Yangi

"An'anaviy" gender rollari o'zgaradigan odamlarni qidiryapsiz



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Bir muncha vaqt oldin, men odamlar haqida o'qiganman - menimcha, bu Tinch okeanidagi orol aholisi edi - bu erda ayollar G'arb jamiyatlarida erkaklar xulq -atvori sifatida aks ettirishgan, aksincha erkaklar "beg'ubor" bo'lgan. .

Bu odamlar haqida qaerdan eshitganimni bilmayman va u umuman mavjud bo'lsa ham.

Sizda shunday xalq haqida esingiz bormi va u qaysi biri bo'lishi mumkin?


N.B. Bu saytda sotsiologiya ham, antropologiya ham yo'q va men bu xabar tarix veb -saytida ko'proq ma'noga ega deb o'ylardim. Iltimos, adashgan bo'lsam, uni boshqa forumga o'tkazing.


Siz Vanatinay xalqi haqida o'ylayotgandirsiz.

NY Taymsning Vanatinay haqidagi maqolasidan:

Doktor Lepovskiy har tomondan tenglik dalillarini topdi. Tinch okeanining boshqa madaniyatlaridan farqli o'laroq, Vanatinayda erkaklar uchun maxsus yig'ilish uylari yoki erkaklarning diniy faoliyati yo'q. Til jinsi neytral, unga o'xshash olmoshlari yo'q. O'g'il bolalar ham, qizlar ham birodarlariga g'amxo'rlik qilishadi, erkaklar esa bola tarbiyasida ota sifatida ishtirok etishlari kerak. Ayollarni erkaklarnikidan past deb hisoblaydigan boshqa ko'plab Yangi Gvineya jamiyatlarida, hayz ko'rish ifloslanishning bir shakli deb hisoblanadi va hayz ko'rgan ayollar yolg'iz qolishlari kerak, lekin Vanatinayda emas. U erdagi ayollar ham erkaklar kabi jinsiy erkinlikka ega ...

Yangi turmush o'rtog'i bir necha oydan bir yilgacha "kelinlik xizmati" bilan shug'ullanishi, xotinining ota -onasi bilan birga yashashi va ularning roziligini olishi kutilmoqda. Keyinchalik er -xotin odatdagidek xotinning va erning qarindoshlari bilan yashashadi.

Bu rolning to'liq o'zgarishi emas, lekin vanatinaylar antropologlarning fikriga qaraganda gender tengligiga yaqinroq.


Menga koreys madaniyatining bu tomonini eslatadi:

Haenyeo, so'zma -so'z "dengiz ayollari" degan ma'noni anglatadi, Koreyaning Jeju provinsiyasida yashovchi ayol dalgıçlar. Ular Jejuning matriarxal oilaviy tuzilmasining vakili […] Aytish mumkinki, ayollar bu ishga ko'proq moslashgan, badanlari iliqroq bo'lib, erkaklarnikiga qaraganda ko'proq suzishga moslashgan, yog'lari ko'proq.


An'anaviy gender rollari erkaklarga ham, ayollarga ham zarar keltiradi. Mana buni qanday tuzatishimiz mumkin

Ko'pchiligimiz ishonmoqchi bo'lgan narsalarga e'tibor bering, bizning madaniyatimizda gender tafovutlari tirik qolmoqda.

Bu, qisman, erkaklar va ayollar an'anaviy "tengsiz" va "tengsiz" gender rollarini o'ynashi haqidagi o'jar madaniy talabdan kelib chiqadi.

Dalillar hamma joyda mavjud. Uyda, ayollar hali ham uy va bola tarbiyasi yuklarining ko'pini o'z zimmalariga oladilar, ammo tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, ota-onalarning ikkalasi ham uyda teng ishtirok etadilar, bu esa bolalarning farovonligi va maktabdagi ko'rsatkichlarini yaxshilaydi.

Bundan tashqari, ish joylarida gender tengligini targ'ib qilishga qaratilgan so'nggi siyosat tashabbuslariga qaramay, korporativ etakchilik guruhlari o'rtasida gender xilma -xilligi pastligicha qolmoqda va bu ko'pincha ayollar etakchilikka layoqatsiz degan muammoli fikrlar bilan oqlanadi, chunki ular tabiatan ham hissiy yoki homilador bo'lib qolishi mumkin, gender stereotipining abadiy ikkita asosiy elementi.

Shaxsan men o'z faoliyatimda ham, uyda ham bunga guvoh bo'lganman.

Uyda, mening kareram dastlab erimning orqa o'rindig'iga o'tdi, chunki men oilamni barqarorlashtiruvchi kuch bo'lishim kerak edi. Va qachon men qildi Men ish joyimga qaytdim, men kam pul topdim va men munosib bo'lgan boshqaruv va etakchilik rollarini olish uchun erkak hamkasblarimdan ko'ra ko'proq kurashishga majbur bo'ldim.

Farqi shunchalik katta ediki, men "World Changers" ning pastoriga aylanganimda, jinslar bo'linishiga qarshi kurashni birinchi o'ringa qo'ydim.


Gender rollarining kelib chiqishini tushunishning oddiy usuli

Bir necha yil avvalgi Google Memo deb nomlangan dahshatli buzilishidan ko'rinib turibdiki, bizning jamiyatimizda gender o'xshashliklari va farqlari haqida o'ylashning eng yaxshi usuli haqida chalkashliklar mavjud. Birlashtirilgan nazariyaning asosiy nuqtai nazaridan, odamlar odatda uchta "jins" va jins haqida o'ylashda faqat ikkita "vektor" dan foydalanadilar.

Ikki vektor "biologik" va "ijtimoiy" kuchlar deb ataladi. Biologik odatda genetik, fiziologik, evolyutsion va gormonal "tabiat" o'lchovini nazarda tutadi, shu bilan birga erkaklar va ayollar qanday harakat qilishlari kerakligi haqidagi ijtimoiy rollar, me'yorlar, ideallar va kutishlar "ijtimoiy kuch" o'lchovini tashkil qiladi. Bu tahlilda etishmayotgan narsa - bu nafaqat "biologik", na "ijtimoiy" kuch bo'lgan inson ruhiy arxitekturasini aniq tushunishdir.

Yaqinda amerikalik psixologning gender stereotiplari haqidagi maqolasi muammoni aniq ko'rsatib beradi. Elis Eagli va uning hamkasblari 1946 yildan 2018 yilgacha Qo'shma Shtatlardagi odamlarning gender stereotiplarini o'rganishdi.

Xususan, Eagli va boshqalar. erkaklar va ayollar haqidagi tasavvurlarini tekshirdi agentlikmualliflar buni "o'ziga va o'z mahoratiga va maqsadlariga erishishga yo'naltirish tendentsiyasi (masalan, shuhratparast, da'vogar, raqobatbardosh)" deb belgilaydilar. birlashishMualliflar buni "boshqalarga va ularning farovonligiga (masalan, rahmdil, iliq, ifodali)" yo'nalishga moyillik sifatida belgilaydilar. Mualliflar: "Ayollar stereotipida birdamlik, erkak stereotipida agentlik ustunlik qiladi."

"Biologiya" va "jamiyat" haqidagi yuqoridagi fikrimga muvofiq, Eagly maqolasida nima uchun odamlar erkaklarni ko'proq agentli, ayollarni esa ko'proq jamoatchilik sifatida ko'rishni tushunishning ikkita asosiy usuli borligi tushuntiriladi. Ularda shunday deyilgan: "Garchi ba'zi odamlar biologiyaga bunday xususiyatli mohiyatni bersa, boshqalari ularni sotsializatsiya va jamiyatdagi ijtimoiy mavqei bilan bog'lashadi" (Rangel & amp Keller, 2011).

Maqolada odamlarning ruhiy me'morchiligi, bog'lanish uslubi kabi ruhiy munosabatlarning asosiy tendentsiyalari o'rganilmagan. Maqola uchun, mualliflar AQShda 50+ yillardan buyon agentlik va muloqot haqidagi stereotiplarni o'rganib chiqishdi. malaka (ya'ni, erkaklar yoki ayollarning umuman kam yoki kam bilimli yoki aqlli ekanligi). Ular nima topdilar?

Yillar o'tib, ayollar tobora ko'proq barkamol bo'lib ko'rina boshladilar, shuning uchun ular endi eng malakali va aqlli guruh sifatida baholandi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, bu zamonaviy jamiyat keng tarqalgan jinsiy aloqa degan da'volarni hisobga olgan holda, bu qiziqarli va biroz tushunarsiz topilma. Men Eagli va boshqalarning ushbu xulosani talqiniga qo'shilaman, ya'ni ayollarga bilim olish erkinligi berilgan va hozirda ta'lim darajasi kabi erkaklarnikidan doim ustun bo'lgan, odamlar o'z umumiy malakalarini shunga mos ravishda baholaydilar.

Bu erda bizning asosiy e'tiborimiz agentlik va sheriklik o'zgaruvchilariga qaratilgan. So'nggi 50 yil ichida jinsga bo'lgan munosabatdagi ajoyib o'zgarishlarni va erkaklar va ayollarni hech qanday muhim (ya'ni, noan'anaviy tarzda tuzilgan) farqlar yo'qligini va jamiyatdagi gender stereotiplariga qarshi kurashish va ijtimoiy hayotdan uzoqlashish borasidagi katta harakatni hisobga olgan holda. Gender ikkilik tuzilgan bo'lsa, menimcha, odamlarning erkaklar ko'proq agentli, ayollar esa ko'proq jamoatchilik bo'lishlari haqidagi stereotiplar o'rtasidagi farqlar pasayishi kutilmoqda.

Agar biz gender ikkilik ikkilik shunchaki voqelikning ijtimoiy qurilishi vazifasi degan fikrni uyg'otayotgan bo'lsak, bizning yangi erkinligimiz bu ibtidoiy tushunchalardan xalos bo'lishga va odamlarga qobiqni tashlab ketishimizga ruxsat bermasligi kerak. ularga jamiyat tomonidan o'rnatilgan qoidalar?

Tadqiqot nimani aniqladi? Ijtimoiy qurilish sifatida jinsning asl mohiyati to'g'risida ma'rifatdan kelib chiqqan ulkan konvergentsiya? Arzimaydi. Aslida, ular buning aksini topdilar.

Erkaklar va ayollar o'rtasidagi farqlar oshdi yillar davomida. Ayollar endi yanada jamoatchilikka o'xshaydilar, erkaklar esa, ular sezgan agentlik afzalliklari bo'yicha, bir xil bo'lib qolishdi. Bu shuni anglatadiki Ikkala jinsning shaxsiyatining asosiy xususiyatlari orasidagi masofa hozir 50 yil avvalgidan ham katta.

Mualliflarning so'zlari bilan aytganda: "Xulosa qilib aytganda, AQShning so'rov ma'lumotlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, gender tengligi odamlarning ayollar va erkaklar haqidagi fikrlarida ustunlik qilgan. Shaxsiy fazilatlar uchun, so'nggi 73 yil ichida ayollar ko'proq jamoatchilik jinsi sifatida stereotipni yaratdilar, erkaklar esa o'z vakolatlarini saqlab qolishdi ".

Mualliflar qiynoqqa solingan mantiqdan foydalanib, "gender stereotiplari odamlarning ayollar va erkaklarning ijtimoiy rollaridagi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri va bilvosita kuzatuvlaridan kelib chiqadi" degan ijtimoiy qarashlarini himoya qilishga harakat qilishdi. Garchi aniq ijtimoiy rollar odamlarning jinsi va shahvoniyligini qanday boshdan kechirishida katta rol o'ynasa -da, bu yagona nazariya nuqtai nazaridan. emas gender farqlarining asosiy kelib chiqishi/manbai (qarang: bu erda, bu erda va shu nuqtai nazardan jinsni tahlil qilish uchun).

Xo'sh, agentlik va muloqotdagi gender farqlarining manbai nima? Umuman olganda, erkak erkak va urg'ochi har xil munosabat tendentsiyalariga ega.

Agentlik ta'rifidan ko'rinib turibdiki, o'rtacha erkaklar odatda "boshqalarga" ko'proq moyil bo'lishadi, ayollar esa "boshqalardan" (ya'ni, jamoaviy) ko'proq. (Umid qilamizki, o'quvchilar aholi darajasidagi farqlarning umumiy da'volari muayyan shaxslar haqidagi da'volardan farq qilishi aniq bo'ladi).

"Ta'sir matritsasi" yordamida insoniy munosabatlar tizimini xaritaga kiritganimizda buni tushunish qiyin emas. Ta'sir matritsasida aytilishicha, odamlar intuitiv ruhiy arxitekturaga ega bo'lib, ular (boshqalar) bilan o'zaro munosabatlarda dunyo bo'lishining pertseptiv-motivatsion-emotsional usullarini boshqaradi.

Xususan, biz odamlar avtomatik ravishda va intuitiv ravishda "ijtimoiy ta'sir matritsasida" o'z o'rnimizni xaritaga joylashtiramiz. Ya'ni, biz doimo boshqalarga nisbatan o'z-o'zini kuzatib boramiz va shunga muvofiq harakat qilish uchun foydalanamiz. Mana xarita.

Gap shundaki, odamlar bu o'lchovlar bo'yicha o'z-o'zini boshqalarga nisbatan sezadilar. Biz birinchi navbatda "munosabatlar qiymati va ijtimoiy ta'sirimizni" kuzatamiz, bu qora chiziq. Shuningdek, biz nisbiy kuchimizni (hukmronlik-bo'ysunish), sevgi (mansublik-dushmanlik) va erkinlikni (avtonomiyaga qaramlik) kuzatamiz.

Biz o'zimizni boshqalarga nisbatan bu jarayon o'lchovlarida qanday tasavvur qilishimiz, ijtimoiy dunyoda sayohat qilishda etakchi rol o'ynaydi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, asosan insoniy ahvolning barcha olimlari odamlar ijtimoiy hayvonlar ekanligiga qo'shilish, sevgi, maqom va kuch kabi narsalar haqida qayg'uradilar.

Umuman olganda, bu disklar ijtimoiy jihatdan qurilmagan, lekin bizning tuzilmamizning markazida joylashgan va zamonaviy jamiyatdan ancha oldin mavjud bo'lgan. Bu nuqtai nazardan qaraganda, bu bizning "ijtimoiylashuvimiz" emas, balki aqliy tuzilishimiz funktsiyasidir, agar biz rivojlanishimizda munosabatlarning yuqori qiymatiga ega bo'lmasak, depressiyaga tushishimiz ehtimoli ko'proq. (bu yerga qarang).

To'g'ridan-to'g'ri ko'rib chiqilayotgan muammoga taalluqli, biz ta'sir matritsasi ikkita "o'zidan boshqa" kvadrantni o'z ichiga oladi, ulardan biri chap yuqori burchak, ikkinchisi esa o'ng pastki. Yuqori chap "o'zini boshqasidan ustun" va hukmronlik, avtonomiya (ya'ni mustaqil maqsadga erishish) va dushmanlik qutblarini ta'kidlaydi. Pastki o'ng, aka "o'zini boshqasidan ustun", kvadrant a'zolikni, qaramlikni (ya'ni, ulanishni xohlash va ma'qullash zarurligini) va boshqalarga bo'ysunishni hurmat qilishni ta'kidlaydi.

Boshqacha qilib aytganda, ta'sir matritsasi "agentlik" va "birlashma" ning markaziy xususiyatlarining asosiy tasavvurlarini aniq xaritada aks ettiradi.

Bu insoniy aqliy me'morchilik voqelikning ijtimoiy qurilishidan ancha oldin mavjud bo'lganligini (bu atigi 50-150 ming yil oldin) mavjudligini va, albatta, erkaklar va ayollar qanday harakat qilishlari kerakligi haqidagi fikrlarga qaraganda ancha qadimgi ekanligini tan olishimiz zarur. 21 -asrda.

Matritsa biz odam emas, balki primat bo'lgan davrga borib taqaladi, shuning uchun biz o'n million yillar haqida gapirayapmiz. "Ta'sir matritsasi" tahlili to'g'ridan -to'g'ri "Eagly" maqolasidagi kontrintuitiv topilmani hisobga oladi va gender stereotiplari nima uchun "mustahkam" ekanligini (o'z so'zini ishlatish uchun) tushuntirib beradigan ramka beradi.

Boshlash uchun, Matrix nima uchun birinchi navbatda "o'z-o'zidan" va "o'z-o'zidan" tendentsiyalari va arxetiplari borligini to'g'ridan-to'g'ri va tushunarli tarzda tushuntiradi. E'tibor bering, bu erkak/erkaklik yoki urg'ochi/ayollik haqida hech narsa demaydi o'z -o'zidan. Bu shunchaki ijtimoiy dunyoda sayohat qilish uchun zarur bo'lgan aqliy arxitektura haqida biror narsa aytadi. Biroq, biz nima uchun erkak/erkak birinchisiga, ayolga/ayolga ikkinchisiga moyil bo'lishini tushunish uchun asosiy mantiqdan foydalanishimiz mumkin.

Masalan, biz inson bo'lishimizdan ancha oldin, urg'ochilar tug'ishgan va bolalarini parvarish qilishgan. Ularning arxitekturasi munosabatlarga yo'naltirilgan bo'lishi ajablanarli emasmi? Men aytmoqchimanki, biz erkak va urg'ochi inson primatining umumiy xususiyatlarini tahlil qila olamiz va shuni bilib olamizki, erkaklar bir-birlariga nisbatan ko'proq moyil bo'lishadi, urg'ochilar esa boshqa birovga moyil bo'lishadi.

Bu tahlil shuni ko'rsatadiki, Eagly va boshqalar tushuntirish ketma -ketligi orqaga qarab. Ijtimoiy rollardan farqli o'laroq, bu tahlildan ko'rinib turibdiki, aqliy arxitektura birinchi o'rinda turadi va odamlarning shaxsiy farqlari va ularni idrok etishining asosiy qo'zg'atuvchisi hisoblanadi.

Shunday qilib, Matritsa jinsdagi rol/ish imtiyozlari haqidagi boshqa "tushunarsiz" topilmalarni tushuntirishga yordam beradi, masalan, Skandinaviya jinsi-tenglik paradoksi, bu ijtimoiy rollar va kutishlarda katta gender tengligi katta (kam bo'lmagan) tafovut bilan bog'liq. bandlik imtiyozlari kabi narsalar.

Haqiqiy nuqta shundaki, bizning jamiyatimiz jinsiy aloqa va jinsdagi farqlarni (va o'xshashliklarni) tushunishda chalkashib ketgan. Bizning chalkashligimizning asosiy sababi shundaki, bizda "biologiya" va "sotsiologiya" ikkiliklari o'rtasida hech qanday foyda yo'q, go'yo bu faqat ikkita kuch va biz birini yoki boshqasini tanlashimiz kerak.

Albatta, haqiqiy dunyoda kuchlar hamma joyda o'zaro ta'sir qiladi. Bundan tashqari, na "biologik", na "ijtimoiy" bo'lgan "ruhiy" kuchlar mavjud. Aksincha, bizga murakkablikdagi hayvonlarning ruhiy o'lchovini aniq tahlil qilish kerak, bu bilim daraxti bizga ko'rsatadiki, o'ziga xos moslashuvchan xatti-harakatlar tekisligi bo'lib, "Hujayra-hayot" biologik tekisligidan ham, "Shaxs- Madaniyat "ijtimoiy samolyoti.

Inson munosabatlar tizimining aqliy arxitekturasini xaritaga kiritish orqali, ta'sir matritsasi jumboqning yo'qolgan qismini to'ldiradi. Bu bilan, ehtimol, biz bu qutblanish masalasida ko'proq yorug'lik va kamroq issiqlikka erishishimiz mumkin.


"Erkaklar kelajagi" rivojlanayotgan gender rollarini o'rganadi

Muallif Jek Mayersning so'zlariga ko'ra, jamiyatda erkaklarning roli o'zgarib, ish va uyda ayollarga nisbatan hokimiyat o'zgarishi bilan "an'anaviy" erkak o'lmoqda.

Myers "Erkaklar kelajagi: yigirma birinchi asrdagi erkaklik" nomli yangi kitobida erkaklar "ayollar tomonidan tobora ko'proq aniqlanib, hukmronlik qilib, nazorat qilinishini" ta'kidlamoqda.

"Bu yigitlar otasi emas, bobosi emas. Yigitlar borgan sari ko'proq otasiz uylarda o'sib kelmoqda, o'sha ayol erining pulini oladigan uylarda o'sib, ikkalasi ham ishlaydi. - ular nafaqat an'anaviy gender me'yorlarini buzishmoqda, - dedi Myers seshanba kuni "CBS This Morning" da.

Myersning aytishicha, yosh erkaklar "ayollar tomonidan o'qitiladi" va iqtisodiy jihatdan ayollar tomonidan "bajarilmaydi", bu "an'anaviy" erkaklarning oxirgi avlodini 20 yoshdan oshganlar kabi belgilaydi.

"Hozir ish joyida yaratilayotgan ish o'rinlari kollej ma'lumotini talab qiladi. Kollej darajasining atigi 40 foizi erkaklarnikiga, 60 foizi ayollarga tegishli. Bu 1970 -yillardagi bizniki", dedi Mayers. "Iqtisodiy nuqtai nazardan, 30 yoshgacha, yolg'iz, turmush qurmagan ayollar 30 foizgacha bo'lgan yolg'iz, turmush qurmagan, bolasiz erkaklar qariyb 20 foizini tashkil qiladi."

Nyu -York Tayms muxbiri va CBS News telekanali xodimi Jodi Kantor, gender va ish joyi masalalari haqida ko'p yozgan, u o'z hisobotida "yangi tizim" ni boshqarishga urinayotgan odamlarning "har kungi dilemmalarini" eshitganini aytdi.

"Hisobotimizda biz ko'rgan narsa shundaki, jamiyatda gender rollari har qachongidan ham bir -biriga yaqinlashib bormoqda, agar siz harbiy bo'linmalarda jangovar pozitsiyalarni egallagan ayollarga yoki uyda qoladigan otalarga qarasangiz ham - deyarli hech kim jinsi skript yoki nikoh bilan yashamaydi. "Biz juda ko'p ijtimoiy chalkashliklarni topamiz", dedi Kantor "CBS This Morning" telekanalida Myers bilan birga o'tirgan holda.

Ommabop yangiliklar

Uyda "an'anaviy gender me'yorlarini" o'rganmagan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan yosh erkaklar ishchi kuchiga kirganda va ularga har xil "me'yorlar" qo'llanilganda, chalkashliklar paydo bo'lishi mumkin, dedi Mayers.

"Biz yigitlar haqidagi hikoyani o'zgartirishimiz kerak, shuningdek, biz erkakning munosabatlardagi rolini yaxshiroq tushunishimiz va unga tushunishga yordam berishimiz kerak", dedi Mayers erkaklarni ommaviy axborot vositalarida va reklamada yanada dinamik tasvirlash zarurligiga ishora qilib. .

Masalan, uyda qoladigan dadalar 1.1dan oshdi. AQSh Aholini ro'yxatga olish byurosiga ko'ra, 1989 yilda million, 2012 yilda 2 mln.

Biroq, Myersning aytishicha, yangi avlod erkaklar ayollar qo'llab -quvvatlay olmaydilar va uning kitobi erkaklarga o'zgaruvchan gender rollarini o'zlashtirish uchun vositalar bilan ta'minlashga qaratilgan.

"Cherkovlar, mahalliy tashkilotlar, jamoat birlashmalari ayollarni qo'llab -quvvatlayotganidek, erkaklarni ham qo'llab -quvvatlamaydi. Erkaklar ham ayollarni qo'llab -quvvatlaydilar, - deydi Myers.

Ammo Amerikadagi ishchi ayollar haligacha har bir erkak uchun $ 79 evaziga .79 maosh oladilar va sanoat va siyosiy rahbarlik lavozimlarida hali ham erkaklar hukmron bo'lib, Kantor "ko'p hollarda ayollar uchun to'siqlar ayniqsa o'jar" ekanini ta'kidlaydi.

"Shunday qilib, bizda shunday murakkab, duel holati borki, u ko'pincha o'zini erkaklar, keyin ayollar ustunlik qilganday his qiladi, lekin odamlar pul topish va oilani har qachongidan ham teng ravishda tarbiyalash tashvishlari bilan bo'lishishadi", dedi u. dedi.


Evropa tarixi va#038 Gender rollarning kelib chiqishi

Mening asl savolim: "Bizning jamiyatda gender rollari haqidagi g'oyaning kelib chiqishi nima edi?" Quyida men topgan narsalar to'plami va asosan ayollar uyda qolishi va tarbiyachi bo'lishi kerak degan fikr, chunki ular zaif jinsdir, erkaklar esa kuchliroq bo'lgani uchun uyni boshqaradi, qabilani boshqaradi, keyin dunyoni boshqaradi. , ajdodlarimizning munosabatini aks ettirmaydi. Mening manbalarimga, asosan, bizning irqimizda va nasroniygacha bo'lgan tariximizda duch kelgan odamlar haqidagi tarixiy hikoyalar keltirilgan kitoblar kiradi.

Men tengsiz bo'lmagan ilmiy inshodan boshlayman (u manbalarga asoslanadi), u shudgorning vaqt o'tishi bilan jamiyatda erkaklar va ayollarning "rollari" haqidagi qarashlarini qanday o'zgartirganini tasvirlaydi. Bu tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatadiki, qishloq xo'jaligining rivojlanishi (shudgorning joriy etilishi) va ayollarning bo'ysundirilishi o'rtasida bog'liqlik bor va u Evropada emas, balki miloddan avvalgi 4000 -yillar atrofida paydo bo'lgan. Aslida, biz bu mafkurani (gender rollari) Evropada (ayniqsa, arablar bilan aloqasi bo'lmagan qabilalarda) milodiy 1100 yildan keyin va Rim imperiyasi davrida shudgor joriy etilgunga qadar ko'rmaganmiz.

Bu erda men gazetadan ba'zi tirnoqlarni keltiraman.

…Biz topdikki, mavjud gipotezalarga muvofiq, an'anaviy ravishda dehqonchilik bilan shug'ullanadigan jamiyatlarning avlodlari, bugungi kunda ayollarning ish joylarida, siyosatda va tadbirkorlik faoliyatida ishtirok etish darajasi past, shuningdek, jinsga bo'lgan munosabatlarning keng tarqalganligi tengsizlik …

…Erkaklar uydan tashqarida dalada ishlashga moyil edilar, ayollar esa uy ishlariga ixtisoslashgan. Bu mehnat taqsimoti ayollarning jamiyatdagi munosib o'rni haqidagi normalarni ishlab chiqardi. Shudgorli dehqonchilik va natijada jinsga asoslangan mehnat taqsimoti bilan ajralib turadigan jamiyatlar ayollarning tabiiy joyi uy ichida ekanligiga ishonch hosil qildi.

…Ayniqsa, qiziqarli misol - Fernand Braudelning (1998 y.) Eramizdan avvalgi 4000-6000 yillar oralig'ida Mesopotamiyada shudgorning qabul qilinishi gender munosabatlariga, madaniyatiga va jamiyatiga qanday ta'sir qilgani. U shunday yozadi: «Shu paytgacha don ekinlari ekiladigan dalalar va bog'larga ayollar rahbarlik qilishar edi: hamma narsa tuproqni ishlov berish va hosilni parvarish qilish bilan bog'liq edi. Erkaklar avval ovchi, keyin chorvador bo'lgan. Ammo endi erkaklar haydovchini o'z qo'liga olishdi, faqat ulardan foydalanishlari mumkin edi. Bir qarashda, jamiyat matriarxallikdan patriarxalga o'tishi mumkin edi: qudratli ona ma'budalari hukmronligidan uzoqlashish. . . Shumer va Bobilda ustun bo'lgan erkak xudolar va ruhoniylarga. . . va erkaklarning jamiyat ustuvorligi va uning e'tiqodiga intilishi bilan hamroh bo'ldi "…

Maqolada biz eramizdan avvalgi 4000-6000 yillar oralig'ida Mesopotamiyada, ayollarga nisbatan mafkuralar o'zgara boshlagan paytdagi shudgorni ishlatadigan tadqiqotlarni ko'rishimiz mumkin. Shudgor birinchi marta paydo bo'lgan "Mesopotamiya" (zamonaviy Iroq va uning atrofidagi hududlar) madaniyatida bugungi kunda ayollarga dunyodagi eng yomon munosabatda bo'lishlari ajablanarli emas, aslida ular 2 -toifali odamlardir. ba'zan "odam" dan kam deb hisoblanadi. Bu mafkuralar vaqtga asoslangan va biz 8000 yil haqida gapiramiz.

Ayollarning erkaklarnikidan kamligi haqidagi bu fikr ularning barcha diniy e'tiqod tizimlarida aks etadi. Eski Ahd va/yoki Tavrotga binoan bizga aytilganidek, ERKAK xudo erkakni birinchi bo'lib yaratgan va erkakdan ayolni erkakning xizmatkori qilib yaratgan.

Momo Havoning yaratilishi

Ibtido 2: 7 Egamiz Xudo erdan tuproqdan yaratdi va uning burunlariga hayot nafasini pufladi va odam tirik jonga aylandi.

Ibtido 2:21 … lekin Odam Ato uchun unga yordamchi topilmadi.

Ibtido 2:22 Egamiz Xudo erkakdan olgan qovurg'asini ayolga yasab, uni erkakka olib keldi.

Ibtido 3:16 U ayolga dedi: "Men sizning tug'ilishingizdagi azobingizni ko'paytiraman, og'riq bilan siz bolalarni tug'asiz, lekin sizning xohishingiz eringizga bo'ladi va u sizni boshqaradi."

Inson birinchi bo'lib davom etayotgan bunday munosabat xristian kitoblarida bayon qilingan:

1 Korinfliklarga 11:8 Chunki erkak ayoldan emas, ayol erkakdan kelgan.

1 Korinfliklarga 11: 9 Erkak ham ayol uchun emas, ayol erkak uchun yaratilgan.

1 Korinfliklarga 14:34 ayollar cherkovlarda jim turishlari kerak. Ularga gapirishga ruxsat berilmagan, lekin qonunga binoan bo'ysunish kerak.

1 Timo'tiyga 2: 11-13 Ayol jim va to'liq bo'ysunishda o'rganishi kerak. 12 Men ayolga jim turishi kerak bo'lgan erkakni o'rgatishga yoki hokimiyatni ishlatishiga ruxsat bermayman. 13 Chunki avval Odam Ato, keyin Momo Havo yaratildi.

Titus 2: 5 Xudoning kalomi obro'sizlanmasligi uchun o'zini tuta biladigan, pok, o'z uy xo'jaliklarini boshqaruvchi, mehribon va o'z erlariga bo'ysunuvchi bo'lish.

Efesliklarga 5:22 Xotinlar, eringizga Egamizga bo'ysuning.

  1. Biz shuni bilamizki, gender rollari bo'lishi kerak degan fikr shudgor va erkaklar dalada ishlashlari, ayollar uyda ko'proq vaqt o'tkazishlari bilan bog'liq.
  2. Shudgorning paydo bo'lishi Evropadan emas, hozirgi Iroqdan, Mesopotamiyadan kelib chiqqan.
  3. Ayollar erkaklarniki degan mafkura, sahroda yashovchi xalqlar ichida "qonunlar" va dinlar bugungi kungacha mustahkamlangan (yahudiylik, nasroniylik va islom). Men nasroniylik yozuvlarini keltirdim, chunki bizning xalqimiz asosan uning ta'siri ostida, lekin siz uchtasining har birida ayollarga, ya'ni Islomdagi shariat haqidagi bir xil mafkurani topishingiz mumkin.
  4. Biz allaqachon bilamizki, semit xudosi (Yahova, Iso, Olloh) erkak va ayolga o'xshashi yo'q.

Eslatma: Menimcha, biz xalq sifatida bu qora tanli bosqinchilar tarixi haqida o'z tariximizdan ko'ra ko'proq bilganimiz achinarli. Va bundan ham jirkanchroq narsa shundaki, bizning irqimizning ayrimlari (baribir, ko'pchilik) aslida Bibliyadagi tarix ularning irqi tarixi deb ishonishadi.

Endi biz o'z tariximizga nazar tashlasak, nasroniylikning kirib kelishi bilan yo'q qilinmagan bo'laklarga qarasak, biz ayollarga nisbatan mutlaqo boshqacha qarashni ko'ramiz, bu qarash "gender rollarini" aks ettirmaydi. Quyida men dalil keltiraman, lekin ko'lami cheklangan bo'lsa -da, men ishonamanki, yuqorida aytilganlarga qarshi chiqadi va mening xalqim hech qachon bizning ayollar haqida hech qachon semitlar kabi o'ylamagan, aslida bu mutlaqo teskari.

E'tibor bering: shudgorning kiritilishi va nasroniylikning joriy etilishi bir vaqtning o'zida. Og'ir shudgor Evropaga O'rta asrlarning boshlarida, taxminan 900-1300 yillarda kelgan. [Manba]

Xristianlik, hammamiz bilganimizdek, miloddan avvalgi 350 -yildan boshlab xalqimizga tanish bo'lgan bo'lsa ham, miloddan avvalgi 1200-1300 yillarga qadar butun xalqimizni qamrab olmagan.

Endi men shuni ko'rsatishga harakat qilamanki, shudgor va xristianlik paydo bo'lishidan oldin, bizning xalqimiz ayollarni qadrlaydi. Ayollar rahbarlar, ruhoniylar, jangchilar bo'lib, shifo so'rashgan (shifokorlar) va maslahatlari uchun juda hurmatga sazovor bo'lgan. Men erkaklar va ayollar birgalikda ishlaganliklarini, birgalikda kurashganliklarini va birgalikda hukmronlik qilishlarini, bizda ruhoniylar bilan bir qatorda ruhoniylar borligini misol bilan ko'rsataman. Qadimgi xudolar, bizning xalqimizning haqiqiy xudolari erkak va ayolni o'z ichiga oladi va ayollik bizning hayotimizni boshqaradi va taqdirimizni belgilaydi. Bizning "oliy shaxsiyatimiz" ning tomoni ayol, ha siz erkak bo'lsangiz ham.

Men "Shimoliy odamlarning tarixi" nomli kitobdan bir nechta parchadan boshlayman.

Men ta'kidlagan narsalar: erkaklar ham, ayollar ham birgalikda ov qilishgan:

erkaklar va ayollar birgalikda ov qilishdi

Biz hammamiz shafqatsiz "Berserkers" ni bilamiz, ayollar ham "ruhiy kasal" bo'lib qolishgan va ular kasallik deb atashgan.

Harbiy jinnilik = Berserker

Hatto ayol jinsi ham “markaviy g'azabdan ” qochib qutula olmadi

Bu bitta manbadan biz erkaklar ham, ayollar ham ishda bo'lishganini, quruqlikda ham, dengizda ham jang maydonini bo'lishganini ko'rishimiz mumkin. Biz birga edik.

Yuqoridagilar faqat bitta manba, bizda boshqalar bor. Amazon ayollarining "afsonasi" aslida tarixiy asosga ega, biz ko'rib turganimizdek, sarg'ish sochli, ko'k ko'zli odamlar Evropaning minglab yillarini boshqargan. Ular sarmatiyaliklar sifatida tanilgan. Tarixiy hujjatlar bizga bu odamlar haqida ma'lumot beradi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, ayollar urushda katta rol o'ynagan.

Sarmatlar miloddan avvalgi VII asrda Sharqiy Evropada Don daryosining sharqida va Ural tog'larining janubida dasht mintaqasida paydo bo'lgan. Asrlar davomida ular g'arbiy qo'shnilari skiflar bilan nisbatan tinch-totuv hayot kechirishgan. Keyin miloddan avvalgi III asrda ular Qora dengiz shimolidagi Pontik dashtida skiflar bilan jang qilishdi. Keyingi besh asr davomida sarmatlar bu hududlarda hukmronlik qilishlari kerak edi. Katta Pliniy (milodiy 23-79) ular Vistula daryosidan (hozirgi Polshada) Dunaygacha bo'lganini yozgan.

Gerodot (4.110–117) sauromatalik ayollarning g'ayrioddiy ijtimoiy erkinliklarini, shu jumladan urushda qatnashishni Amazon go'yo ajdodlaridan meros sifatida qabul qiladi. Keyinchalik yozuvchilar “ ayollar hukmronlik qiladigan Sarmatae ” ga murojaat qilishadi.

Gippokrat ularni skif deb tasniflaydi va ularning jangovar ayollari va urf -odatlarini tasvirlaydi:

Ularning ayollari, agar ular bokira bo'lsalar -da, minishadi, otishadi, minib nayzani otishadi va dushmanlari bilan jang qilishadi. Ular uchta dushmanini o'ldirmaguncha, bokiraliklarini chetga surib qo'ymaydilar va an'anaviy muqaddas marosimlarni bajarishdan oldin uylanmaydilar. O'ziga erini oladigan ayol, agar u umumiy ekspeditsiya tomonidan majburlanmagan bo'lsa, endi minmaydi. Ularning o'ng ko'kragi yo'q, chunki onalari bolaligidayoq bronzadan yasalgan asbobni yasab, uni o'ng ko'kragiga surtishadi va o'sishini to'xtatib, butun kuchini to'kishadi. o'ng yelka va o'ng qo'lga yo'naltirilgan.

Shimolda yashagan german xalqi (baland va ko'k ko'zli) deb tasniflangan Cimbri nomli boshqa qabilalar, aka: Jutland, erkaklar va ayollar o'rtasidagi o'xshash munosabatni ko'rsatadi va ayollar o'z ekspeditsiyalarida erkaklarga hamroh bo'lishgan:

Cimbri izohlari, Teutonik mifologiya 1 -jild, Yoqub Grimm

Strabon kimbrik folklorining yorqin tavsifini beradi (Geogr. 7.2.3, trans. H. L. Jons):

Ularga o'z ekspeditsiyalarida hamrohlik qiladigan xotinlariga, oq sochli, zig'ir matosidan mahkam bog'lab qo'yilgan, bronzadan belbog 'bog'lagan, yalangoyoq, hozir qo'lida qilich bo'lgan, ko'r-ko'rona bo'lgan ruhoniylar tashrif buyurishdi. Bu ruhoniylar lager bo'ylab harbiy asirlar bilan uchrashib, ularni gulchambarlar bilan toj kiydirib, yigirma amforadan iborat mis idishga olib borar edilar va ruhoniy ayol ko'taradigan baland platformaga ega edilar, keyin chovgumga egildilar. u ko'tarilgandan keyin har bir mahbusning tomog'ini kesib tashlardi va idishga quyilgan qondan ba'zi ruhoniylar bashorat qilar edilar, qolganlari esa jasadni ikkiga ajratib, ichaklarini tekshirib chiqib aytishardi. O'z xalqining g'alabasi haqidagi bashorat va jang paytida ular vagonlarning to'qilgan tanalari ustidan cho'zilgan terilarga urishar va shu tariqa shovqin-suron ko'tarar edilar.

Cimbri o'limdan qo'rqmagan shafqatsiz jangchilar sifatida tasvirlangan. Uy egasining ortidan aravalarda ayollar va bolalar ketibdi. Oq kiyingan keksa ayollar, ruhoniylar, harbiy asirlarni qurbon qilib, ularning qonini sepishdi, bu tabiat ularga nima bo'lishini ko'rish imkonini berdi.

Bu erda e'tiborga olishimiz kerak bo'lgan narsa - bu ruhoniy ayollarning yoshi, ular keksaygan, sochlari kulrang edi. Bu men eshitgan dalilga qarshi chiqadi, chunki ayol 30 yoshga to'lganida, 40 yoshida yuviladi, chunki u endi bola tug'olmaydi. Semit fikrining izi bizning xalqimizga shunchalik singib ketganki, bizning erkaklarimiz ayollarning eng yaxshisi - musobaqani davom ettirish deb o'ylashardi.

Keyin biz qirolicha Boudica boshchiligidagi rimliklarga hujum qilgan britaniyalik Icini qabilasiga kira olamiz.

Gay Suetonius Paulinus, Uelsda saylovoldi kampaniyasini o'tkazdi, Boudica Iceni va qo'shni Trinovantesni keng ko'lamli qo'zg'olonda boshqardi:

…a Britaniyada dahshatli falokat yuz berdi. Ikki shahar ishdan bo'shatildi, sakson ming rimliklar va ularning ittifoqchilari halok bo'ldi va orol Rimga yo'qoldi. Bundan tashqari, bu vayronagarchilikni rimliklarga bir ayol keltirdi, bu haqiqatan ham ularga eng katta sharmandalikni keltirib chiqardi. worthy to be their leader and who directed the conduct of the entire war, was Buduica, a Briton woman of the royal family and possessed of greater intelligence than often belongs to women… In stature she was very tall, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of her eye most fierce, and her voice was harsh a great mass of the tawniest hair fell to her hips around her neck was a large golden necklace and she wore a tunic of divers colours over which a thick mantle was fastened with a brooch . This was her invariable attire.

Statue of Boudica by Thomas Thornycroft near Westminster Pier, London, with her two daughters upon a chariot

In the above I have used just 3 sources that show before the Christian influence was forced upon our folk (from all regions of Europe) that men and women worked TOGETHER especially when it meant defending one’s tribe or community. It is plain to see that no one scoffed at the idea of a male leader or warrior, nor did they scoff with a female leader or warrior. Why should we scoff at this idea today? Have we been looking at the relationship between men and women with a Semitic lens?

What about the Vikings? Well, in my opinion, the Vikings arrive near the end of our folk, right at the cusp of complete Christian takeover. We know the Vikings were a well traveled people. We can see within their laws (from 920’s called the Grey Goose Laws) the Jewish and possibly Islamic influences, which were, get this, introduced by an immigrant. Even so, we can however find bits of the Heathen way within the Sagas. Here is one example:

In the first few chapters of Laxdæla saga tells the story of Unnur djúpúðga (the Deep Minded), who was already widowed when she left Norway for Scotland with her father and son. When they, too, were killed, she felt that she had to leave Scotland and join the remainder of her family in Iceland. She arranged for a ship to be built, gathered her family and followers, and sailed for Iceland. Once in Iceland, she claimed land, settled there, arranged for a farm to be built, and then ran the farm. Over the years, she gave away portions of her land holdings to supporters, and arranged marriages for her daughters. When she died, she was laid in a ship in a burial mound, an honor by that time, usually reserved for men.

What about the rest of our lore, our Native Spirituality? What examples does it give us on how men and women regarded each other? Does it show a submissive female, one who is bound to the duty of her husband? One who if it was not for the man would not have been created? Or does it show and promote strong women, women who were not just beautiful but also revered for their wisdom?

In our creation story we are told that the first two humans were created out of trees. In case you think this is a wild concept, remember that trees represent DNA. They were both created at the same time from different types of trees. One was not made from the other. In reality and within all of nature it takes a male and a female TOGETHER to create human life, (in fact all animal life) which proceeds forth only from the female. The whole idea that woman came out of a man is absolutely ludicrous, is totally unnatural and serves only one purpose.

The creation of Ask and Embla

All of our Ancestor’s major Gods were married to Goddesses and they all brought forth children. The fact that they had children did not hinder in any way the role of either God or Goddess.

For instance, Odin was married to Frigg and both sit TOGETHER on the high seat that overlooks the world.

In Grímnismál, Odin and Frigg are both sitting in Hliðskjálf

Next we will look at what is known as Sedir, a Norse term for a form of Shamanism. We can see that the “gender role” has crept in during the Viking Age because supposedly it was unmanly for a man to be a Sedir it was looked at as solely a woman’s job (as part of her “gifts” from the Gods). But what does our Godly example show? Two of the Aesir and Vanir deities are noted masters of seidr: the Goddess Freya and the God Odin. Both can be seen as the Godly models of seidr practitioners among their respective genders. That Odin was seen as a master also shows us that there was not a distinction between male and female roles, especially godly ones until a later time within our lore.

The roles of the Seidr

We also have a term for the Chief and Priest of the klan or folk. Again this position was not limited to men. We know this because of the words used, a A goði or gothi is the Old Norse term for a priest and chieftain. Gyðja signifies a priestess. Again we see no separation between males and females.

While men were remembered for their deeds (Heroes) the females were highly revered for their wisdom in our history:

Teutonic Mythology Volume 1 by Jacob Grimm

In contrast the Semitic attitude is that woman should remain silent, especially in church and are not allowed to become priests. In fact it was our beloved, wise and much sought after Seidr who by doctrine (law) were made into witches and devils and burned alive in the name of Christianity. And since it was customary for this profession to be mostly female, it was a direct assault against our wise and gifted women folk.

Another example we have of teamwork is our Gods and Goddess of War.

Freya is a goddess of war (she also has other attributes). The name of her house in Asgard is Sessrumnir placed on the field Fólkvangr, which means “field of the host”, “people field” or “army field” It is a place where half of those that die in a battle go for the afterlife, while Odin will receive the other half. Freya is always given the first choice. After she had picked the ones she wanted, the rest were sent to Odin.

Odin is a god of war (he also has other attributes). Odin is in charge of a place called Valhalla, where the dead warriors that are chosen by the Valkyries go. These dead warriors train daily until the great battle arrives that they partake in called Ragnarok.

Valkyrie, a group of maidens who served the god Odin and were sent by him to the battlefields to choose the who were slain and of those, who were worthy of a place in Valhalla. While the theme is that Freya gets first choice and Odin second, it is only through the Valkyries that this choice is made. Odin does not choose these warriors himself.

Our beloved primordial beings collectively known as the “Norns” the weavers of fate are all female beings.

Also found within our lore is a primordial female being called a Hamingja (pronounced “HAHM-ing-ya”). Today she would be considered your guardian angel or your higher self (she is actually a combination of the two). She knows everything about you and she carries the memories of your ancestors. It is she who speaks for you at death. She is not bound to you. If you are a wicked, evil person she can rip herself away from you and when that happens you are basically doomed to the dark regions of Hel. (Note: our Hel, unlike the Christian hell has many regions.) This is the “SHE” that Miguel Serrano is referring to in all of his works, his “beloved”.

Your Hamingja is what can “reincarnate” today as one of your ancestors. Because of her, we are not only connected through blood (DNA) but through her we also connect our Higher Self – Soul – Guardian Angel to our Ancestors. It is she who has the power of restoring blood memory and gives guidance (intuition).

According to Serrano, men have a soul – their Hamingja and women ARE a soul.

Now even though we can see that within our history, men and women had shared duties including on the battlefield, that women were not created to be a man’s subject, and that women were revered for their wisdom even in old age, this does not mean that men were not required to be “Manly”. Men were expected to be strong “he men” warriors, not the sissified puff masters we see trolling the streets today. What the faggots call a “White Knight” or “Alpha Male” was normal for our men. We know this because of the 3 main swear words that if one was called unjustly would require the recipient to avenge himself by killing the accuser. Being too feminine was not allowed. Having male gay relations was not allowed. The swear words are ragr, strodinnva sordinn, all three meaning the passive role of a man included in same-sex activities among males.

Our men also treated their female counterparts with the utmost respect and adoration. Never do we read within our pre-Christian history of men who mistreated, berated or placed their wives under subjection.

This should bring new light to the verse of the bible (a book from our enemy) which says at 1 Corinthians 1:19 For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate”. How ironic is it that our wise were our women? How ironic is it that these enemies of ours instilled a belief so strong that our highly valued women, women who were revered second only to the Gods for their wisdom and advise would be demoralized and destroyed?

Teutonic Mythology Volume 1 by Jacob Grimm Teutonic Mythology Volume 1 by Jacob Grimm

How could we allow as a people this foreign influence about women to poison our very souls? And we wonder what happened, how did things get so bad? Well when you take away the “wisdom” of the people, our greatest gift, and turn them into demons and sinners bound for hell it sure makes for a dumber society, doesn’t it? Enough is enough!

In conclusion I will say this, one of the most important duties a woman has is in bringing forth life and rearing her children. One of the most important duties of a man is in making sure his family is safe and is not wanting. Procreation is our #1 goal, second should be in rearing our children with our TRUE traditional values. Especially today, when we are facing extinction as a race. We must not allow our children to continue to fall into the Semitic cultural trap, a trap that was devised and perfected a long time ago to destroy the unity of family bond, and within this bond the working together of both male and female for a stronger family and by extension, race. Our men and women have, before the Christian influence, worked together in all aspects of life. No one was ever denied a position, high or low, based on their gender. No one, not even the Gods… and this is what made us stronger. Today we can plainly see that the effects of the Semitic “gender role” ideology the separation of the male and female that was forced upon our folk, has made us weaker as a family, as a folk and as a race.

You can download Jacob Grimm’s Teutonic Mythology and other great works by visiting this website.


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[International] Looking Beyond Traditional Gender Roles to a World Where Childcare and Household Chores are Shared Equally

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people have found themselves unemployed or with drastically reduced hours, while others have shifted to working from home. And the closing of schools and other childcare services has meanwhile dramatically increased the burden of unpaid care work on families – especially women.

"Look Beyond" is a new campaign that seeks to ensure that this burden is equally shared by both men and women, and encourages society to look beyond traditional masculine and feminine roles to a world where household chores and childcare have no gender.

Implemented jointly by UN Women and UNFPA, the campaign is taking place in the Eastern Partnership[i], within the framework of a European Union-funded regional programme. It was designed around the belief that the unprecedented situation of a world-altering pandemic can also provide us with a unique opportunity: to address imbalanced power dynamics and preconceptions about what women and men can and should do, that are at the root of the unequal distribution of unpaid care work.

Men doing more unpaid care work means that women will be under much less stress, will have more time to dedicate to their professional development and will be empowered to transcend outdated gender roles in other ways. Challenging gender stereotypes within the family and encouraging men to understand and define their masculinity in different ways has also been shown to decrease the number of incidents of domestic violence, allowing women to feel safer in their own homes.


Survey finds UK is abandoning traditional views of gender roles

In the 1950s, it was a given that women should have dinner ready, touch up their makeup, tidy up and silence the children before their husbands came home from work.

How far we’ve come. According to a new survey, entitled British Social Attitudes 35, nearly three-quarters of the British public now disagree with the attitude that women should look after the home while men are out earning a living.

Traditional views of gender roles have continued to decline, according to the latest survey of social attitudes by the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen), with 72% disputing the conservative view that women should dedicate themselves to housework, compared with 58% 10 years ago.

The reverse opinion held as recently as 1988, when 48% felt a woman’s place was in the home and only a third disagreed with the traditional model of family life.

Men lag six percentage points behind women in their abandonment of traditional roles, the data showed. Age too, was a factor: 45- to 54-year-olds were most likely to disagree with women staying at home. And those with more educations and higher household incomes were also more likely to support women in the workplace.

Attitudes towards mothers of young children going to work were more nuanced, with a third of Britons saying they thought those with pre-school children should remain at home – a figure unchanged in five years.

In that period, there has been a fall of five percentage points in the proportion who believe those women should take up part-time work, to 38%. There was also a slight fall in the proportion of respondents who thought mothers should work part- or full-time once their offspring are at school, down four points to 76%.

“The people of Britain are moving away from the idea that men should be breadwinners and women homemakers,” said Nancy Kelley, the deputy chief executive of NatCen.

“Yet when we asked people if they thought mothers of pre-school age children should work, we found no increase in support in recent years, against a backdrop of several policy changes aiming to help working families manage work and childcare.

“People are supportive of parental leave being shared between men and women but, in practice, very few actually do. This suggests that government must look beyond the law if they are hoping to balance raising a child between mums and dads.”

Every year since 1983, NatCen has interviewed more than 3,000 people about life in the UK and the way that the country is run. New questions are added each year, but all are designed with the intent of repeating them to chart changes in attitudes over time.

This year, for the first time, in the wake of the #metoo phenomenon, NatCen explored attitudes around a man commenting loudly on a woman’s appearance in the street, by asking respondents their opinion of a scenario in which the man loudly comments that she “looks gorgeous”.

The findings were surprising: overall, uninvited comments from men about a woman’s appearance were thought to be wrong by 57%. But while 61% of men thought such remarks were wrong, just 52% of women were of the same opinion.

This year’s survey comes at a turbulent time for the country as the government battles within itself to reach an agreement over the terms of leaving the European Union, public services falter after a decade of austerity policies and social cohesion comes under threat from tensions between generations, ethnicities and economic status.

On Brexit, NatCen found that support for leaving the European Union had increased considerably since 2015. That year, only 22% said they wanted to leave the EU now, 36% hold that view.

Paradoxically, however, the rise in support for leaving the EU has been accompanied by an increase in the number of people who believe that the country will be economically worse off as a result – from 40% to 45% since 2015 – and an increase in the number of people who feel strongly European, up six points to 31%.

This article was amended on 11 July 2018. An earlier version said that figures from NatCen showed “support for leaving the European Union had increased considerably since the referendum in 2015.” The referendum was in 2016, and the the sentence has been corrected to say “since 2015.”


Shifting gender roles: at home and in the workplace

Stay-at-home dads and working moms are a much discussed demographic lately. Traditional gender roles are being challenged by powerful counterexamples, as American families create something new. The benefits are far and wide for everyone.

All around us, the gender wall is being torn down in the Mom-at-home, Dad-at-work family model. Earlier this month, the Philadelphia-based Pew Research Center published a study reporting that 71% of mothers work. A few days later, The Center For American Progress released a study finding women are the breadwinner or co-breadwinners in two thirds of families.

In 1975, 47% of mothers worked.

TIME Magazine addressed the phenomenon with their March 26th cover story, The Richer Sex. A book by the same title has made an enormous splash in social commentary outlets. In his show on WHYY, Voices In The Family, host Dr. Dan Gottlieb recently ran a great story about stay at home dads and its trend in local families.

This migration of lines that used to divide labor is a glorious thing because it challenges the notion of stereotypes. Once the main oppressive idea is torn down, there is room for many others to fill the space. This is good news for everyone.

One just has to look around to see bountiful examples of flexibility in family structures. Of the families in our life, there are configurations: working moms, single parents, stay at home moms, two working parents, communal living, multi-generational families and stay-at-home Dads.

One single Mom explains it this way, “I am the sole provider and caretaker for my three year old. I have been blessed with finding flexible jobs in real estate and in the restaurant business where I can be at home with my daughter when she’s not at school and then work while she’s sleeping. We might not live an extravagant life right now, but I feel grateful to be able to be the one spending majority of her days raising her.”

Another parent talks about communal living as “…really family style living, shared between people who might not be blood relatives, but live together sharing the responsibilities of living as a functioning unit. Because of this, it’s hard to find the ‘right’ people, but when it’s right, it’s wonderful.”

A family with two parents says, “We are a two mom home. One of us works full time at home raising our two very busy sons and works part time on the weekends doing massage and reiki. The other works full time in non-profit public health agency during the week. Having a parent at home is important to us, it definitely has its challenges at times, but has been completely worth it for us as a family.”

There are a million and one reasons, running the gamut from choice to necessity, that factor into the way a family is structured. Work, family and the intermingling of the two could create a beautiful harmony. With the tearing down of gender norms, maybe other norms will get torn down along with it.

How is your family composed?

Northwest Philly Parents is a partnership between Newsworks and Germantown Avenue Parents.


'Kingdom of women' study reveals the real cost of traditional gender roles

Compared to other parts of the world — where female warriors are written off as myths and female scientists have had to fight for recognition — the villages of an ethnic group in Southwest China stand out. The Mosuo live in what's called a "kingdom of women."

In matrilineal Mosuo culture, women inherit property, plant crops, and run households. Grandmothers act as heads of households. Children take the mother’s surname. Perhaps the most famous feature of Mosuo culture are the “walking marriages” – arrangements where partners don’t live in the same household. Instead, women can choose as many or few male partners as they choose, and raise the children independently of their fathers.

The women run the show and it's having a profound impact on their health.

The cultural differences between matrilineal Mosuo and their counterparts, who live in patrilineal societies, are evident in the body according to a study published Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Mosuo women living in matrilineal societies tend to have far fewer markers of chronic disease – including lower blood pressure and signs of inflammation which can lead to heart disease or diabetes.

Siobhán Mary Mattison is the study’s senior author and the director of the University of New Mexico’s Human Family and Evolutionary Demography Laboratory. She tells Inverse that the Mosuo don’t have it easy in either matrilineal or patrilineal societies, but the women-dominated societies offer them one crucial ingredient that may be playing out in their long-term health: autonomy.

“Women work really hard doing day-to-day household labor in both settings, but in the matrilineal communities, they do so with help from their natal families and with significant autonomy in decision making,” she tells Inverse.

How does culture affect health? – Mattison’s study analyzed blood samples from 371 Mosuo women and blood pressure readings from 958 women who lived in either matrilineal or patrilineal societies. The team analyzed blood samples looking for signs of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, while also taking blood pressure measurements.

In patrilineal societies, 8 percent of women showed signs of chronic inflammation — more than double that of men. The same pattern held for blood pressure measurements. Thirty-three percent of women had high blood pressure in patrilineal societies compared to about 26 percent of men.

In matrilineal societies, the pattern wasn’t just dampened. It was completely reversed.

In that case, 6 percent of men showed signs of chronic inflammation compared to 4 percent of women. Twenty-eight percent of men had high blood pressure compared to 26 percent of women.

This might look like men fare worse in female-dominated society, but the paper suggests that’s not the story these numbers tell. The statistical analysis showed that the detrimental effects of living in a patrilineal society for women were statistically significant. By comparison, the health effects of living in a matrilineal society on men weren’t as statistically strong.

In the paper, the authors argue this probably comes down to the fact that men still enjoy autonomy within matrilineal Mosuo societies and access to resources — suggesting that it is beneficial to have autonomy, regardless of gender. Being the head of a household — whether male or female — was linked to lower levels of C-reactive protein in the body, demonstrating a “protective effect” of autonomy, the authors explain.

However, the study shows that the “protective effect” of autonomy appears to be especially pronounced for women, says Mattison.

“Women in these matrilineal communities have a great deal of autonomy in decision-making and excellent social support," she explains. "Given that women tend to be at greater risk of chronic disease worldwide, the fact that they actually do better than men in this realm of health is telling."

Beyond the Mosuo – The daily lives of the Mosuo and the daily lives of people in Western societies don’t make perfect comparisons. But the underlying issues that link autonomy and health can play out in any context.

One reason that the Mosuo women may fare worse in patrilineal societies is that they experience more psychosocial stress and its consequences, Mattison explains. There are clear links between social injustices like racism and stress responses in the body. Even the anticipation of prejudice is linked to an increase in blood pressure, a 2012 study found.

“The stresses of patriliny for women — distance from family, lower autonomy, and control — may activate cortisol and other physiological pathways of the stress response that, over the long term, can take a toll on their bodies, including through inflammation and blood pressure,” she says.

The detrimental effects of a loss of autonomy and control, particularly when gender roles rob someone of that control, have been documented in Western societies too. A survey of 1,596 women conducted in 2017 found that 18 percent had experienced discrimination in health care, 41 percent experienced discrimination in obtaining equal pay and promotions, and 31 experienced discrimination while applying for jobs.

Mattison cautions that the experiences of one group of people are not enough to explain the diverse experiences of humanity. We need far more research to pin down how gender roles can influence health in cultures around the world. But culture itself is universal, as is the fact that it can influence our health.

“Nonetheless, the bottom line is: we ignore culture at the peril of science and health,” she says.

Not recognizing how deep culture can penetrate – into our cells, hearts, and minds – means we’re missing a key piece of the puzzle.


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