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Aydaho III SP -545 - Tarix

Aydaho III SP -545 - Tarix


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Aydaho III

(SP-545: t.23; 1.60 '; b.12'6 "; dr.4"; s.11k.; A.1 mg)

Uchinchi Aydaho (SP-545), motorli qayiq, 1907 yilda Stearns & McKay tomonidan qurilgan. Marblehead, Massachusets; 1917 yil iyun oyida uning egasi Pittsburglik W. W. Venseldan sotib olingan; va 1917 yil 12 -iyulda Nyu -York shtati Keyp -Mayda topshirilgan, USNRF bosh kvartmasteri V. H. Naylor.

Aydaho 4 -chi dengiz okrugiga patrul va umumiy vazifalarni bajarish uchun tayinlangan, Keyp -May va Filadelfiya hududlarida portga kirish patrul va suv osti kemalarida patrullik qilgan. U 1917-18 yil qishda ishdan bo'shatildi va nihoyat 1918 yil 30-noyabrda o'z egasiga qaytdi.


Xatshepsut

Qirol Tutmos I ning qizi Xatsepsut Misr qirolichasi bo'ldi, u 12 yoshida akasi Tutmos II ga uylandi. O'limidan so'ng u o'gay o'g'li Tutmos III uchun regent bo'lib ishlay boshladi. miloddan avvalgi 1473 yillarda Misrning hukmdori bo'lgan fir'avnning to'liq vakolatlari to'g'risida Fir'avn sifatida Xatshepsut Misr savdosini kengaytirdi va ulug'vor qurilish loyihalarini, xususan, dafn qilinadigan G'arbning g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Deyr-al-Bahri ibodatxonasini nazorat qildi. Ko'plab zamonaviy tasvirlar va haykallarda erkak sifatida tasvirlangan (o'z buyrug'i bilan) Xatseput 19 -asrgacha olimlarga noma'lum bo'lib qoldi. U Misrning sanoqli va mashhur ayol fir'avnlaridan biridir.


Yashirin qurollar

Aydaho qonuniga binoan, ruxsatnoma olish huquqidan mahrum qilinmagan 18 yoshli fuqarolarga yashirin o'qotar qurolni ruxsatisiz olib yurishga ruxsat berilgan, faqat sud binosi, voyaga etmaganlar hibsxonasi yoki qamoqxona, davlat yoki xususiy maktablar bundan mustasno.

Bir odam emas quyidagi hollarda o'lik qurol yoki o'qotar qurolni olib yurish yoki saqlash uchun yashirin qurol litsenziyasi bo'lishi kerak:

  • Oddiy ko'rinishda joylashgan har qanday halokatli qurol
  • Har qanday qonuniy qurol yoki miltiq
  • Avtotransport vositasida yashiringan har qanday halokatli qurol
  • Yuklanmagan va mahkamlangan qurol
  • Qurol -yarog 'demontaj qilinadi yoki doimiy ravishda o'zgartiriladi, shuning uchun uni ishlatish oson emas
  • Shaxs yashirgan har qanday halokatli qurol:
    • O'n sakkiz (18)) yoshdan katta
    • Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari fuqarosi yoki AQSh qurolli kuchlarining hozirgi a'zosi va
    • Aydaho Kodeksining 18-3302-moddasi (11) (b)-(n) bo'yicha litsenziya berish huquqidan mahrum qilinmaydi.

    Avtotransport vositasida yashiringan va o'ldiradigan qurolni olib yurish uchun odam yashirin qurol litsenziyasiga ega bo'lishi shart emas.

    Har qanday odam mast holda yoki mast qiluvchi ichimlik yoki giyohvandlik ta'siri ostida yashirin qurol olib yurishi qonunga ziddir.

    Yashirin qurol litsenziyalari hali sizning tuman sherifingizda mavjud. Boshqa shtatlarda o'zaro kelishish uchun fuqarolar xavfsizligini ta'minlashi kerak. Litsenziya besh yil davomida amal qiladi.


    Tarkibi

    1930-yillarning boshlari va o'rtalariga kelib, de Havilland DH.88 Comet poygachisi bilan yuqori tezlikda ishlaydigan innovatsion samolyotlarning obro'siga ega bo'ldi. Keyinchalik DH.91 Albatross samolyoti chivin uchun ishlatiladigan kompozit yog'och konstruktsiyasini kashf etdi. 22 yo'lovchining Albatrosi soatiga 340 km tezlikda, 1100 fut (3400 m) tezlikda, Handley Page H. HP.42 va uning o'rnini bosadigan boshqa biplanlardan ko'ra tezroq yura olardi. [10] [nb 1] Yog'ochdan yasalgan monokok konstruktsiyasi nafaqat samolyotda ishlatilgan de Havilland Gipsy O'n ikki dvigatelining og'irligini tejadi va kam quvvatini qopladi, balki ishlab chiqarishni soddalashtirdi va qurilish vaqtini qisqartirdi. [11]

    Havo vazirligi bombardimonchi talablari va tushunchalari Tahrir

    1936 yil 8 sentyabrda Britaniya Havo Vazirligi P.13/36 spetsifikatsiyasini e'lon qildi, unga ko'ra, 4000 kg og'irlikdagi 3000 m (4,800 km) bomba yukini ko'tarish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lgan, ikki dvigatelli, o'rta bombardimonchi. 4.400 m tezlikda soatiga 275 mil (445 km/soat) tezlikda, 3.600 kg og'irlikdagi bomba yuklanishi ham ko'rsatildi. [12] Aviakompaniyalar Avro Manchester va Handley Page Halifax ishlab chiqarishga olib kelgan yangi kuchli dvigatellar va bir nechta mudofaa minoralari bilan og'ir dizaynlarga kirishdi. [13]

    1937 yil may oyida, P.13/36 bilan taqqoslaganda, Handley Page bosh dizayneri Jorj Volkert tez, qurolsiz bombardimonchi kontseptsiyasini ilgari surdi. 20 sahifada Volkert aerodinamik jihatdan toza, o'rta bombardimonchi 300 mil (485 km/soat) tezlikda 3000 lb (1400 kg) bomba tashishni rejalashtirgan. RAF va Havo vazirligi kapitani RN Liptrot, Aircraft 3 tadqiqot direktori, Volkertning dizaynini baholadi, uning yuqori tezligi yangi Supermarine Spitfire tezligidan oshib ketishini hisoblab chiqdi, biroq, agar bunday dizayn loyiq bo'lsa-da, qarshi dalillar mavjud edi. uzoq vaqt dushman jangchilaridan tezroq bo'lishi shart emas. [14] Vazirlik samolyot ishlab chiqarish uchun strategik bo'lmagan materiallardan foydalanishni ham ko'rib chiqayotgan edi, bu 1938 yilda B.9/38 spetsifikatsiyasiga va asosan po'latdan yasalgan archa va kontrplakdan yasalgan Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle o'rta bombardimonchisiga olib keldi. quvur ramkasi. Kichik, tezkor bombardimonchi g'oyasi, ba'zida tan olinganidan ancha erta, qo'llab -quvvatlandi, garchi havo vazirligi uni engil qotishma komponentlardan foydalanishni nazarda tutgan bo'lsa -da. [15]

    De Havilland tez bombardimonchi samolyotining paydo bo'lishi

    Albatros bilan bo'lgan tajribasiga asoslanib, Geoffrey de Havilland yaxshi aerodinamik dizaynga ega va terining silliq, minimal maydoni bo'lgan bombardimonchi P.13/36 spetsifikatsiyasidan oshib ketishiga ishondi. [16] Bundan tashqari, Albatros tamoyillarini moslashtirish vaqtni tejashi mumkin edi. 1938 yil aprelda Rolls-Royce Merlin dvigateli DH.91 uchun Bristol Herkules (radial dvigatel) va Napier Saber (H-dvigateli) alternativa sifatida ishlash ko'rsatkichlari ishlab chiqarildi. [12] 1938 yil 7-iyulda de Havilland havo kengashining tadqiqot va ishlab chiqish bo'yicha a'zosi, harbiy-marshal Vilfrid Freemanga spetsifikatsiyani muhokama qilib, urushda alyuminiy va po'lat etishmasligi, lekin yog'ochdan tayyorlangan mahsulotlar etkazib berish haqida bahslashdi. "etarli" edi. [nb 2] Garchi kuchlanishda past bo'lsa-da, yog'ochning og'irlik-og'irlik nisbati yengil qotishmalar yoki po'latdan teng yoki undan yaxshiroqdir, shuning uchun bu yondashuvni amalga oshirish mumkin edi. [12] [16]

    27-iyulda Freemanga yozilgan keyingi maktubda aytilishicha, P.13/36 spetsifikatsiyasini Merlin dvigateli egizak samolyoti bajara olmaydi va eng yuqori tezlik yoki yuk ko'tarish qobiliyati buziladi. Masalan, kattaroq, sekinroq, minora bilan qurollangan samolyot 4000 lb bomba yukini ko'taradigan 1500 mil (2400 km) masofaga ega bo'lishi mumkin, maksimal tezligi 260 mil/soat (420 km/soat) 19000 fut (5800 m), va soatiga 370 km tezlikda soatiga 18000 fut (5500 m) tezlikda. De Havilland murosaga kelish, shu jumladan ortiqcha uskunalarni yo'q qilish masalalarni yaxshilaydi, deb hisoblardi. [12] 1938 yil 4 oktyabrda de Havilland Albatrosga asoslangan, ikkita Merlin Xs bilan ishlaydigan, uch kishilik ekipaj va oltita yoki sakkizta oldinga o'q otadigan, shuningdek, qo'lda ishlaydigan bir yoki ikkita qurol bilan boshqa dizaynni namoyish etdi. quyruq minorasi. Umumiy yuklangan og'irligi 19000 lb (8600 kg) ga asoslanib, uning maksimal tezligi soatiga 480 km va soatiga 268 mil (431 km/soat) 22,500 fut (6900 m) tezlikda bo'ladi. [13]

    Hali ham buni takomillashtirish mumkinligiga ishongan holda, Albatros va yangi metalli DH.95 Flamingoga asoslangan boshqa tushunchalarni o'rganib chiqib, de Havilland aerodinamik jihatdan toza, yog'ochdan yasalgan va Merlin bilan ishlaydigan yangi samolyotni loyihalashga qaror qildi. kelgusida sezilarli rivojlanishni taklif qildi. [13] Yangi dizayn dushman qiruvchi samolyotlariga qaraganda tezroq bo'ladi va mudofaa qurollaridan voz kechishi mumkin, bu esa uni sekinlashtiradi va zenit qurollarini ushlab qolish yoki yo'qotish ehtimoli ko'proq bo'ladi. Buning o'rniga, yuqori tezlik va yaxshi manevrlik jangchilar va er osti o'tlarini chetlab o'tishni osonlashtiradi. [13] To'rlarning etishmasligi ishlab chiqarishni soddalashtirdi, tortishish va ishlab chiqarish vaqtini qisqartirdi, etkazib berish tezligi raqobatbardosh dizaynlardan ancha oldin edi. Qurolsiz ekipaj uchuvchi va navigatorga aylanishi mumkin. Zamonaviy RAF dizayn falsafasi yaxshi qurollangan og'ir bombardimonchilarni afzal ko'rgan bo'lsa, dizaynning bu uslubi Germaniya falsafasiga ko'proq o'xshardi. Shnellbomber. [19] 1938 yil oktyabr oyining boshlarida Jefri de Xavilland va Charlz Uoker (de Havillandning bosh muhandisi) bilan bo'lgan uchrashuvda Havo vazirligi unchalik qiziqish bildirmadi va uning o'rniga de Havillanddan boshqa bombardimonchilar uchun qanotlarni subpudratchi sifatida qurishni so'radi. [20]

    1939 yil sentyabrga kelib, de Havilland turli xil dvigatellardan foydalangan holda, bitta va ikkita dvigatelli engil bombardimonli konstruktsiyalar uchun dastlabki hisob-kitoblarni ishlab chiqdi, bu esa ularning dizayniga mudofaa qurollanishining ta'sirini taxmin qildi. [21] 6 sentyabrda yakunlangan bitta dizayn 2000 ot kuchiga ega (1500 kVt) Napier Saber dvigateli, qanotlari 47 fut (14 m) va 450 lb (450 kg) bomba tashishga qodir samolyot uchun mo'ljallangan edi. yuk 1500 mil (2400 km). 20-sentabr kuni de Havilland Wilfrid Freemanga yozgan yana bir maktubida "biz dvigatelli [d] bombardimonchi ishlab chiqara olamiz, deb o'ylaymiz, u shunchalik ajoyibki, mudofaa uskunalari kerak bo'lmaydi". [21] 4-oktabrga kelib, ish qanotlari 16 fut bo'lgan va Merlin yoki Griffon dvigatellari bilan ishlaydigan ikkita dvigatelli engil bombardimonchiga aylandi. [21] 1939 yil 7 oktyabrda, urush boshlanganiga bir oy bo'lganida, Erik Bishop boshchiligidagi dizaynerlar guruhining yadrosi keyinchalik DH.98 nomi bilan tanilgan Salisberi Xollning xavfsizligi va maxfiyligiga o'tdi. [22] [nb 3] Ko'p qirrali bo'lish uchun, Bishop bomba bo'lagining old yarmida, kokpit ostida, portlovchi quvurlar va fyuze ostidagi oluklar orqali o'q otish uchun 20 mmli to'rtta to'pni taqdim etdi. [24]

    DH.98 og'ir qurollangan, ko'p maqsadli samolyotni, o'rta bombardimonchi, razvedka va umumiy maqsadli rollarni birlashtirgan, torpedalarni tashiy oladigan vazirlik uchun juda radikal edi. [20] Urush boshlanishi bilan vazirlik qabul qila boshladi, lekin qurolsiz bombardimonchi haqida hali ham shubha bilan qaradi. Nemislar kutilganidan ham tezroq jangchilarni ishlab chiqaradilar deb o'ylagan edilar. [25] va mudofaa uchun ikkita oldinga va ikkita orqadan o'q otishni taklif qildi. [26] Vazirlik, shuningdek, ikki kishilik bombardimonchi samolyotga qarshilik ko'rsatdi, bunda kamida uchinchi ekipaj boshqalarning uzoq parvozlardagi ishini kamaytirmoqchi edi. [24] Havo kengashi masofadan boshqariladigan qurollar, dvigatelning uchdan ikki qismi 15000 fut tezlikda soatiga 275 mil (445 km/soat) va 4000 tezligi bilan 3000 mil (4800 km) masofa kabi qo'shimcha talablarni qo'shdi. -lb bomba yuklanishi. [26] Vazirlikni xushnud etish uchun, de Havilland kokpitdan bir oz narida qurolli minora bilan maketlar qurdi, lekin bu kelishuvdan tashqari, de Havilland hech qanday o'zgarish qilmadi. [24]

    12-noyabr kuni de Havilland, Blekbern va Bristol tomonidan ilgari surilgan tezkor bombardimonchi g'oyalar ko'rib chiqilgan yig'ilishda, havo marshali Freeman de Havillandga dastlab Merlin dvigatellari bilan ishlaydigan, tobora kuchliroq dvigatellardan foydalanish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lgan tezkor samolyot ishlab chiqarishni buyurdi. shu jumladan Rolls-Royce Griffon va Napier Saber. To'rt o'qli dumli minora bilan qurollangan Griffon bilan ishlaydigan biroz kattaroq samolyot uchun hisob-kitoblar taqdim etilgan bo'lsa-da, Freeman mudofaa qurollariga bo'lgan talabni bekor qildi va yuqori tezlikda yengil razvedka bombardimonchisini chaqiradigan loyiha ko'tarildi. 400 mil/soat (645 km/soat), 18000 fut [27]

    12 dekabrda Harbiy-havo shtabi boshlig'ining o'rinbosari, tadqiqot va ishlab chiqish bosh direktori va RAF bombardimonchilar qo'mondonligining bosh qo'mondoni (AOC-in-C) dizaynni yakunlash va unga qanday moslashish to'g'risida qaror qabul qilish uchun yig'ilishdi. u RAF maqsadlariga kiradi. AOC-in-C qurolsiz bombardimonchini qabul qilmadi, lekin uning F8 yoki F24 kameralari bilan razvedka missiyalariga mosligini ta'kidladi. [28] Kompaniya vakillari, vazirlik va RAF operativ buyruqlari 1939 yil 29-dekabrda Xetfildda to'liq hajmli maketni tekshirgandan so'ng, loyiha qo'llab-quvvatlandi. [29] Bu 1940 yil 1 yanvarda Freeman Geoffrey de Havilland, Jon Buchanan (samolyot ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha o'rinbosari) va Jon Konnoli (Buchanan shtab boshlig'i) bilan uchrashuv o'tkazganida tasdiqlangan. De Havillandning ta'kidlashicha, DH.98 "dunyodagi eng tez bombardimonchi. Bu foydali bo'lishi kerak". Freeman uni RAF xizmatida qo'llab-quvvatladi va qurolsiz bombardimonchi B.1/40/dh spetsifikatsiyasiga muvofiq bitta prototipga buyurtma berdi, u ikkita 1280 ot kuchiga ega (950 kVt) Rolls-Royce RM3SM (engil) bombardimonchi/razvedka samolyotini chaqirdi. Merlin 21 uchun mo'ljallangan) kanalli radiatorli, 450 lb (1000 kg) bomba yukini ko'tarishga qodir. [22] [28] Samolyot 2400 fut (7,300 m) tezlikda 400 mil (640 km/soat) tezlikda va 325 mil (525 km/soat) tezlikda, 26 500 fut (8100 m) tezlikda yurishi kerak edi. to'la tanklarda 2500 fut (7600 m) da 1500 mil (2400 km) masofa. Maksimal xizmat ko'rsatish chegarasi 3200 fut (9,800 m) bo'lishi kerak edi. [28]

    1940 yil 1 martda Air Marshal Roderic Hill B.1/40 spetsifikatsiyasi bo'yicha shartnoma tuzdi, DH.98 ning 50 ta bombardimonchi-razvedka variantlari uchun shartnoma zavod seriyasi berilgan prototipni o'z ichiga oldi. E-0234. [30] [31] 1940 yil may oyida F.21/40 spetsifikatsiyasi chiqarildi, unda 20 mmli to'rtta to'p va to'rtta .303 pulemyotli burun bilan qurollangan uzoq masofali qiruvchi chaqirildi, shundan keyin de Havilland qurishga ruxsat oldi. DH.98 qiruvchi versiyasining prototipi. Bahs -munozaralardan so'ng, bu prototip, harbiy seriya raqamini hisobga olgan holda W4052, Mk IV havodan tutish (AI) uskunalarini kunduzi va kechasi qiruvchi sifatida olib o'tishga qaror qilindi. [4 -nb] 1940 yil iyun oyiga kelib DH.98 "chivin" deb nomlandi. [29] Qiruvchi variantga ega bo'lish, chivin loyihasini saqlab qoldi, chunki prototip o'z imkoniyatlarini namoyish qilgandan keyin ham qurolsiz bombardimonchi samolyotning foydaliligiga hukumat va havo vazirligida shubha bor edi. [29]

    Mosquito Edit loyihasi

    DH.98 dizayni boshlanishi bilan, modellar Salisberi Xollda batafsil tuzilgan, u erda. E-0234 keyinchalik qurilgan. Dastlab, kontseptsiya ekipajni shaffof burun orqasidagi korpusga o'ralgan bo'lishi kerak edi (Bristol Blenxaym yoki Xaynkel He 111Hga o'xshash), lekin u tezda o'zgarib, an'anaviy chodir bilan mustahkamroq burunga aylandi. [32]

    Dyunker jangidan keyin ish yana bekor qilindi, samolyot ishlab chiqarish vaziri lord Beaverbruk, 1942 yil boshigacha xizmat ko'rsatishi kutilmagan DH.98 kabi samolyotlar uchun ishlab chiqarish quvvati qolmagan deb qaror qildi. Loyihada ishlaydigan marshal Freeman to'xtashi kerak, lekin u aniq ko'rsatma bermadi va Freeman bu talabni e'tiborsiz qoldirdi. [33] Biroq, 1940 yil iyun oyida, Lord Beaverbrook va Havo Xodimlari ishlab chiqarishni Spitfire Supermarine, Hawker Hurricane qiruvchi, Vickers Vellington, Armstrong-Whitworth Whitley va Bristol Blenxaym bombardimonchilarining mavjud beshta turiga qaratishni buyurdilar. [28] DH.98 prototipi ustida ishlash to'xtatildi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, loyiha guruhiga prototip uchun materiallar berilmagach, loyiha yopildi. [34]

    Chivin faqat 1940 yil iyulda de Havillandning bosh menejeri L.C.L.dan keyin ustuvor vazifa sifatida tiklandi. 1941 yil dekabrgacha Lord Beaverbrook 50 chivinni va'da qilgan Myurrey. Chivin ishlab chiqarishi de Havillandning Tiger Moth va Airspeed Oksford trenerlarini ishlab chiqarish, bo'ronlarni ta'mirlash va Merlin dvigatellarini litsenziya asosida ishlab chiqarishga to'sqinlik qilmasligiga faqat Beaverbrok rozi bo'lganidan keyingina. [34] 1941 yil oxirigacha Beaverbrook va'da berib, de Havilland qimor o'ynadi, chunki ularni bunday qisqa vaqt ichida qurish ehtimoli yo'q edi. Voqea sodir bo'lganida, 1941 yilda atigi 20 ta samolyot qurilgan, lekin qolgan 30 ta samolyot 1942 yil mart oyining o'rtalariga kelib etkazib berilgan. [35] Britaniya jangi paytida havo hujumi haqidagi ogohlantirishlar tufayli ishlab chiqarishdagi uzilishlar de Havilland zavodining ish vaqtining uchdan bir qismiga sabab bo'lgan. yo'qolmoq. [36] Shunga qaramay, prototip ustida ishlash Salisberi Xollda tezlik bilan davom etdi E-0234 1940 yil noyabrgacha yakunlandi. [37]

    Britaniya jangidan keyin dastlabki tartib 20 ta bombardimonchi va 30 ta qiruvchi qilib o'zgartirildi. Qiruvchi versiyada ikkita yoki bitta boshqaruv bo'ladimi yoki minorali bo'lishi kerakmi, hali aniq emas edi, shuning uchun uchta prototip qurildi: W4052, W4053va W4073. Ikkinchi va uchinchisi, ham minorali qurolli, ham qurolsizlanib, T.III murabbiyining prototipiga aylandi. [38] Bu ba'zi kechikishlarga olib keldi, chunki qanotlarning yarim qurilgan qismlari yuqori jangovar yuklanish uchun kuchaytirilishi kerak edi. Burun qismlari, shuningdek, aniq nuqtai nazardan, bomba-nishon pozitsiyasiga ega bo'lgan, to'rtta .303 ta avtomat va ularning o'q-dorilaridan iborat mustahkam burunli bo'lakka o'zgartirilishi kerak edi. [20]

    Prototiplar va sinov parvozlari Tartibga solish

    1940 yil 3 -noyabrda prototip "sariq" rangga bo'yalgan va hali ham kodlangan samolyot prototipi E-0234, demontaj qilindi, avtomobil bilan Xatfildga ko'chirildi va portlashdan himoyalangan kichik binoga joylashtirildi. Ikki tezlikli, bir bosqichli ikkita zaryadlangan Merlin 21 dvigatellari o'rnatildi, ular uch pichoqli de Havilland Hydromatic doimiy tezlikda boshqariladigan pog'onalarni boshqaradi. Dvigatellar 19 noyabrda ishga tushirildi. [39] 24 -noyabr kuni taksi sinovlari de Havilland sinov uchuvchisi Jefri de Xavilland tomonidan o'tkazildi. 25 -noyabr kuni samolyot dvigatellarni o'rnatish bo'yicha bosh konstruktori Jon E. Uolker hamrohligida kichik Haviland tomonidan boshqarilgan birinchi parvozini amalga oshirdi. [5 -band]

    Bu birinchi parvoz uchun, E-0234, og'irligi 14150 lb (6,420 kg), Xetfild maydonidagi o't parvozidan uchib ketdi. Uchish "oddiy va oson" deb e'lon qilindi va katta balandlikka erishilmaguncha, taglik tagligi orqaga tortilmadi. [40] Samolyot soatiga 355 km tezlikka erishdi, birgina muammo shundaki, uning taglik tagiga o'rnatilgan buralgan shnurlari yordamida boshqariladigan pastki eshiklar - 300 mm masofada 12 dyuymgacha ochiq edi. tezlik. [40] Bu muammo bir muncha vaqt davom etdi. Ning chap qanoti E-0234 portga ozgina tortib olish moyilligi bor edi, shuning uchun keyingi parvozlar oldidan armatura sozlanishi, ya'ni qanot burchagining ozgina o'zgarishi amalga oshirildi. [39] [6 -nb]

    1940 yil 5 dekabrda prototip, harbiy seriya raqami W4050, 240 va 255 milya (385 va 410 km/soat) tezliklarda dumli dumaloq tajribali. Uchuvchi buni nazorat ustunida eng ko'p payqadi, bunda boshqarish qiyinlashdi. 10 -dekabrda o'tkazilgan sinov paytida, havo oqimi yo'nalishini o'rganish uchun jun tuplari shubhali joylarga biriktirildi. Xulosa shu bo'ldiki, ichki dvigatel nassellarining orqa qismidan ajratilgan havo oqimi buzilgan, bu esa mahalliy to'xtash joyiga olib kelgan va buzilgan havo oqimi dumaloq samolyotga urilib, bufetga olib kelgan. Havo oqimini tekislash va uni dumaloq samolyotga zo'rlik bilan urishdan qaytarish uchun dvigatelning ichki nassellariga va dumaloq samolyotning old chetiga tortilmaydigan uyalar sinovdan o'tkazildi. [43] Radiator kirish qismlarining old va old qismiga o'rnatilgan bu uyalar va qanot ildizlari, ba'zi tebranishlarni to'xtatdi, lekin dumaloq samolyotning bufetlanishini davolay olmadi. [44]

    1941 yil fevral oyida bufet qanotlarning orqa chetiga uchburchak fileto qo'shish va nassellalarni uzaytirish orqali yo'q qilindi. flaplar ichki va tashqi qismlarga bo'linishi kerak edi. [45] [7 -nb] Bufetdagi muammolar asosan hal bo'lgach, Jon Kanningem uchib ketdi W4050 1941 yil 9 fevralda. U "boshqaruv elementlarining yengilligi va umuman yoqimli ishlash xususiyatlari" bilan katta taassurot qoldirdi. Kanningem xulosaga keldiki, ushbu turdagi sun'iy intellekt uskunalari o'rnatilganda, u Bristol Beaufighter tungi qiruvchi samolyotini almashtirishi mumkin. [45]

    1941 yil 16 yanvarda o'tkazilgan sud jarayonida. W4050 6000 fut (1800 m) da Spitfire -ni ortda qoldirdi. Dastlabki hisob -kitoblarga ko'ra, "Mosquito" prototipi yuzasi ikki barobar va Spitfire Mk II ning og'irligidan ikki baravar ko'p bo'lgani uchun, shuningdek, uning kuchi ikki barobar ko'p bo'lganida, chivin 30 mil/soat tezlik bilan tezlashadi. Keyingi bir necha oy ichida, W4050 1941 yil fevral oyida RAF Boscombe Downda o'tkazilgan testda Spitfire Mk II -ni osonlikcha engib, bu tezlikdan 6300 km/soat tezlik bilan 22000 fut (6.700 m) balandlikka, 360 mph tezlikka erishdi. (580 km/soat) 19,500 fut (5900 m) da Spitfire uchun. [1]

    19 fevralda Boscombe Downda joylashgan Samolyot va Qurol -yarog 'eksperimental korxonasida (AAEE) rasmiy sinovlar boshlandi, garchi de Havilland vakili sinovlarni kechiktirganidan hayron bo'lgan. [46] 24 fevralda, xuddi W4050 qo'pol aerodrom bo'ylab taksida, dumaloq g'ildirak tiqilib, korpus parchalanishiga olib keldi. Ta'mirlash ishlari mart oyining boshiga kelib, foto-razvedka prototipi korpusining bir qismi yordamida amalga oshirildi W4051. [nb 8] Bu muvaffaqiyatsizlikka qaramay, 767 AAEE tomonidan chiqarilgan, "Samolyot uchish yoqimli. Aleronni boshqaruvchi yorug'lik va samarali." Maksimal tezlik soatiga 624 km (2200 fut) da, soatiga 388 milya (6,700 m), maksimal balandligi 34 000 fut. (10 000 m) va maksimal balandligi 2,880 fut/min (880 m/min) 11500 fut (3500 m) da. [46]

    W4050 chivinlar oilasi uchun eksperimental "ishchi ot" sifatida har xil sinov dasturlari uchun ishlatishda davom etdi. [47] 1941 yil oktyabr oyining oxirida u Merlin 61s bilan jihozlangan zavodga qaytdi, bu Merlinsda ikki bosqichli, ikki bosqichli super zaryadlovchi bilan jihozlangan. Yangi dvigatellar bilan birinchi parvoz 1942 yil 20 -iyunda amalga oshirildi. [48] W4050 maksimal tezligi soatiga 28800 fut (8,700 m) da 428 mil/soat (689 km) (qor muhofazasi bilan to'g'ridan-to'g'ri havo qabul qilish moslamalari, FS tishli dvigatellari) va soatiga 437 mil (703 km/soat) 8900 m) qor saqlovchisiz. [49] [9 -nb] 1942 yil oktyabr oyida, NF Mk XV ishlab chiqish ishlari munosabati bilan, W4050 u qanot uchlari bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, masofani 18 futga (59 fut 2 dyuymga) oshirdi va birinchi marta 8 dekabrda ushbu konfiguratsiyada uchdi. [50] Yuqori balandlikdagi, ikki bosqichli, ikki tezlikli Merlin 77 samolyotlari bilan jihozlangan, 1943 yil dekabrda soatiga 707 km/soat tezlikka erishgan. [7] Bu parvozlardan ko'p o'tmay, W4050 samolyotni olib tashlash rejalashtirilgan edi, lekin uning o'rniga Xatfildda ko'rsatma samolyoti bo'lib xizmat qildi. 1958 yil sentyabr oyida W4050 u Solsberi Xoll angariga qaytarildi, u asl konfiguratsiyasini tikladi va de Havilland samolyotlari merosi markazining asosiy eksponatlaridan biriga aylandi. [51] [52]

    W4051, "Mosquito" ning foto-razvedka versiyalari uchun prototip sifatida boshidanoq ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, 1941 yil boshida birinchi parvozini amalga oshirmoqchi edi. W4050 shuni anglatardi W4051 almashtirish uchun korpus ishlatilgan W4051 keyin standart ishlab chiqarilgan korpus yordamida qayta qurildi va birinchi marta 1941 yil 10-iyunda uchib ketdi. Bu prototip qisqa dvigatelli nassellalar, bitta bo'lakli so'nggi qanotlar va 19 futli 5,5 dyuymli (5,931 m) "1-sonli" samolyotda ishlashda davom etdi. tomonidan ishlatilgan W4050, lekin ishlab chiqarish standarti 54 fut 2 dyuymli (16,51 m) qanotlarga ega edi va operatsion tarzda uchadigan yagona chivin prototipiga aylandi. [53]

    Qiruvchi prototipining qurilishi, W4052, shuningdek, Solsbury Hall maxfiy inshootida amalga oshirildi. U 1,460 ot kuchiga ega (1,090 kVt) Merlin 21 samolyotlari bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, burni tekis, o'q o'tkazmaydigan, old oynasi bilan o'zgartirilgan, qattiq burni to'rtta .303 ta Britaniya Brauning pulemyotlari va ularning o'q qutilariga o'rnatilgan. biriktirilgan panel. [54] 20 mmli to'rtta Hispano Mk II to'pi kokpit tagida joylashgan bo'lakda joylashgan bo'lib, shimlari bomba bo'linmasiga tushgan va avtomatik portlovchi eshik eshiklari qo'lda ishlaydigan eshik eshiklari bilan almashtirilgan, ular kartridjli ejektorli qistirmalarni o'z ichiga olgan. [55]

    Kecha va kunduz jangchi sifatida, prototip W4052 AI Mk IV uskunasi bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, u markaziy Brauninglar va tashqi qanot uchlari orqali qabul qiluvchi antennalar orasiga o'rnatilgan "o'q uchi" uzatuvchi antenna bilan jihozlangan va u RDM2a "Maxsus Kecha" qora rangiga bo'yalgan. [56] [10 -nb] Bu, shuningdek, kengaytirilgan dvigatel nassellari bilan qurilgan birinchi prototip edi. [58] W4052 Keyinchalik u boshqa modifikatsiyalar bilan sinovdan o'tkazildi, jumladan, bomba tokchalari, tanklar, qanotlarning etakchi chetidagi balonli kabel to'sarlari, Gamilton vintlari va tormoz pervanellari, tepaga yaqinlashish va rulning kattaroq tormozi. Prototip 1946 yil 28 yanvarda olib tashlanmaguncha sinov mashinasi vazifasini bajarishda davom etdi. [7] 4055 1941 yil 17 sentyabrda birinchi "Mosquito" operatsion parvozini amalga oshirdi. [59]

    Parvozlarni sinovdan o'tkazishda Mosquito prototiplari bir qancha konfiguratsiyalarni sinab ko'rish uchun o'zgartirildi. W4050 1941 yil iyulda bu g'oyadan voz kechish uchun kokpit orqasida minora o'rnatildi. W4052 qiruvchi prototipiga o'rnatilgan Youngman Frill havo tormozining birinchi versiyasi bor edi. Frill qanot orqasidagi korpus atrofiga o'rnatildi va tutilish paytida tezlikni sekinlashtirish uchun qo'ng'iroqlar va venturi effektlari bilan ochildi va 1942 yil yanvar -avgust oylarida sinovdan o'tkazildi, lekin pastki korpusni tushirish xuddi shunday ta'sirga ega bo'lganida ham tashlab ketildi. bufet. [59]

    Ishlab chiqarish rejalari va Amerika qiziqishi Edit

    Havo vazirligi 1941 yil 21 -iyunda ommaviy ishlab chiqarish rejalarini tasdiqladi, shu vaqtga kelib chivin dunyodagi eng tez ishlaydigan samolyotlardan biriga aylandi. [7] 19 ta foto-razvedka (PR) modeli va 176 jangchiga buyurtma berildi. 1941 yil iyul oyida yana 50 kishi aniqlanmagan, ular qurolsiz tezkor bombardimonchilar ekanligi tasdiqlangan. [7] 1942 yil yanvar oyining oxiriga kelib, barcha variantlardagi 1378 ta chivin, shu jumladan 20 ta T.III trener va 334 ta FB.VI bombardimonchilari uchun shartnomalar tuzildi. Yana 400 ta de Havilland Canada tomonidan qurilishi kerak edi. [60]

    1941 yil 20 aprelda W4050 samolyot ishlab chiqarish vaziri lord Beaverbrukka namoyish etildi. Mosquito bir qator parvozlarni amalga oshirdi, shu jumladan bitta dvigatelga bitta dumaloq ko'tarilish. Shuningdek, AQSh generali Genri X. Arnold va uning yordamchisi mayor Elvud Quesada ham bor edi. "Men eslayman. Men chivinni birinchi marta ko'rganimda, biz uning ishidan hayratda qoldim. Biz uning tashqi ko'rinishiga qoyil qoldik. "Tez ko'rinadigan samolyot odatda tezdir va chivin o'sha davr standartlariga ko'ra juda yaxshi tartibga solingan samolyot edi va u juda hurmatga sazovor edi". [45] [61]

    Sinovlar Buyuk Britaniya, Avstraliya va Kanada o'rtasida kelajakdagi ishlab chiqarish rejalarini tuzdi. Olti kundan so'ng, Arnold ishlab chiqaruvchining chizmalarining to'liq to'plami bilan Amerikaga qaytdi. Uning hisoboti natijasida beshta kompaniyaga (Beech, Curtiss-Wright, Fairchild, Fleetwings va Hughes) de Havilland ma'lumotlarini baholash so'raldi. Beech Aircraft hisoboti umumiy ko'rinishni yakunladi: "Ko'rinib turibdiki, bu samolyot samarali samolyotlar ishlab chiqarish uchun yaroqsiz bo'lgan qurilish materialidan foydalanish uchun xizmat ko'rsatish qobiliyatini, tuzilish kuchini, qurilish qulayligini va uchish xususiyatlarini qurbon qilgan". [62] Amerikaliklar Lockheed P-38 Lightning xuddi shu vazifalarni bajarishi mumkinligi haqidagi kelishuvga asoslanib, litsenziyali ishlab chiqarish taklifini qo'llab-quvvatlamadilar. Biroq, Arnold Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Qurolli Kuchlari Harbiy havo kuchlarini (USAAF) dizaynni qabul qilmasalar ham baholashga chaqirdi. 1941 yil 12 dekabrda, Pearl -Harborga qilingan hujumdan so'ng, USAAF bu maqsadda bitta samolyotni so'radi. [59]

    Sharh Tahrirlash

    Ba'zilar yog'och qurilishi eskirgan deb hisoblagan bo'lsalar-da, de Havilland DH 91 Albatros texnikasi bilan erishgan yutuqlari monokok-sendvich qobig'idan foydalangan holda tez va engil bombardimonchi samolyotga olib kelishi mumkinligini ta'kidladi. [63] Buning foydasiga dalillar prototiplash tezligi, tez rivojlanish, jig-qurilish vaqtini minimallashtirish va alohida toifadagi ishchi kuchini ishga kiritish edi. Qatlamli-balsa-qatlamli monokok korpusli va bir parcha qanotli, qoplamali mato qoplamali, mukammal aerodinamik ko'rsatkich va og'irlik, kuch va qattiqlik bilan birlashtiriladi. Shu bilan birga, dizayn guruhi Havo vazirligining mudofaa qurollanishi haqidagi konservativ qarashlari bilan kurashishi kerak edi. Dizaynerlarning fikriga ko'ra, vazirlik tomonidan ma'qullangan qurol va qurol minoralari samolyotning aerodinamik xususiyatlarini pasaytiradi, tezlik va manevrlikni pasaytiradi. Bu dalillarni keltirish bilan birga, Geoffrey de Havilland o'zining shaxsiy biznesini kech bosqichgacha moliyalashtirdi. Loyiha kutilganidan ham omadli o'tdi. Dastlabki bombardimonchi va foto-razvedka versiyalari juda tez bo'lgan, keyingi variantlarni qurollantirish esa, asosan, tajovuzkor deb hisoblanishi mumkin edi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    FB Mk VI (Fighter-bombardimonchi Mark 6) deb nomlangan eng ko'p ishlab chiqarilgan variant, uchta pichoqli de Havilland gidromatik pervanellarini boshqaradigan ikkita Merlin Mk 23 yoki Mk 25 dvigatellari bilan jihozlangan. FB Mk VI uchun odatiy qurol-yarog 'to'rtta Browning .303 pulemyoti va 20 mmli to'rtta Hispano to'pi edi, hujum yuki esa 910 kg gacha bomba yoki sakkizta RP-3 boshqarilmaydigan raketadan iborat edi. [64]

    Ishlash tahriri

    Dizayn yaxshi manevrlikni ta'minlaydigan engil va samarali boshqaruv sirtlari uchun qayd etilgan, lekin rulni yuqori tezlikda agressiv ishlatilmasligini talab qilgan. Qo'nish va uchish paytida past tezlikda boshqariladigan kambag'al aileron ham tajribasiz ekipajlar uchun muammo bo'lgan. [65] Past tezlikda uchish uchun qanotlarni 15 ° ga o'rnatish, tezlikni soatiga 320 km/soatgacha va aylanish tezligini 2650 ga o'rnatish kerak edi. Past tezlikda uchish uchun tezlikni soatiga 240 km/soatgacha kamaytirish mumkin. [66] Kruizda maksimal tezlikka erishish uchun eng maqbul tezlik soatiga 320 km (17700 kg) og'irlikda edi. [66]

    Mosquito past tezlikda soatiga 120 mil tezlikda harakatlanar edi, uning tagligi va qopqog'i ko'tarilgan edi. Ikkalasi ham tushirilganda, to'xtash tezligi soatiga 120 dan 100 milgacha (190 dan 160 km/soatgacha) kamaydi. Oddiy yaqinlashuv burchagi va sharoitida to'xtash tezligi soatiga 160 dan 180 km gacha 100-110 milya edi. Savdo joyi haqida ogohlantirish bufet yordamida amalga oshirildi va savdo tezligi soatiga 19 km tezlikda bo'ladi. Do'konning ahvoli va ta'siri og'ir emas edi. Tekshirish ustuni orqaga tortilmaguncha qanot tushmadi. Burun sekin osilib qoldi va tiklanish oson kechdi. [66]

    Mosquito operatsion hayotining boshida, ishlab chiqarish samolyotlarida chiqindilarni sovutish uchun qabul qilish kafanlari haddan tashqari qizib ketgan. Olovli amortizatorlar tungi operatsiyalarda chiqindi porlashining oldini oldi, lekin ular ishlashga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Bir nechta ejektor va egzoz kanallari muammoni hal qilishga yordam berdi va PR.VIII, B.IX va B.XVI variantlarida ishlatilgan. Bu faqat B.IXda tezlikni soatiga 10 dan 13 milya (16 dan 21 km/s gacha) oshirdi. [7]

    Fuselage tahrirlash

    Oval qismli korpus-mahoba yoki beton qolip ustida hosil qilingan vertikal ravishda ajratilgan ikkita yarmida qurilgan, ramkasiz monokok qobig'i. [11 -nb] Bosim tarmoqli qisqichlar bilan qo'llanilgan. Qisqichbaqasimon sendvich terilari uch qatlamli qayinli, Ekvador balzasining yadrolari bilan qoplangan. [12-nb] Umuman olganda, kichikroq, lekin hayotiy muhim sohalarda, masalan, teshiklar va biriktiruvchi zonalarda, kuchli yog'ochlar, shu jumladan samolyot archa, balsa yadrosining o'rnini bosdi. Sendvich terining asosiy joylari qalinligi atigi 0,55 dyuym (14 mm) edi. [67] Yog'ochni mustahkamlashning turli shakllari bilan, ko'pincha laminatlangan, sendvich terisi katta qattiqlik va burilishga qarshilik ko'rsatdi. The separate fuselage halves speeded construction, permitting access by personnel working in parallel with others, as the work progressed. [68]

    Work on the separate half-fuselages included installation of control mechanisms and cabling. Screwed inserts into the inner skins that would be under stress in service were reinforced using round shear plates made from a fabric-Bakelite composite. [69]

    Transverse bulkheads were also compositely built-up with several species of timber, plywood, and balsa. Seven vertically halved bulkheads were installed within each moulded fuselage shell before the main "boxing up" operation. Bulkhead number seven was especially strongly built, since it carried the fitments and transmitted the aerodynamic loadings for the tailplane and rudder. [70] [nb 13] The fuselage had a large ventral section cut-out, strongly reinforced, that allowed the fuselage to be lowered onto the wing centre-section at a later stage of assembly. [72]

    For early production aircraft, the structural assembly adhesive was casein-based. At a later stage, this was replaced by "Aerolite", a synthetic urea-formaldehyde type, which was more durable. [73] [nb 14] To provide for the edge joints for the fuselage halves, zones near the outer edges of the shells had their balsa sandwich cores replaced by much stronger inner laminations of birch plywood. For the bonding together of the two halves ("boxing up"), a longitudinal cut was machined into these edges. The profile of this cut was a form of V-groove. Part of the edge bonding process also included adding further longitudinal plywood lap strips on the outside of the shells. [68] [72] The half bulkheads of each shell were bonded to their corresponding pair in a similar way. Two laminated wooden clamps were used in the after portion of the fuselage to provide supports during this complex gluing work. The resulting large structural components had to be kept completely still and held in the correct environment until the glue cured. [68] [76]

    For finishing, a covering of doped madapollam (a fine, plain-woven cotton) fabric was stretched tightly over the shell and several coats of red, followed by silver dope, were added, followed by the final camouflage paint. [77]

    Wing Edit

    The all-wood wing pairs comprised a single structural unit throughout the wingspan, with no central longitudinal joint. [79] Instead, the spars ran from wingtip to wingtip. There was a single continuous main spar and another continuous rear spar. Because of the combination of dihedral with the forward sweep of the trailing edges of the wings, this rear spar was one of the most complex units to laminate and to finish machining after the bonding and curing. It had to produce the correct 3D tilt in each of two planes. Also, it was designed and made to taper from the wing roots towards the wingtips. Both principal spars were of ply box construction, using in general 0.25-in plywood webs with laminated spruce flanges, plus a number of additional reinforcements and special details. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    Spruce and plywood ribs were connected with gusset joints. Some heavy-duty ribs contained pieces of ash and walnut, as well as the special five ply that included veneers laid up at 45°. The upper skin construction was in two layers of 0.25-in five-ply birch, separated by Douglas fir stringers running in the span-wise direction. [80] The wings were covered with madapollam fabric and doped in a similar manner to the fuselage. The wing was installed into the roots by means of four large attachment points. [81] [82] The engine radiators were fitted in the inner wing, just outboard of the fuselage on either side. These gave less drag. The radiators themselves were split into three sections: an oil cooler section outboard, the middle section forming the coolant radiator and the inboard section serving the cabin heater. [83]

    The wing contained metal-framed and -skinned ailerons, but the flaps were made of wood and were hydraulically controlled. The nacelles were mostly wood, although for strength, the engine mounts were all metal, as were the undercarriage parts. [84] Engine mounts of welded steel tube were added, along with simple landing gear oleos filled with rubber blocks. Wood was used to carry only in-plane loads, with metal fittings used for all triaxially loaded components such as landing gear, engine mounts, control-surface mounting brackets, and the wing-to-fuselage junction. [85] The outer leading wing edge had to be brought 22 in (56 cm) further forward to accommodate this design. [83] The main tail unit was all wood built. The control surfaces, the rudder, and elevator were aluminium-framed and fabric-covered. [84] The total weight of metal castings and forgings used in the aircraft was only 280 lb (130 kg). [86]

    In November 1944, several crashes occurred in the Far East. At first, these were thought to be a result of wing-structure failures. The casein glue, it was said, cracked when exposed to extreme heat and/or monsoon conditions. This caused the upper surfaces to "lift" from the main spar. An investigating team led by Major Hereward de Havilland travelled to India and produced a report in early December 1944 stating, "the accidents were not caused by the deterioration of the glue, but by shrinkage of the airframe during the wet monsoon season". [nb 15] However, a later inquiry by Cabot & Myers firmly attributed the accidents to faulty manufacture and this was confirmed by a further investigation team by the Ministry of Aircraft Production at Defford, which found faults in six Mosquito marks (all built at de Havilland's Hatfield and Leavesden plants). The defects were similar, and none of the aircraft had been exposed to monsoon conditions or termite attack. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    The investigators concluded that construction defects occurred at the two plants. They found that the ". standard of glueing. left much to be desired." [88] [89] Records at the time showed that accidents caused by "loss of control" were three times more frequent on Mosquitos than on any other type of aircraft. The Air Ministry forestalled any loss of confidence in the Mosquito by holding to Major de Havilland's initial investigation in India that the accidents were caused "largely by climate" [90] To solve the problem of seepage into the interior, a strip of plywood was set along the span of the wing to seal the entire length of the skin joint. [88]

    Systems Edit

    The fuel systems gave the Mosquito good range and endurance, using up to nine fuel tanks. Two outer wing tanks each contained 58 imp gal (70 US gal 260 L) of fuel. [91] These were complemented by two inner wing fuel tanks, each containing 143 imp gal (172 US gal 650 L), located between the wing root and engine nacelle. In the central fuselage were twin fuel tanks mounted between bulkhead number two and three aft of the cockpit. [92] In the FB.VI, these tanks contained 25 imp gal (30 US gal 110 L) each, [91] while in the B.IV and other unarmed Mosquitos each of the two centre tanks contained 68 imp gal (82 US gal 310 L). [93] [94] Both the inner wing, and fuselage tanks are listed as the "main tanks" and the total internal fuel load of 452 imp gal (545 US gal 2,055 L) was initially deemed appropriate for the type. [91] In addition, the FB Mk VI could have larger fuselage tanks, increasing the capacity to 63 imp gal (76 US gal 290 L). Drop tanks of 50 imp gal (60 US gal 230 L) or 100 imp gal (120 US gal 450 L) could be mounted under each wing, increasing the total fuel load to 615 or 715 imp gal (739 or 859 US gal 2,800 or 3,250 L). [91]

    The design of the Mark VI allowed for a provisional long-range fuel tank to increase range for action over enemy territory, for the installation of bomb release equipment specific to depth charges for strikes against enemy shipping, or for the simultaneous use of rocket projectiles along with a 100 imp gal (120 US gal 450 L) drop tank under each wing supplementing the main fuel cells. [95] The FB.VI had a wingspan of 54 ft 2 in (16.51 m), a length (over guns) of 41 ft 2 in (12.55 m). It had a maximum speed of 378 mph (608 km/h) at 13,200 ft (4,000 m). Maximum take-off weight was 22,300 lb (10,100 kg) and the range of the aircraft was 1,120 mi (1,800 km) with a service ceiling of 26,000 ft (7,900 m). [96]

    To reduce fuel vaporisation at the high altitudes of photographic reconnaissance variants, the central and inner wing tanks were pressurised. The pressure venting cock located behind the pilot's seat controlled the pressure valve. As the altitude increased, the valve increased the volume applied by a pump. This system was extended to include field modifications of the fuel tank system. [97]

    The engine oil tanks were in the engine nacelles. Each nacelle contained a 15 imp gal (18 US gal 68 l) oil tank, including a 2.5 imp gal (3.0 US gal 11 l) air space. The oil tanks themselves had no separate coolant controlling systems. The coolant header tank was in the forward nacelle, behind the propeller. The remaining coolant systems were controlled by the coolant radiators shutters in the forward inner wing compartment, between the nacelle and the fuselage and behind the main engine cooling radiators, which were fitted in the leading edge. Electric-pneumatic operated radiator shutters directed and controlled airflow through the ducts and into the coolant valves, to predetermined temperatures. [98]

    Electrical power came from a 24 volt DC generator on the starboard (No. 2) engine and an alternator on the port engine, which also supplied AC power for radios. [99] The radiator shutters, supercharger gear change, gun camera, bomb bay, bomb/rocket release and all the other crew controlled instruments were powered by a 24 V battery. [98] The radio communication devices included VHF and HF communications, GEE navigation, and IFF and G.P. devices. The electric generators also powered the fire extinguishers. Located on the starboard side of the cockpit, the switches would operate automatically in the event of a crash. In flight, a warning light would flash to indicate a fire, should the pilot not already be aware of it. In later models, to save liquids and engine clean up time in case of belly landing, the fire extinguisher was changed to semi-automatic triggers. [100]

    The main landing gear, housed in the nacelles behind the engines, were raised and lowered hydraulically. The main landing gear shock absorbers were de Havilland manufactured and used a system of rubber in compression, rather than hydraulic oleos, with twin pneumatic brakes for each wheel. [99] The Dunlop-Marstrand anti-shimmy tailwheel was also retractable.

    The de Havilland Mosquito operated in many roles, performing medium bomber, reconnaissance, tactical strike, anti-submarine warfare and shipping attacks and night fighter duties, until the end of the war. [101] In July 1941, the first production Mosquito W4051 (a production fuselage combined with some prototype flying surfaces – see Prototypes and test flights) was sent to No. 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (PRU), at RAF Benson. [102] The secret reconnaissance flights of this aircraft were the first operational missions of the Mosquito. In 1944, the journal Flight gave 19 September 1941 as date of the first PR mission, at an altitude "of some 20,000 ft". [103]

    On 15 November 1941, 105 Squadron, RAF, took delivery at RAF Swanton Morley, Norfolk, of the first operational Mosquito Mk. B.IV bomber, serial no. W4064. [104] Throughout 1942, 105 Squadron, based next at RAF Horsham St. Faith, then from 29 September, RAF Marham, undertook daylight low-level and shallow dive attacks. [105] [nb 16] Apart from the Oslo and Berlin raids, the strikes were mainly on industrial and infrastructure targets in occupied Netherlands and Norway, France and northern and western Germany. [106] The crews faced deadly flak and fighters, particularly Focke-Wulf Fw 190s, which they called snappers. Germany still controlled continental airspace and the Fw 190s were often already airborne and at an advantageous altitude. Collisions within the formations also caused casualties. It was the Mosquito's excellent handling capabilities, rather than pure speed, that facilitated successful evasions. [107]

    The Mosquito was first announced publicly on 26 September 1942 after the Oslo Mosquito raid of 25 September. It was featured in The Times on 28 September and the next day the newspaper published two captioned photographs illustrating the bomb strikes and damage. [108] [109] On 6 December 1942, Mosquitos from Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons made up part of the bomber force used in Operation Oyster, the large No. 2 Group raid against the Philips works at Eindhoven. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    From mid-1942 to mid-1943, Mosquito bombers flew high-speed, medium and low-altitude daylight missions against factories, railways and other pinpoint targets in Germany and German-occupied Europe. From June 1943, Mosquito bombers were formed into the Light Night Striking Force to guide RAF Bomber Command heavy bomber raids and as "nuisance" bombers, dropping Blockbuster bombs – 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) "cookies" – in high-altitude, high-speed raids that German night fighters were almost powerless to intercept. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    As a night fighter from mid-1942, the Mosquito intercepted Luftvaffe raids on Britain, notably those of Operation Steinbock in 1944. Starting in July 1942, Mosquito night-fighter units raided Luftvaffe airfields. As part of 100 Group, it was flown as a night fighter and as an intruder supporting Bomber Command heavy bombers that reduced losses during 1944 and 1945. [110] [nb 17]

    The Mosquito fighter-bomber served as a strike aircraft in the Second Tactical Air Force (2TAF) from its inception on 1 June 1943. [111] The main objective was to prepare for the invasion of occupied Europe a year later. In Operation Overlord three Mosquito FB VI wings flew close air support for the Allied armies in co-operation with other RAF units equipped with the North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber. In the months between the foundation of 2TAF and its duties from D day onwards, vital training was interspersed with attacks on V-1 flying bomb launch sites. [112]

    In another example of the daylight precision raids carried out by the Mosquitos of Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons, on 30 January 1943, the 10th anniversary of the Nazis' seizure of power, a morning Mosquito attack knocked out the main Berlin broadcasting station while Luftvaffe Chief Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring was speaking, putting his speech off the air. A second sortie in the afternoon inconvenienced another speech, by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. [113] Lecturing a group of German aircraft manufacturers, Göring said:

    In 1940 I could at least fly as far as Glasgow in most of my aircraft, but not now! It makes me furious when I see the Mosquito. I turn green and yellow with envy. The British, who can afford aluminium better than we can, knock together a beautiful wooden aircraft that every piano factory over there is building, and they give it a speed which they have now increased yet again. What do you make of that? There is nothing the British do not have. They have the geniuses and we have the nincompoops. After the war is over I'm going to buy a British radio set – then at least I'll own something that has always worked. [114]

    During this daylight-raiding phase, Nos. 105 and 139 Squadrons flew 139 combat operations and aircrew losses were high. [115] Even the losses incurred in the squadrons' dangerous Blenheim era were exceeded in percentage terms. The Roll of Honour shows 51 aircrew deaths from the end of May 1942 to April 1943. [116] In the corresponding period, crews gained three Mentions in Despatches, two DFMs and three DFCs. The low-level daylight attacks finished on 27 May 1943 with strikes on the Schott glass and Zeiss instrument works, both in Jena. Subsequently, when low-level precision attacks required Mosquitos, they were allotted to squadrons operating the FB.IV version. Examples include the Aarhus air raid and Operation Jericho. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    Since the beginning of the year, the German fighter force had become seriously overstretched. [117] In April 1943, in response to "political humiliation" caused by the Mosquito, Göring ordered the formation of special Luftvaffe units (Jagdgeschwader 25, commanded by Oberstleutnant Herbert Ihlefeld and Jagdgeschwader 50, ostida Major Hermann Graf) to combat the Mosquito attacks, though these units, which were "little more than glorified squadrons", were unsuccessful against the elusive RAF aircraft. [118] Post-war German histories also indicate that there was a belief within the Luftwaffe that Mosquito aircraft "gave only a weak radar signal.". [119] [nb 18]

    The first Mosquito Squadron to be equipped with Oboe (navigation) was No. 109, based at RAF Wyton, after working as an experimental unit at RAF Boscombe Down. They used Oboe in anger for the first time on 31 December 1942 and 1 January 1943, target marking for a force of heavy bombers attacking Düsseldorf. [122] [nb 19] . On 1 June, the two pioneering Squadrons joined No. 109 Squadron in the re-formed No. 8 Group RAF (Bomber Command). Initially they were engaged in moderately high altitude (about 10,000 ft (3,000 m)) night bombing, with 67 trips during that summer, mainly to Berlin. Soon after, Nos. 105 and 139 Squadron bombers were widely used by the RAF Pathfinder Force, marking targets for the main night-time strategic bombing force. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    In what were, initially, diversionary "nuisance raids," Mosquito bombers dropped 4,000 lb Blockbuster bombs or "Cookies." Particularly after the introduction of H2S (radar) in some Mosquitos, these raids carrying larger bombs succeeded to the extent that they provided a significant additional form of attack to the large formations of "heavies." [123] Latterly in the war, there were a significant number of all-Mosquito raids on big German cities involving up to 100 or more aircraft. On the night of 20/21 February 1945, for example, Mosquitos of No. 8 Group mounted the first of 36 consecutive night raids on Berlin. [124]

    From 1943, Mosquitos with RAF Coastal Command attacked Kriegsmarine U-boats and intercepted transport ship concentrations. After Operation Overlord, the U-boat threat in the Western Approaches decreased fairly quickly, but correspondingly the Norwegian and Danish waters posed greater dangers. Hence the RAF Coastal Command Mosquitos were moved to Scotland to counter this threat. The Strike Wing at Banff stood up in September 1944 and comprised Mosquito aircraft of No's 143, 144, 235 and 248 Squadrons Royal Air Force and No.333 Squadron Royal Norwegian Air Force. Despite an initially high loss rate, the Mosquito bomber variants ended the war with the lowest losses of any aircraft in RAF Bomber Command service. [125]

    The Mosquito also proved a very capable night fighter. Some of the most successful RAF pilots flew these variants. For example, Wing Commander Branse Burbridge claimed 21 kills, and Wing Commander John Cunningham claimed 19 of his 20 victories at night on Mosquitos.

    Mosquitos of No. 100 Group RAF acted as night intruders operating at high level in support of the Bomber Command "heavies", to counter the enemy tactic of merging into the bomber stream, which, towards the end of 1943, was causing serious allied losses. [126] These RCM (radio countermeasures) aircraft were fitted with a device called "Serrate" to allow them to track down German night fighters from their Lichtenstein B/C (low-UHF-band) and Lichtenstein SN-2 (lower end of the VHF FM broadcast band) radar emissions, as well as a device named "Perfectos" that tracked German IFF signals. These methods were responsible for the destruction of 257 German aircraft from December 1943 to April 1945. Mosquito fighters from all units accounted for 487 German aircraft during the war, the vast majority of which were night fighters. [127]

    One Mosquito is listed as belonging to German secret operations unit Kampfgeschwader 200, which tested, evaluated and sometimes clandestinely operated captured enemy aircraft during the war. The aircraft was listed on the order of battle of Versuchsverband OKL ning, 2 Staffel, Stab Gruppe on 10 November and 31 December 1944. However, on both lists, the Mosquito is listed as unserviceable. [128]

    The Mosquito flew its last official European war mission on 21 May 1945, when Mosquitos of 143 Squadron and 248 Squadron RAF were ordered to continue to hunt German submarines that might be tempted to continue the fight instead of submarines all the Mosquitos encountered were passive E-boats. [129]

    The last operational RAF Mosquitos were the Mosquito TT.35's, which were finally retired from No. 3 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-Operation Unit (CAACU) in May 1963. [130]

    In 1947–49, up to 180 Canadian surplus Mosquitoes flew many operations for the Nationalist Chinese under Chiang Kai-shek in the civil war against Communist forces. Pilots from three squadrons of Mosquitoes claimed to have sunk or damaged 500 ships during one invasion attempt. As the Communists assumed control, the remaining aircraft were evacuated to Formosa, where they flew missions against shipping. [131]

    Until the end of 1942 the RAF always used Roman numerals (I, II, . ) for mark numbers 1943–1948 was a transition period during which new aircraft entering service were given Arabic numerals (1, 2, . ) for mark numbers, but older aircraft retained their Roman numerals. From 1948 onwards, Arabic numerals were used exclusively. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    Prototypes Edit

    Three prototypes were built, each with a different configuration. The first to fly was W4050 on 25 November 1940, followed by the fighter W4052 on 15 May 1941 and the photo-reconnaissance prototype W4051 on 10 June 1941. W4051 later flew operationally with 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (1 PRU). [ iqtibos kerak ]


    Vlad the Impaler

    Tahririyatimiz siz yuborgan narsalarni ko'rib chiqadi va maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish kerakligini aniqlaydi.

    Vlad the Impaler, to `liq Vlad III Dracula or Romanian Vlad III Drăculea, ham deyiladi Vlad III or Romanian Vlad Țepeș, (born 1431, Sighișoara, Transylvania [now in Romania]—died 1476, north of present-day Bucharest, Romania), voivode (military governor, or prince) of Walachia (1448 1456–1462 1476) whose cruel methods of punishing his enemies gained notoriety in 15th-century Europe. Some in the scholarly community have suggested that Bram Stoker’s Dracula character was based on Vlad.

    How did Vlad the Impaler become famous?

    Vlad was a voivode (prince) of Walachia (part of modern Romania). Surrounded by enemies that included the Hungarians, the Ottomans, his younger brother, and Walachian nobility, Vlad employed extremely cruel measures to inspire fear in those who opposed him. He earned his nickname by impaling his enemies on stakes.

    What was Vlad the Impaler’s childhood like?

    Vlad was the second son of Vlad II Dracul. When he was 11 years old, Vlad was sent to the court of the Ottoman sultan Murad II as a hostage. His father and elder brother were assassinated when he was 16, and Vlad spent the rest of his life fighting to claim his father's title.

    How did Vlad the Impaler change the world?

    Vlad was a minor player during the early period of Ottoman domination of what is today Romania. He likely would have remained a historical curiosity known only to scholars of the region had it not been for Bram Stoker's novel Drakula. Stoker may have taken some inspiration from Vlad to create the archetypal vampire.

    How did Vlad the Impaler die?

    In 1476 Vlad was ambushed by an Ottoman patrol and killed. He was reportedly decapitated, and his head was sent to the sultan in Constantinople as a trophy.

    Vlad was the second of four brothers born into the noble family of Vlad II Dracul. His sobriquet Dracula (meaning “son of Dracul”) was derived from the Latin draco (“dragon”) after his father’s induction into the Order of the Dragon, created by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund for the defense of Christian Europe against the Ottoman Empire. Vlad moved to Târgoviște, Walachia, in 1436 when his father assumed leadership of the Walachian voivodate (principality). In 1442 Vlad and his younger brother were sent to the court of Ottoman Sultan Murad II as collateral to assure the sultan that their father, in a reversal of his previous position, would support Ottoman policies. Vlad returned in 1448, having been informed of the assassination of his father and elder brother at the hands of Walachian boyars (nobles) the year before.

    Vlad then embarked upon the first of a lifelong series of campaigns to regain his father’s seat. His opponents included the boyars as well as his younger brother, who was supported by the Ottoman sultan. He emerged briefly victorious in 1448 but was deposed after only two months. After an eight-year struggle, Vlad again claimed the voivodate.

    It was during this period of rule that he committed the atrocities for which he was best known. His penchant for impaling his enemies on stakes in the ground and leaving them to die earned him the name Vlad the Impaler (Romanian: Vlad Țepeș). He inflicted this type of torture on foreign and domestic enemies alike: notably, as he retreated from a battle in 1462, he left a field filled with thousands of impaled victims as a deterrent to pursuing Ottoman forces. That year he escaped Ottoman capture only to be intercepted by Hungarian forces and imprisoned by Matthias I of Hungary, whose assistance he had sought. Vlad regained his seat in 1476 but was killed in battle the same year. He remained a folk hero in the region for his efforts against Ottoman encroachment.

    It often has been thought that Stoker based the title character of Drakula on Vlad. Though Stoker’s notes for the novel do include mentions of “Dracula,” the historical account from which the notes were taken mentions only the appellation, not the deeds for which its bearer was known. Some scholars have speculated that Stoker’s conversations with a noted historian, Hermann Bamburger, may have provided him with information on Vlad’s violent nature, though there is no concrete evidence to support that theory.


    Revisionist History: beyond the gatekeepers

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    Idaho State Department of Education

    Talented coaches are needed in all regions of Idaho to help K-3 teachers learn and apply the science of reading – rocket fuel to turn our youngest readers into lifelong learners.

    IMPORTANT: We will be performing maintenance on all SDE applications starting Wednesday, December 27, 2018 at 5:00 pm M.S.T. All applications and services will be online by Tuesday, January 2, 2018 at 8:00 am M.S.T.

    If you have any questions regarding this maintenance, please contact our support directly at 208-332-6987 or email [email protected] for assistance.

    Sherri Ybarra
    Superintendent of Public Instruction

    Idaho education is in transition, but commitment and ingenuity remain strong.

    As the state of Idaho slowly emerges from its ‘stay home’ order, this is still an uncertain time for Idahoans, and all Americans. But one certainty is our commitment to helping schools and students succeed – and stay safe.

    If anything, that commitment throughout Idaho’s K-12 system has strengthened during this pandemic crisis. Teachers and administrators throughout the state work tirelessly to maintain continuity of learning as best they can and come up with new ways to provide essential services, convey information and give students the personal connection so essential to learning. Parents throughout the state did an amazing job helping with at-home schooling while juggling their own jobs and family responsibilities.

    Summer learning has never been more important than it is this year, and I urge parents and students to read, explore ideas and make use of available courses and educational games. The State Department of Education offers a wealth of online resources for parents and educators, from broadband providers to the Khan Academy, updated frequently and collected at two online sites maintained by the SDE : the school resources page of the governor’s Idaho coronavirus website, and our Educational Resources for Parents & Educators page.

    As we move through the stages of reopening and enjoy increasing options for activity and gatherings, I join Gov. Little in urging Idahoans to comply with the governor’s ‘Stay Healthy’ guidelines, including social distancing and wearing a mask in public, particularly when the circumstance places you closer than 6 feet from other people.

    I’m continually impressed with how Idahoans are weathering this storm, and I know the strength and innovation of this time will serve us well in the future.


    RECENT HEADLINES

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    REMAINDER OF 2021 ODP CYCLE CANCELLED

    After extensive effort to piece together opportunities for ODP in Idaho this year, we have made the very difficult decision to cancel our 2021 ODP cycle.

    2021 Spring RTC Training Registration Open

    Idaho Regional Training Centers are kicking off across the State NEXT MONTH. Are you in yet?

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    Idaho Youth Soccer is pleased to announce our approval of Hosting a National “C” Course for 2021! Below are the pertinent details for the upcoming course. *All participants must make each.

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    Idaho Youth Soccer Association is excited to present the FIFA21 Idaho Esports Winter Tournament! This 1v1 tournament is exclusively open to youth, 13+ years of age and older. There is no entry.

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    IYSA members, after extensive thought, consultation, and careful deliberation, we have made the very difficult decision to cancel our ODP tryouts and trainings for the remainder of the 2020.

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    Congratulations to the Idaho ODP players that have been selected to participate in the US Youth Soccer ODP Inter-regional Event being held in Orlando, FL. Boys Session: November 19 – 23.

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    STAR CARD Quick Facts

    Is a Star Card mandatory?   Yo'q

    A license or ID without a Star can still be used for most functions, just not for airport security to fly commercially or access to federal buildings, including military bases after May 3, 2023. Go to Choosing not to get a Star Card for a list of alternative documents that allow you to fly commercially or access a federal facility without getting a Star Card.

    What does a Star Card look like?

    The only visual difference between the current Idaho driver's license and ID card design and the Star Card is the Star on the right hand side of the card. Both allow you to legally drive and prove your identity for tasks like buying alcohol, obtaining social services, or registering to vote.

    How can I get a Star Card?

    Star Card will be available beginning in early 2018 in Idaho at the same locations where you get a driver's license or ID card. Obtaining a Star Card requires more documents than the process to get a license or identification (ID) card without the star.

    You will need to provide documents such as a birth certificate, social security card, and two proofs of Idaho residency such as a mortgage statement, or current utility bill to verify:

    Ga o'ting Acceptable Documents for a full list of the documents you can use to get the Star or use the Add the Star tool to develop a personal list of the documents you will need. Simply answer a few questions and the system will create a customized list of documents you need to bring with you to the DMV to get a Star Card.


    Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Ideas About Liberty Liberty and Virtue: Frank Meyer's Fusionism (June 2021)

    Welcome to our June 2021 edition of Liberty Matters. This month Stephanie Slade, managing editor at Reason magazine, has written our lead essay on Frank Meyer. Liberty Fund publishes Meyer’s most widely cited book In Defense of Freedom and related essays which also includes a number of Meyer’s more well known essays. Meyer was one of the founders, along with William F. Buckley, of National Re.


    Videoni tomosha qiling: Alone In My Off Grid Paradise. Ice Fishing. Off Grid Homesteading (Fevral 2023).

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