilan davom etmaslikni tanlab ketishdi. Mayk 80-yillarning boshlarida sobiq Pavlovning it gitarachisi Stiven Skorfina bilan boshqa ko'plab musiqiy loyihalarda, jumladan Somerville-Scorfina guruhida qatnashganidan so'ng, 1994 yilda Sharqqa qaytadi. Dan Birni Vashington shtatida va Ayova shtatida radioda ishlagan, 80-yillarning o'rtalarida Arizonaga ko'chib kelgan, u ko'chmas mulkda ishlagan va 2003 yil avgustida vafotidan oldin hovuzni tozalash xizmatini boshqargan.

Qolgan a'zolari Rojer Boyd va Stiv Xyuston tezda Mark Boatman (bass), Toni Gross (gitara) va sobiq a'zosi Dan Odumni (vokal) ro'yxatga olishdi va o'sha yilning oxirida chiqarilgan AQSh 1 albomini yozishdi. Bu Head East A & ampM Records -da yozgan oxirgi studiya albomi bo'ladi. AQSh 1 chiqarilgandan so'ng, A & ampM albomga yo'naltirilgan boshqa rock guruhlari (AOR) bilan birgalikda Sharqni tark etdi, o'sha paytda mashhur bo'lgan "New Wave" va "Punk" guruhlarini targ'ib qilishga ko'proq e'tibor qaratishdi.

Head East 1982 yilda Allegiance Records -da "Oldinga va yuqoriga" albomini chiqardi. Robbi Robinson Mark Boatmanning o'rnini bosuvchi bass guruhiga qo'shildi. AQSh 1 yoki oldinga va yuqoriga hech kim katta muvaffaqiyatlarga erisha olmadi va guruh yana bir bor kadrlar almashinuvini boshdan kechirdi. Keyingi bir necha yil ichida Toni Gross, Stiv Xyuston, Dan Odum va Robbi Robinson ketishadi va bir necha yangi a'zolar Head Eastga qo'shilishadi. Rikki Lin Gregg, Brayan Kelli, Joel Parks, J.Jay Stil va Mett Styuart (sobiq Starkasl) hammasi shu vaqt ichida Head Eastga qo'shilishgan, lekin keyingi albom chiqguncha guruhni tark etishgan. Xuddi shu davrda Kurt Xansen va Donni Dobbins qo'shilishdi va Toni Gross uch yil yo'qligidan keyin 1987 yilda qaytdi.

Choice of Weapons, 1988 yilda Dark Heart Records -da chiqarilgan, Head Eastning so'nggi studiya albomi edi. Bu albom an'anaviy Head East ovozidan ajralib chiqdi va 80 -yillar oxiridagi boshqa mashhur guruhlarni eslatuvchi zamonaviyroq sintezlangan ovozga ega bo'ldi. Bu vaqtda guruh tarkibiga Rojer Boyd, Toni Gross, Kurt Xansen va Donni Dobbins kirgan. Boshqa bir qancha musiqachilar, shu jumladan Den Birni, Riki Lin Grig, Brayan Kelli va Joel Parksning sobiq a'zolari.

Keyingi bir necha yil mobaynida, Sharqqa yo'nalish 90-yillarning boshlariga to'g'ri keldi. Donni Dobbins va Toni Gross guruhni tark etishdi, qolgan a'zolari Rojer Boyd va Kurt Xansen Vens Best, Jon Merrelloa, Stiv Riker, Rendi Rikman (ilgari surgun qilingan) va Jim Merfi kabi yangi a'zolarni yollashdi.

Taxminan 1992 yildan 1994 yilgacha, klassik rok ommalasha boshlagan paytda, Head East guruhi musiqachilar guruhini yig'ishni boshladi, ular nafaqat bir necha yillar birga bo'lishdi, balki klassik Head East ovoziga qaytishdi. Rich Creadore bass bo'yicha vazifalarni bajarishga qo'shildi va Dan Kelli barabanlarda Riker o'rnini egalladi. Kelli keyinchalik Mayk Mesi baraban chalayotgan bir necha yilga ketgan bo'lsa -da, Kelli yana gitarist Mayk Somervill kabi qaytdi. Kurt Xansen 1995 yilda ketdi va uning o'rniga vokalist Tom Bryant keldi. Roger Boyd, Tom Bryant, Rich Creadore, Den Kelli va Mayk Somervill 1995-1000 yillar mobaynida Kelli singl Hazel guruhida texnik bo'lib ishlashga ketganidan so'ng o'z o'rnini saqlab qoladi va uning o'rnini sobiq bosh sharqchi barabanchi Mayk Mesi egallaydi.

2001 yil kuzida vokalchi va gitarachi Richie Callison guruhga qo'shildi va Tom Bryantni vokalda almashtirdi va oxir -oqibat Mayk Somervil ketishi bilan gitara uchun yagona mas'uliyatni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Boyd, Kallison, Kreador va Mesining tarkibi 2006 yilning kuzigacha guruh rahbari Rojer Boyd yangi tarkibni yig'guniga qadar saqlanib qoladi.

Head East hozirda Rojer Boyd (klaviatura va vokal), Greg Manaxan (bass, gitar va amp vokal), Glen Bridjer (bosh gitara va amp vokal), Eddi Jons (baraban va ampokal) va Darren Uokerdan iborat 5 qismli guruh. (bosh vokal va bass). The new members superb musicianship and versatility along with their strong vocal and song writing abilities, resulted in the reinstatement of some classic Head East songs to the set list along with new material and a few new covers of classic rock favorites, making for an exciting new live show.

Head East has grown in popularity over the last several years due to the resurgence of classic rock music, their presence on the internet, and their exciting new live show. This rise in popularity resulted in the issuance of several CDs from 1999 to present culminating with "Raise A Little Hell" released in the Spring of 2013.

Head East currently performs about 30 to 40 shows each year. They put on a high-energy show that is true to their original sound. Their set list includes selections from the following list of Head East Classics - City Of Gold/Fly By Night Lady, Love Me Tonight, Lovin' Me Along, Jefftown Creek, Never Been Any Reason, One Against The Other, Brother Jacob, Ticket Back To Georgia, Monkey Shine, Gettin' Lucky, Get Up & Enjoy Yourself, Elijah, Since You Been Gone, and Take My Hand, New Head East Songs - Me And My Whiskey, So Long Lady, One Night, Prisoner, and Say Yeah! Classic Covers - Raise A Little Hell, Footstompin' Music, and Mama Let Him Play.

Head East has brought five decades of classic rock to their fans. Roger Boyd, leader and keyboardist of Head East, has stated that Head East will continue to rock as long as he can lift his synthesizer over his head and play. And that he looks forward to bringing Head East music to the fans for years to come.


REVOLUTIONARY WAR SITES IN SOMERVILLE, NEW JERSEY

Following their victory at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777, General George Washington and his army went to Morristown for winter quarters, where they arrived on January 6. This marker, which is located on the lawn in front of the Somerset County Courthouse, is the fifth of a series of thirteen showing the route taken by Washington's army from Princeton to Morristown. [1]

The other twelve markers in this series can be found in Princeton, Kingston, Griggstown, Bridgewater, Bedminster, Bernardsville, Basking Ridge, Harding Township and Morris Township. For a map tracing the route of all thirteen markers from Princeton to Morristown, bu yerni bosing.

This particular monument was unveiled in a ceremony on June 20, 1914. [2]

For current hours and admission information, see the Wallace House webpage

General Washington used the Wallace House as his headquarters from December 11, 1778, to June 3, 1779, during the Second Middlebrook Encampment. [3] However, he left here from December 22 until February 5, to meet with the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) was left in command of the Middlebrook Encampment in Washington's absence. [4] When Washington returned from Philadelphia to the Wallace House, he was accompanied by his wife Martha, who remained with him at the Wallace House for the rest of the encampment.

The house was owned by John Wallace, a retired Philadelphia merchant. It was built in 1776, just two years before the encampment. Wallace called his property "Hope Farm." General Washington and his staff occupied four rooms of the house the Wallace family continued to live in the rest of the house. [5]

Four other houses which were used as headquarters by American Generals during the time of the second Middlebrook Encampment still stand:
&buqa Jacobus Vanderveer House in Bedminster - Headquarters of General Henry Knox
&buqa Van Horne house in Bridgewater - Headquarters of General William Alexander (Lord Stirling)
&buqa Van Veghten house in Bridgewater - Headquarters of Quartermaster General Nathanael Greene
&buqa Abraham Staats House in South Bound Brook - Headquarters of General von Steuben
The Heritage Trail Association of Somerset County runs a Five Generals Bus Tour in February, which visits all five of these houses.
For more information about this and their other events, see their website https://heritagetrail.org.

Old Dutch Parsonage
71 Somerset St.
The Old Dutch Parsonage is located behind the Wallace House.
Tours of both buildings start at the Wallace House.

The Old Dutch Parsonage was built in 1751. Its first occupants were Reverend John Frelinghuysen and his family. John's son Frederick, who was born here in 1753, went on to play military and political roles in the Revolutionary War era: he served in the Somerset County Militia, in the Continental Congress in 1779, and in the convention that ratified the United States Constitution for New Jersey in 1787. Frederick Frelinghuysen is buried in the Van Nest Burying Ground in Hillsborough Township.

Reverend John Frelinghuysen died in 1754, and the house was next occupied by the Reverend Mr. Jacob Hardenbergh, who lived here until 1781. Hardenbergh was a supporter of the cause of Independence, and he served in the Provincial Congress of New Jersey. During Washington's stay at the Wallace House, he was occasionally a guest at the Old Dutch Parsonage.

The Old Dutch Parsonage originally stood a few hundred feet from where it stands today. It was moved in 1913 to its current location because of work on the nearby railroad tracks. [6]


Manba eslatmalari:

1. ^ This marker was erected by the General Frelinghuysen Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

&buqa For more details and accompanying source notes about the Battle of Princeton and the 1777 Morristown encampment, see the Princeton and Morristown pages of this website.

2. ^ "The Washington Marker at Somerville," Somerset County Historical Quarterly, Volume 3, Number 4, October 1914
Bu erda Internet -arxivda o'qish mumkin

3. ^ &buqa George Washington's arrival on December 11 is documented in his December 13 letter to the President of Congress:
& quot. I did not reach this place till late on the 11th, since which I have been much employed in attending to the dispositions for hutting the army but, in the mean time, the objects of the despatch have engaged my utmost attention."

&buqa George Washington's departure on June 3 is noted in his letter of that day to the President of Congress:
"We shall press forward with all diligence, and do every thing in our power to disappoint the enemy. I expect to set out this day towards the Highlands, by way of Morristown."

▸▸Both of these letters are reprinted in:
George Washington Edited by Jared Sparks The Writings of George Washington Volume VI (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1858) p. 134, and 267-268 Available to be read at Google Books here

4. ^ &buqa Washington's leaving for Philadelphia and the passing of command in his absence to Lord Stirling are noted in Washington's letter to Lord Stirling on Monday, December 22, 1778:
"Congress having been pleased to require my attendance in Philadelphia for a few days, the immediate command will devolve upon your Lordship."
▸This letter is reprinted in:
George Washington John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources / Volume 13 - October 1, 1778 - January 11, 1779 (Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1936) p. 443
Bu erda Internet -arxivda o'qish mumkin

&buqa For Washington's return to Middlebrook on February 5, 1779, see:
George Washington John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources / Volume 14 - January 12, 1779 - May 5, 1779 (Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1936) pages 68, 69, and 73
Bu erda Google Books -da o'qish mumkin

5. ^George Washington's Middlebrook Encampment 1778-1779 brochure (Produced with grants from the New Jersey Historical Commission, a division of the Department of State.)

6. ^The Old Dutch Parsonage page of the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry website

&buqa Biographical Dictionary of the United States Congress

Nyu -Jersidagi inqilobiy urush tarixiy joylari uchun eng yaxshi qo'llanma!
Somerville New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites Somerville New Jersey Historic Sites Wallace House Old Dutch Parsonage Washington Route Marker

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Bu veb -sayt, uning matni va fotosuratlari © 2009 - 2021 AL Frazza. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.


Uylangan

John Somerville's brother in law-by-marriage was Billy Graham John Somerville's father in law was L Nelson Bell John Somerville's mother in law is Virginia Bell John Somerville's grandfather in law is James Bell John Somerville's grandmother in law is Ruth Bell John Somerville's grandfather in law was Douglas Leftwich John Somerville's grandmother in law was Rosa Leftwich John Somerville's sister in law was Rosa Montgomery John Somerville's brother in law-by-marriage was Charles Montgomery John Somerville's sister in law was Ruth Graham John Somerville's brother in law was Lemuel Bell John Somerville's brother in law was Rev. Benjamin Bell John Somerville's sister in law-by-marriage is Peggy Bell John Somerville's wife Virginia Somerville's uncle in law is Charles W. Leftwich John Somerville's wife Virginia Somerville's uncle in law is Douglas Leftwich John Somerville's wife Virginia Somerville's aunt in law was Fannie Barrett John Somerville's wife Virginia Somerville's uncle in law was Ernest Leftwich


Videoni tomosha qiling: Jimmy Somerville - You Make Me Feel Mighty Real Official Video (Fevral 2023).

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