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Qadimgi Yunoniston va Rimda tibbiyot tarixi

Qadimgi Yunoniston va Rimda tibbiyot tarixi

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Bu videoda doktor Mariya Vlachaki qadimgi Yunoniston va Rim tibbiyotining tarixi haqida ma'ruza qiladi


Gippokrat va Rim tibbiyoti

Gippokrat (miloddan avvalgi 460 - 384 yillar), asosan, zamonaviy tibbiyotning otasi sifatida tan olingan, chunki u tibbiyot kontseptsiyasini falsafiy va afsonaviy yondashuvdan alohida alohida ilmiy sohada yaratgan. Zamonaviy Gippokrat qasami to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Gippokratdan kelib chiqqan va tibbiyot sohasidagi barcha odamlarni boshqaradigan axloqiy qonun bo'lib qolmoqda. U birinchi navbatda kasalliklarni, davolanish urinishlarini va sabablari va oqibatlarini yozib olish uchun javobgardir.


Ayollar haqida turli xil tibbiy nazariyalar

Ayollar va Erkaklar

Ayollar tanasi tibbiyotda doimo erkaklar bilan solishtirildi. Erkaklarning jasadlari ularning kuchi va shakllanishida ustun bo'lgan. Ayollar jasadlari erkak jinsiy a'zolarining boshqasiga yoki "teskari" deb qaraladigan jinsiy a'zolari bilan aniqlangan (Cilliers, 2006). Galen va#8217 -yillarda Urug 'haqida, u ayolning tuxumdonini erkak moyaklari bilan solishtirib tasvirlaydi:

Ayollarda bachadonning ikkala yelkasiga bittasi o'ng va chap tomonda, ikkala skrotumda emas, balki ikkalasi alohida ajratiladi. , yupqa membranali teriga o'ralgan. Ular mayda va ancha tekis, xuddi bezlar kabi, atrofidagi qoplamali, lekin erkaklar moyaklari singari, tanalarida osonlikcha shikastlanadi (11.1).

Yana bir katta farq erkak go'shti va ayol go'shti edi. Erkaklar go'shti quruq va qattiq, ayollarning go'shti nam va yumshoq deb ta'riflangan. Gippokratlar ayolning jasadini jun va erkaklar matosiga qiyoslashgan. Bu Gippokrat matnida ko'rsatilgan Ayollar kasalliklari:

Men aytamanki, ayolning go'shti erkaknikidan ko'ra ko'proq gözenekli va yumshoqroqdir: shuning uchun ayol tanasi erkak tanasiga qaraganda ko'proq tez va ko'p miqdorda qorinidan nam oladi. Agar kimdir toza junni va og'irligi junga teng bo'lgan toza junni va matoni suv ustida yoki nam joyning ustiga ikki kun va kechani qo'ysa, ularni echib tortadi. , u junning matodan ancha og'ir ekanligini aniqlaydi (Gippok 572)

Aristotel erkaklar issiq va quruq, ayollar sovuq va ho'l ekanligiga ishongan. U erkaklar bolalarni tug'ish uchun "issiq" sperma o'tkazishi mumkinligiga ishongan, ayollar esa faqat "sovuq" qon ishlab chiqarishi mumkin edi, Aristotel erkaklar ayollarga qaraganda yaxshiroq ekanligiga ishongan (Fantham va boshq., 1994). U hatto tasvirlashga davom etadi Hayvonlarning avlodi unga urg'ochilar "buzuq erkak" (175) deb qaraladi. Ayollarni erkaklar bilan taqqoslashni Galen bu parchada yakunlashi mumkin Gippokrat va Aflotun ta'limoti :

Ayollar erkaklarnikiga o'xshash, chunki ular ham aqlli hayvonlardir.
ya'ni bilim olishga qodir, lekin odamlarning jinsi darajasida
har bir mashg'ulot va mashg'ulotda kuchliroq va ustun, ayollar esa kuchsizroq
va pastroq, ular farq qilmaydi (Arist. 9.3.25-26)

Hayz ko'rish

Kattaroq ramka bilan qurilgan ayollar yaxshi tanilgan, chunki ularning tanasi ko'proq namlikni saqlagan. Ayol qanchalik og'ir bo'lsa, uning sirtini namlik bilan singdirish kerak edi va uning tarkibida ko'proq oziq moddalar bor edi (Fantham va boshq., 1994). Ayollar singdirgan bu namlik qon edi. Gippokratlar ayolning qoni uning terisidan so'riladi va oyiga bir marta bu qon uning tanasidan chiqariladi deb ishonishgan (Fantham va boshq., 1994). Ular aniqlagan bu jarayon hozir menstrüel tsikl deb bilamiz. Agar ayol homilador bo'lib qolsa, uning hayzli qoni qornida bolasini oziqlantirishga yordam beradi deb ishonilgan. Yilda Ayollar kasalliklari Gippokratlar tomonidan, ayol kontseptsiyasi bola tug'ilishida katta rol o'ynagan:

[Homiladorlik uchun] eng yaxshi vaqt - hayz ko'rish to'xtagan payt. Ayniqsa, shu kunlarda [ayol] homilador bo'la oladimi yoki yo'qligini ko'rish kerak, chunki ular tug'ilish uchun eng muvaffaqiyatli hisoblanadi. Agar u darhol homilador bo'lolmasa va hamma narsa u bilan yaxshi bo'lsa, boshqa kunlarda uning eriga borishiga hech narsa to'sqinlik qilmaydi, chunki bu odat uning xohishini qo'zg'atadi va uning yo'llari ochilishiga sabab bo'ladi. Agar erkakning eyakulyatsiyasi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri ayoldan chiqsa, u homilador bo'ladi (Gippok, 8:56).

Hatto qadim zamonlarda ham, shifokorlar muvaffaqiyatli homiladorlik ehtimoli bilan birgalikda "oy vaqti" ning ahamiyatini tushunib etishgan (Fantham va boshq., 1994). Ularning fikricha, uning tanasi boshqa davrga o'tishi bilan uning qoni kundan -kunga qalinlashib, homilador bo'la olmaydi. Ichida Epidemiya Gippokratlar tomonidan ayollarning ko'kragiga ko'p miqdorda qon to'planishi aytilgan, bu esa ularni aqlsiz odamlarga aylantirgan. Erkaklarni ko'kragiga qon to'plamasliklari sababli oqilona deb hisoblashardi. Oynada bir parcha bor Epidemiya Bu "har bir ko'kragida behuda bo'sh joy borligini" aytadi. Bular aqlning eng katta qismini o'z ichiga oladi. . . Aqldan ozmoqchi bo'lgan odamda, bu ogohlantirishdir: ko'kragida qon to'planadi "(5: 136 va 138). Gippokratlar, shuningdek, agar ayol o'z hayz ko'rmagan bo'lsa, bu uning hayotiga zarar etkazishi va oxir -oqibat o'limga olib kelishi mumkinligiga ishonishgan (Fantham va boshq., 1994). Ba'zi jihatlardan hayz ko'rish ayollarga zararli bo'lib ko'rildi, chunki ular tug'ilishdan boshqa hech qanday foyda keltirmaydi. Bu Soranusda ko'rsatildi ’ Ginekologiya, “Sog'liqni saqlash nuqtai nazaridan hayz ko'rish hamma uchun zararlidir ” (1.29)

Sayohat qilayotgan ayol

Agar ayol etarlicha jinsiy aloqa qilmasa, uning bachadoni nihoyat engil va quruq bo'lib qoladi, bu esa o'z navbatida ayollarda zararli alomatlarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin, deb o'ylashardi. Hammasining eng zararli alomati isteriya edi. Erkaklar, keksa ayollar va bokira qizlar jinsiy aloqa qilmaslikka moyil bo'lgani uchun, ularning histerikaga aylanish ehtimoli shunchalik yuqori ekanligiga ishonishgan. Bu isterikani davolash, ayolning tanasi va atrofidagi xushbo'y va yoqimsiz moddalarni kuydirib, undan isteriyani olib tashlash edi. Soranus tasvirlaydi O'tkir kasalliklarni davolash usullari "Bachadon" hayvonning xushbo'y hidiga bo'ysunadi, chunki u xushbo'y narsalarning ortidan zavq olgudek bo'ladi va yoqimsiz va yoqimsiz narsalardan qochadi "#8221 (11.10)

Xulosa

Oxir oqibat, bu tibbiy nazariyalar bugungi kunda tibbiyotning asosi bo'ldi. Ayollarning hayotiga ushbu mualliflar bilan bog'liq ko'plab nazariyalar va davolash usullari katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Bu matnlar ayollarga erkaklarnikidan past ekanliklarini va ularning hayotini erkaklarga xos bo'lgan yagona narsa - ularning reproduktiv tizimi orqali boshqarilishini aytdi. Ularning hayoti aqli va tanasining taxminlari bilan boshqarilgan. Bu qayg'uli haqiqat qadim zamonlarda ayollar uchun qanday bo'lganini tasavvur qiladi.

Manbalar

Cilliers, L. (2006). "Grek-rim tibbiyot nazariyalarida erkak va ayol haqidagi faktlar va fantaziyalar." Scholia: Klassik antik davrdagi tadqiqotlar 15 : 53-77.

Din-Jons. L. (1991). Klassik yunon fanida ayol tanasining madaniy tuzilishi. S. B. Pomeroyda (Ed.), Ayollar tarixi va qadimgi tarix (111-137-betlar). Chapel Xill, NC: Shimoliy Karolina universiteti matbuoti

Fantham va boshqalar. (1994) Tibbiyot: anatomiyaning "isboti". Yilda Klassik dunyodagi ayollar (183-205-betlar). Nyu -York, NY: Oksford universiteti matbuoti

Hanson A. (1991). Davomiylik va o'zgarish: Gippokrat ginekologik terapiyasi va nazariyasi bo'yicha uchta amaliy tadqiqotlar. S. B. Pomeroyda (Ed.), Ayollar tarixi va qadimgi tarix (73-110-betlar). Chapel Xill, NC: Shimoliy Karolina universiteti matbuoti

King, H. (1983). Qon ketishi bilan bog'liq: artemis va yunon ayollari. A. Kameron va A. Kuhrtda (Ed.), Qadimgi ayol tasvirlari (109-127-betlar). London: Billing & amp Sons Limited

Lefkowitz, M. R., & amp; Fant, M. B. (2016). Tibbiyot va anatomiya. Yilda Yunoniston va Rimda ayollar hayoti (4-nashr.) (301-349-betlar). Baltimor, MD: Jon Xopkins universiteti matbuoti


Asosiy manbalar materiallari

Tadqiqot uchun eng foydali qadimgi yozuvchilar-bu Kornelius Celsus (mil. I asr), u kitobni jarrohlik va behushlik viloyatlariga bag'ishlagan, Pedanius Dioscorides (mil. 40-8)-barcha zamonaviy farmakopeyalarning kashshofi bo'lgan besh jildli kitob yozgan, Klavdiy Galen (129-taxminan 200), nazariyasi ming yillar mobaynida G'arb tibbiyotida hukmronlik qilgan va sanitariya, gigiena va askarlar salomatligi masalalarini muhokama qilgan Flavius ​​Renatus Vegetius (eramizdan avvalgi 4-asr) [6].


Qadimgi Yunonistonda tibbiyot

Qadimgi Yunonistonda tibbiyot katta ahamiyatga ega edi. Qadimgi yunon madaniyati shunday bo'lganki, sog'lom turmush tarziga ustuvor ahamiyat berilgan. Misr g'oyalaridan foydalangan holda va yangi g'oyalarni ishlab chiqqan yunonlar ko'p jihatdan biz bilgan tibbiyot asoschilaridir. Faylasuflar nazariyalar yozdilar, shifokorlar g'oyalarni ishlab chiqdilar va ular yozildi, o'rgatildi va tarqatildi. Tibbiyotda fan yoki falsafaga asoslangan yondashuvning paydo bo'lishi bilan bir qatorda tibbiy amaliyotda xurofot va dinning davomi ham bor edi.

Qadimgi Yunonistonda tibbiy amaliyot, Misr singari, asosan diniy e'tiqodga asoslangan edi. Asclepius kulti mashhur bo'lib, tibbiy yordam ko'rsatuvchi yirik provayder bo'lgan. Bu din eski nazariyalarni ishlab chiqdi va zamonaviy va boshqa dori -darmonlardan unchalik farq qilmaydigan bir qancha davolash usullarini joriy etdi.

Qadimgi yunonlar tibbiyot sohasida katta yutuqlarga erishdilar. Gippokrat va uning izdoshlarining asarlari bir qancha ilmiy dalillarni birinchi marta qayd etilishiga olib keldi: va, ehtimol, bu faylasuflarning ishi faqat davolovchi shifokor faqat alomatlarga qarab emas, balki uning sababini o'rganish an'anasini boshlagan.

Qadimgi yunon tibbiyotining ahamiyati katta. Gippokratning to'rt hazil nazariyasi uzoq vaqt davomida tibbiy mulohazalarni rivojlantirish uchun asos bo'lib kelgan. Xuddi shunday, yunonlar ishlatgan metodologiya ham katta darajada saqlanib qolgan va o'zgartirilgan, biz hozir an'anaviy tibbiyot deb hisoblaymiz.


Qadimgi Gretsiyada tamponlar tarixi –?

Qadimgi yunon ayollari tampon ishlatganmi? Ma'lum bo'lishicha, bugungi ayollar o'tmishdagi ayollarning hayz ko'rganda nima qilganiga qiziqishadi. Men doktorlik dissertatsiyasini qadimgi yunon hayz ko'rishi bo'yicha o'qiganman va o'zimni WWW -da Gippokrat haqidagi "ijodiy" (aslida noto'g'ri) bayonotlarni tozalash uchun salib yurishida bo'lganimni his qilyapman. Yaqinda men Tampaks marketingidan kelib chiqadigan, lekin boshqa ko'plab saytlar tomonidan tanqidiy tahlil qilinmagan holda olingan bayonotga duch keldim. Asl manba Tampaks saytidagi "miloddan avvalgi V asrda yozgan yunon shifokori Gippokrat, yengil yog'ochga o'ralgan lintdan yasalgan tamponning boshqa turini tasvirlab bergan" degan da'voga o'xshaydi.

"Gippokrat Gippokrat korpusida biror narsa yozganmi?" Degan savolni qo'yib, biz haqiqatan ham qadimgi yunon tibbiyotida shunga o'xshash narsani topa olamizmi? Tampaks da'vosidan kelib chiqadigan boshqa internet saytlaridagi o'zgarishlarga "Gippokrat yozuvlarida tasvirlanganidek, tampon ishlatilgan yog'ochdan yasalgan tolalar" va Gretsiya/Rimning barcha narsalariga quvonch bilan e'tibor bermaslik kiradi. "Ko'rinib turibdiki, Gippokrat rim ayollari tuklar bilan o'ralgan yog'och tayoqlardan foydalanganligini hujjatlashtirgan." Men buni "aftidan" yoqtiraman. Kimdir buni qanday bilishimiz kerakligi haqida muhim savol borligini tushundi: dalillar nima?

Ajablanarlisi hayz ko'rish muzeyi, uning manbalarini aniqlashga va bu mavzu bo'yicha ishlayotgan tarixchilar bilan shug'ullanishga ko'proq harakat qiladi, "tamponlardan kontratseptsiya uchun qadimgi foydalanish haqida gapiradi, bu shuni anglatadiki, ayollar ham materiallardan foydalangan". hayz ko'rishni nazorat qilish uchun tamponlar. " E'tibor bering, "ehtimol". Agar siz vaginaga biror narsani bitta maqsadda kiritgan bo'lsangiz, bu boshqasi uchun qilingan degani emas, lekin hech bo'lmaganda, menstrüasyon muzeyi asoschisi Garri Finli, biz bu haqda suhbat qurganimizda, bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, bunday kiritishga hech qanday tabu biriktirilmagan.

Burun tamponlari?

Xo'sh, qadimgi yunon tibbiy matnlari "Gippokrat korpusi" deb nomlansa -chi? Gippokrat risolalarida Qo'shimchalar va Qisqartirish asboblari, burun singanda, shifokorga lattani yoki yupqa Karfagen terisidan (juda yumshoq bo'lgani uchun tanlangan) tuklarni o'rab, burunga soling. Bu erda ishlatilgan qadimgi yunoncha so'z motivlar. Bu, bu erda bo'lgani kabi, yaralarni bog'lash uchun lintni anglatishi mumkin, lekin uning kirish qismida motivlar Liddell, Skott va Jons tomonidan yozilgan qadimgi yunon-ingliz lug'ati (klassiklarga "LSJ" nomi bilan quvonch bilan ma'lum) ham "chodir, tampon" beradi. Bu xayoliy "Gippokrat tamponi" qayerdan kelib chiqqan?

Tibbiy nuqtai nazardan, chodir - bu ochiq havoda ta'til paytida siz tunaydigan joy emas, balki teshik ochish uchun yumshoq materialdan yasalgan tiqin. Tibbiy ingliz tilida tamponlar biz taxmin qilayotgan narsadan farq qiladi. Tampaks sahnaga chiqmasidan oldin, tamponlar bor edi, lekin biz bilganimizdek emas. Tampon shunchaki qon ketishini to'xtatish uchun ishlatilgan, yaraga yoki agar hayz oqimi haddan tashqari ko'p bo'lib tuyulsa, qin ichiga solingan tiqin edi. Bu so'z "tamplash" fe'lidan kelib chiqadi, u teshikni to'xtatish yoki pastga surish ma'nosini bildiradi - siz tamakini chekishdan oldin truba kosasiga "tiqishingiz" mumkin. Ammo Tampax tijorat mahsuloti sifatida sahnaga chiqqanda, bu so'z hayz ko'rishga nisbatan ancha torayib ketdi, shuning uchun bugungi kunda bu so'zni hayz ko'rish mahsulotlariga deyarli tatbiq qilish Tampaks ixtirosining natijasidir.

Qiladi motivlar Ayollar jasadiga bag'ishlangan Gipppokratiya risolalaridagi xususiyat? Ha, lekin odatdagi hayz ko'rishni singdirish usulida emas. Yilda Ayollar kasalliklari 1 (Littré 8.138.12) - bu bachadon og'ziga qo'llaniladigan taskin beruvchi lint degan ma'noni anglatadi va o'sha risolaning 2 -kitobida (Littré 8.332.18) uchtasi bor. motoy Bachadon bo'yni qattiq va yopiq bo'lgani uchun, bachadon og'ziga kattalashgan kattalikdagi hayz qoni chiqa olmaydi. Pol Potter 2018 yil Loeb klassik kutubxonasi uchun ushbu matnlarning tarjimasida "‘pessary ’" so'zini ishlatgan. Xuddi shunday, har xil so'zlar ishlatilsa -da, vaginaga dori kiritish kerak bo'lganda - masalan, bachadonni bezovta qiladigan va hayz ko'rish kechiktiradigan qo'ng'izlar - avval jun bilan o'raladi. Ammo ulardan hech biri hayz ko'rishning normal oqishini boshqarishga taalluqli emas.

Ta'kidlash joizki, yana bir alohida ma'lumotnoma bor. Bu qadimgi yunon tibbiyot matnlaridan emas, balki miloddan avvalgi V asrdagi komik dramaturg Aristofandan (Lysistrata 1073) u bir marta "cho'chqa qalam" kiygan odamlarga ishora qiladi (xorokomeon) sonlari atrofida. Ayollarning tashqi jinsiy a'zolarining qadimiy so'zlaridan biri bu xorlar - cho'chqa go'shti - yosh qizning jinsiy a'zolarida yoki agar depilatsiya qilingan bo'lsa - keksa ayolning jinsiy a'zolarida ishlatiladi. Sizning cho'chqangizga juda katta hajmli narsa kiyish haqidagi hazil shuki, masalan, uy qurilishi hayz yostig'i? So'z xorlar o'zi qiziqarli erkak/ayollik o'lchoviga ega, bunda agar u erkaklarda ishlatilsa, bu "ayol jinsiy a'zosi" degan ma'noni beradi, lekin ayollikda "cho'chqa"! Haqiqatan ham, cho'chqa qalam kiygandek ko'rinadigan erkaklar plashlarini ochganda, ular ostida yashirganlari tik jinsiy olatlari bo'ladi.

Agar kimdir a xorlar bu hazil, bu Aristofan bo'lardi. U so'zning o'yin -kulgi qiymatini yaxshi bilardi. Uning yana bir spektakli, Axarliklar, qizlarini "cho'chqa" qilib sotmoqchi bo'lgan kambag'al odam haqida kengaytirilgan hazil bor. Va mening taklifimni qo'llab -quvvatlab, men dadil taxminlar qilish uchun lug'atni emas, LSJ ni keltira olaman. Buning ma'nosini beradi xorokomeon - faqat shu holatda - "urg'ochilar bint". Xo'sh, buni erkaklar hayz ko'rishi deb atashadimi yoki ayollar shunday deb atashganmi? Qanday bo'lmasin, agar biz bu fikrlash chizig'iga amal qilsak, bu qadimgi Yunonistonda hayz ko'rish tamponlardan emas, balki uydan yasalgan latta yostiqlari yordamida amalga oshirilganiga yana bir dalil bo'lishi mumkin.

Aristofan haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun Jeyms Robson, Aristofanni sinab ko'ring: kirish (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2009) va bu erda boshlanadigan "Komediyaning tug'ilishi" bepul onlayn serialini tomosha qiling.


Qadimgi Yunoniston va Rimda tibbiyot tarixi - Tarix

Buyuk Aleksandr O'rta er dengizini bosib oldi, lekin tez -tez sodir bo'ladigan bo'lsada, bunday katta kengayish Aleksandr imperiyasining qulashiga olib keldi. U hokimiyatni turli generallar qo'lida qoldirdi va shuning uchun uning imperiyasi ko'plab qirolliklarga bo'lindi. Eng muhim shohliklardan biri bu edi Pergamo va, birinchi navbatda, bu Ptolomeylar Misrda. Bu erda yunon madaniyati misrlik bilan birlashdi.

Ptolomeylar imperiyasi davrida Misrda Iskandariyada keng ko'lamli madaniy harakat rivojlandi. Qadim zamonlarning eng katta va eng mashhur kutubxonasi qurilgan bo'lib, unda davr bilimlari jamlangan va afsuski, keyingi asrlarda bir qancha baxtsizliklar yuz bergan. U yonib ketdi Qaysar va boshqa Rim imperatorlari tomonidan 640 yilda arab xalifasi tomonidan vayron qilingan. Bu kutubxona olimlar Aristotel maktabida o'qigan haqiqiy va haqiqiy universitet edi. Biroq, ular nafaqat hayvonlarni, balki odamlarni ham kesib tashladilar. Misr ming yillar davomida dafn marosimini o'tkazgan er edi, shuning uchun uni mumiyalashga tayyorgarlik sifatida ajratishgan. Shuning uchun, texnikasi o'limdan keyin Tekshiruv nafaqat disektsiya nuqtai nazaridan, balki Uyg'onish davrida ham vrachning kasbiy faoliyatining asosiy qismi sifatida muhim ahamiyat kasb etdi.

Iskandariyada keng tarqalgan empirik maktab juda muhim edi, unga ko'ra shifokorning ishi uchta asosiy faoliyat turidan iborat edi: anamnez (kasallik tarixi), otopsi (bemorni tekshirish, bemorni tekshirish ma'nosida) va tashxis. Shunday qilib, maktabda hozirgi kunni eslaydigan juda qiziqarli printsiplar bor edi, lekin baribir u muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi, chunki aniq tashxis qo'yishning aniq imkoniyati yo'q edi, natijada ularning bilim etishmasligi tufayli. maxsus kasallik uchun terapiya.

Iskandariyada empirik maktab shifokorlar tayyorlash bilan bir vaqtda, Gippokrat maktabining davomi bo'lgan dogmatik maktab va katta muvaffaqiyatga erishgan metodik maktab rivojlandi.

Yuqorida aytib o'tilgan maktablardan tashqarida ishlaydigan ikkita taniqli olim Aleksandriyada ham yashagan Herofil (miloddan avvalgi 330) (1) va Erasistratus (miloddan avvalgi 304-250 yillar) . Ikkinchisi buyuk olim edi, chunki u birinchi navbatda arteriyalar tomirlar ekanligini tan oldi va Aristotelning arteriyalar qonni emas, balki pnevmani tashiydi degan fikriga qarshi chiqdi (2). Bundan tashqari, u pulsni o'rganishga, tana harorati va hokazo tushunchalariga, keyingi asrlar davomida yo'qolgan hissalarga katta e'tibor qaratgan (3).

Yuqorida aytib o'tilganidek, Iskandariyadagi eng muhim maktab metodik maktab edi. Bu to'rt elementning falsafasida emas, balki raqib falsafada, atomistik nazariyada edi Demokritlar (miloddan avvalgi V va IV asrlar orasida yashagan). Gippokrat kontseptsiyasi Aristotelga o'xshash finalistik edi, Demokrit nazariyasi esa bunga asoslangan edi. Bu maktabga ko'ra, teshiklar katta ahamiyatga ega edi: shuning uchun teshiklar ochiq yoki yopiqligiga qarab, bemorda bo'shashish yoki taranglik holati bor edi. Teshiklarni normal ochiq rejimda ushlab turish uchun hamma narsani qilish kerak edi, va qanday yuvish kerakligiga, suvning haroratiga e'tibor berish kerak edi, Galen tomonidan aytilgan bu tushuncha O'rta asrlarda gigienaning juda yomon bo'lishiga sabab bo'lgan. noto'g'ri talqin qilingan va ko'zalarni yopib qo'ygani uchun suv hukm qilingan degan ma'noni anglatgan.

Qadimgi Yunonistonda, keyin Rim davrida gigienada katta o'zgarishlar ro'y berdi. Tananing fiziologik ehtiyojlari endi tashqi muhitda yoki umumiy ochiq joylarda (ko'chalarda, bo'shliqlarda) emas, balki tegishli binolarda, suv ta'minoti va kanalizatsiya tizimi bilan jihozlangan umumiy hojatxonalarda amalga oshirildi. Rimda juda funktsional suv ta'minoti tizimiga qo'shimcha ravishda samarali kanalizatsiya tizimi mavjud edi. Bu nafaqat badavlat kishilarga tegishli edi, balki hamma odamlarga ham tegishli edi izolyatsiya (qadimgi Rimda ijaraga olingan uylar), favvora bor edi, har bir uyga suv o'tkazgichlari orqali suv oqardi. Bu suv o'tkazgichlar qo'rg'oshin quvurlari yordamida qurilgan, ular juda egiluvchan material edi va suvda qo'rg'oshin birikmalaridan kelib chiqqan qo'rg'oshin zaharlanishiga olib keladigan kasallik tufayli Rim imperiyasining qulashida ayblangan, shuningdek Saturnizm deb ham ataladi. Aslida, bu kasallikni ifloslangan suv emas, balki sharob keltirib chiqargandek. Darhaqiqat, suv tog'li hududlardan kelgan va kaltsiy birikmalariga boy bo'lgan, ular vaqt o'tishi bilan qo'rg'oshin quvurlarining ichki qismiga yotqizilgan va shuning uchun suvni qo'rg'oshindan saqlaydigan himoya qatlami hosil bo'lgan, shuning uchun endi u suvga tusha olmasdi. . Boshqa tomondan, sharob eriydigan qo'rg'oshinlarga boy edi, chunki ular hozirgi disulfid singari vino fermentatsiyasini nazorat qilish uchun ishlatilgan.

Tibbiyot Rimdagi oilaviy muhitda qo'llanilgan (oilaviy shifokor pater familias kim oila ustidan mutlaq hokimiyatga ega edi) va tibbiyot hech qanday haqiqiy nazariyaga asoslanmagan bo'lsa -da, bu ratsionalizatsiyalangan empirik fan edi. O'simlikshunos juda muhim edi, hatto u ham empirik tarzda ishlagan bo'lsa ham.

Tibbiyot Rimga Yunonistonning bosib olinishi bilan keldi. Rimda shifokor bo'lishni beparvolik deb hisoblashgan, buni faqat chet ellik qilishardi. Rimliklar tomonidan bosib olingandan so'ng, Yunoniston ko'plab urushlar behuda ketgach, qashshoqlikka uchragan edi, shuning uchun Rimga borib, o'z kasbi bilan shug'ullanish uchun o'zlarini qul qilib sotgan ko'plab shifokorlar bor edi. Ularning ko'plari mashhur bo'lib, erkinliklarini sotib, ozod bo'ldilar. Eng yaxshi boylikka ega bo'lgan mazhab Metodik (4) edi Asclepades va uning shogirdi Temison Rim tibbiy madaniyatiga kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Bundan tashqari, Rimda juda muhim risolalar mualliflari bor edi, ular orasida o'simlik dorilarining asoschisi, Dioscorides Pedanius (milodiy birinchi asr) kim 1800 -yillarning boshlariga qadar farmakologiyaning asosi bo'lib kelgan De materia medica huquqini bergan kitobni nashr etgan. Efes Soranus (I/II asr) , yunon shifokori, ginekologik risola va, eng avvalo, nashr etdi Aulus Kornelius Selsiy (miloddan avvalgi 14-37-yillar) risolasi bilan De Medicina, ham muhim edi. Oxirgi darslik tibbiyot ensiklopediyasining bir turi bo'lib, u jarrohlik va tibbiyot dalillarini ilmiy nuqtai nazardan muhokama qilgan, bu borada mutaxassis emas, balki Rimda keng tarqalgan amaliyotlarning katta ro'yxatini tuzgan. Bu bizga o'sha paytda jarrohlikning rivojlanishi haqida tasavvurga ega bo'lishga imkon beradi, birinchi navbatda stomatologiya kabi sohalarda (5).

Biroq, Rim sanitariyasining eng xarakterli elementi gigiena edi. Rimliklar ko'p yuvdilar, bunga o'sha paytdagi termal vannalarning ishlatilishi va soni guvohlik beradi. G'arb madaniyatida juda muhim iz qoldirgan, Rim davridagi eng muhim tabib Pergam edi Galen (milodiy 129-milodiy 200) (6). U boy oiladan chiqqan podshoh me'morining o'g'li edi va Aleksandriyada shogirdlik qilgandan so'ng, u yunoncha tushunchalarga amal qilgan bo'lsa -da, anatomik tajribaga ega bo'lib, gladiatorlar shifokori bo'lgan Rimga bordi. boshqa Eng ko'p o'rganilgan hayvon - cho'chqa ("odamga eng o'xshash hayvon", Galen) va maymun (7). Galen instinkti uni organlarning asosiy ahamiyatini va ularning samarali rolini anglashga undaydi. Masalan, u siydik pufagi siydik chiqarmasligini, lekin bu siydik pufagidan chiqqanini (u buni ureterlarni birlashtirib ko'rsatdi) tushundi va birinchi marta takrorlanuvchi asab va uning fonatsiyadagi rolini tasvirlab berdi. U vrach sifatida juda muhim edi: davolovchi dorivor o'simliklarga asoslanib, u bir nechta farmatsevtika preparatlarini kiritdi. Masalan, anestezik sifatida tol po'stlog'i, laudan (opium damlamasi) dan foydalanish.

Ammo, bu foydali dorilar bilan birga, u umuman foydasiz iksirlardan foydalandi, ular orasida eng g'alati narsalar bo'lgan echki go'ngi, mumiya bo'laklari, qo'shimchaning boshlari (8) bo'lgan bulon bor edi. Bu pivoning birdan -bir yaxshi tomoni shundaki, u uzoq vaqt qaynatilgan va tarkibidagi materialni sterilizatsiya qilgan. U 18 -asrning oxirigacha ishlatilgan, odatda yiliga bir marta turli shaharlardagi magistratura mas'uliyati bilan ishlab chiqariladi va keyin dorixonalarda sotiladi. Ko'p sonli sezgilariga qaramay, ehtimol o'sha davrning eng ko'p qabul qilingan nazariyasi Gippokrat bo'lgani uchun ham, Galen hazillar nazariyasini qabul qildi. Bundan tashqari, u terapevtik jihatlarga alohida e'tibor qaratdi materia peccans. Orasida materia peccans yiring edi "Bonum et laudabile" Galen tomonidan, chunki bu uning ifodasi edi materia peccans Buni yo'q qilish kerak edi: u yiringni yo'q qilishni talab qiladigan modda ekanligini tushundi. Ammo, afsuski, birinchi navbatda, Galen izdoshlari tomonidan bu nazariya juda kamdan -kam hollarda qo'llanilgan: aslida Galenning asarlari yaralarni davolashni rag'batlantirish uchun yiring hosil bo'lishini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun ishlatilgan. Bu kontseptsiya XVI asr oxirigacha amalda deb hisoblangan.

Bundan tashqari, Galen boshqa terapevtik usullarga, masalan, qon quyishga ruxsat bergan. U, shuningdek, gözenekler haqida metodist kontseptsiyani ham kiritdi, lekin bu yuvilmaslik taklifiga aylantirildi, chunki suv teshiklarga to'sqinlik qilishi mumkin.

Galen bizning tanamiz qanday ishlashini va qon qanday aylanishini tushunish uchun falsafiy nazariyani ishlab chiqdi. Aristotelning ko'plab tasdiqlariga asoslanib (u ovqat hazm qilishni oshqozonda yutilgan ovqatni qayta ishlash usuli sifatida birinchi bo'lib ko'rib chiqqan), oziqlantiruvchi moddalar keyinchalik jigarga (qon tarqatish uchun asosiy organ) olib kelinishini ta'kidladi. mezenterik tomirlar (o'sha paytda chilifar tomirlar aniqlanmagan). Bu material jigarda qonga aylandi va boyidi ruhiy tabiat (tabiiy ruh). Bu qonning ko'p qismi jigardan, tomirlar orqali, tananing barcha qismlariga, ozuqa sifatida iste'mol qilingan. Boshqa tomondan, bir oz qon bo'shliqdan o'tib, tirik odamlarni kuydiradigan yurakka o'tdi ruhiy hayot (hayotiy ruh), bu esa o'z navbatida qonni boyitdi. Xususan, qon o'ng tomonda yurakka, bu erdan esa septum teshiklari orqali yurakning chap tomoniga etib borgan. Bu erdan arteriyalar orqali, ular tomirlar deb hisoblanar ekan, qon miyaga yetib borardi. Ammo, miyaga etib borishdan oldin, qon maxsus tomirlar tarmog'idan o'tdi eslab qoling) bo'ynida joylashgan (9). Ensefalonga etib boradigan qon boshqa ruh bilan boyidi ruhiy hayvonlar (hayvonlar ruhi) va uchinchi tomirlar tizimi deb hisoblangan nervlar orqali u tananing a'zolariga etib, u erda hayot berdi. Bu nazariya qon aylanadi, faqat u harakat qiladi, degan farazni bermagan: Galenoning fikricha, u dengiz to'lqinlariga qarab harakat qilgan. Tabiiyki, bu nazariyani osongina rad etish mumkin edi. Aslida, agar bu tushunchalar rost bo'lsa, juda katta miqdordagi qon bo'lishi kerak edi. Agar qon tana qismlariga etib borganida o'zini iste'mol qilsa, tana doimiy ravishda uning ko'p miqdorini iste'mol qilishi mantiqan to'g'ri keladi. Hayvonning tomog'ini kesish, bu nazariyani buzish uchun etarli bo'ladi, xuddi 1500 yildan keyin Xarvi qilganidek. Bundan tashqari, Galen nazariyasiga ko'ra, qon miyada filtrlangan, shuning uchun uning aralashmalari kribriform plastinka orqali chiqarilishi mumkin edi (chunki u elakka o'xshash bo'lgan etmoid suyagi qatlami - beshik Lotin tilida) ko'z yoshlari, tupurik, shilimshiq va ter paydo bo'lishi.

Garchi bu ajoyib nazariya bo'lsa -da, u hech qanday eksperimental asosga ega emas edi, lekin u nasroniylik ta'limotiga yaxshi moslashgani uchun u deyarli dogma bo'lib qoldi va XVI asrda ham buyuk Vesal davrida amalda deb hisoblangan. Qonga qo'shimcha ravishda, galenik takabburlar orasida anatomiyasi asosan hayvonlarni o'rganishga asoslangan edi.

Galenning qat'iy pozitsiyasining isboti sifatida, har qanday shifokor ko'rgan skelet tomonidan berilgan barcha dalillarga qaramay, ming yillar mobaynida anatomlar dumba egri chizig'ini va har qanday to'g'ri chiziqlar hiyla -nayrangdan boshqa narsa emasligini aytishgan. tabiatan.

Galendan keyin G'arbiy imperiyada, shuningdek Sharqiy imperiyada ishlagan ko'plab shifokorlar bor edi, natijada G'arbdan Sharqqa bilim tarqaldi.

Gigienaga katta ahamiyat berilgandan so'ng, birinchi haqiqiy va haqiqiy kasalxonalar Rim davrida qurilgan. Xabar berganidek VitruviusUlarda chiqindilarni yo'q qilish, suv ta'minoti tizimi, kanalizatsiya va havoning erkin aylanishi kabi inshootlar bor edi, buni shifoxonalar berilgan ko'plab derazalar tasdiqlaydi.

Vizantiyaga hokimiyatning o'tishi bilan bir qatorda, tibbiy madaniyat va gigiena ham o'tdi. Hammom va shifoxonalar ko'p edi va ijtimoiy tibbiyot paydo bo'ldi. Kabi mashhur shifokorlar bor edi Pol Eginadan Vizantiya shahrida, lekin ular Galen aytganlarini takrorlashdan boshqa ish qilmadilar. Vizantiyada ular o'rtasida nizo kelib chiqdi Bishop Kiril va Bishop Nestorius. Ikkinchisi yo'qotdi va Konstantinopoldan quvildi. Shunday qilib, u hozirgi Iroq va Misrda joylashgan Yaqin Sharqdan panoh topdi. Nestorius o'zining mumtoz madaniy yuklarini o'zi bilan birga olib yurgan, shu jumladan, shifokor bo'lish, qadimgi Rimda topilgan tibbiy tushunchaga o'xshash.

Gigienaga katta ahamiyat berildi: Bag'dodda, Iroqning boshqa shaharlarida va Qohirada rimliklar qurganlar qatorida juda rivojlangan shifoxonalar qurildi. Bu arab davrida anatomiyaga ahamiyat berilmadi, lekin yaxlit tibbiyot tushunchasi davom etdi. Shunday qilib, tez -tez yuvinish (10) tushunchasi mustahkam o'rnashib qoldi. Arab tibbiyotida din ham juda ta'sirli edi. Qur'on tushunchalaridan biri shundaki, inson tanasini kesmaslik kerak, chunki qon bilan birga ruh ham tanadan chiqib ketadi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, jarrohlik amaliyotini o'tkazib bo'lmaydi. Bundan tashqari, bu e'tiqod ruhni shikastlashdan qo'rqib, o'limdan keyin 24 soat davomida parchalanishni taqiqlagan. In order to prevent this happening, the Arabs invented cauterization (which is still used today in order to block the vessels temporarily during a surgical operation) (11). At that time eschar had to be followed by suppuration in order to create pus, bonum et laudabile, fully respecting the therapy of the time, even it often led to the patient's death.

Furthermore, to their credit, the Arabs handed down the writings of the Ancient Greeks, that had reached them through the Nestorians or as gifts from various Western princes, by scrupulously translating them into Arabic whilst leaving the parallel Greek test. Great Physicians were Rhazes (864-925) va Avicenna (980-1037) . Around the half of 1200 the Syrian Ibn-Al-Nafis (1213-1288) described the pulmonary circulation. It is unlikely, however, that his discovery did influence western medicine since it surfaced only in 1924.

The Arab civilisation reached its zenith in Islamic Spain. At Cordoba in particular there were great physicians as Maimonides, Giuannizzius, Rhazes, Albucasisva Averroes (1126-1198) . The period of the Moorish civilisation (12) in Europe was the apex of Arab civilisation. After the fall of the Moors the Arab empire collapsed and their knowledge came back to Europe, particularly to Montpellier and Salerno.

Although in the east the Arab developed an extremely advanced society based on the ancient inheritance of the classic, and sustained by the nascent Islamic conception that translated and commented on the ancient texts, in the West it was a period of obscurantism and return to theurgic medicine. The saints were believed to be adjuvant and their relics were thought to have miraculous powers. Wars were even fought over these relics (13). The concept of the Cult of Saints was particularly widespread in this period. The most famous among the adjuvant saints were Saints Cosmas and Damian (14): they were the patrons of the Medici family as well as of doctors, and were called anargiri because they did not ask for fee. A posthumous "miracle" was attributed to them: they attached a leg taken from a black man's cadaver to the sacristan of their church, who had a gangrenous leg.

There were protecting saints for every organ and against all diseases: St. Lucy was protector of the eyes, St. Apollonia of the teeth, St. Blaise for the throat, St. Fiacre protected against haemorrhoids, St. Anthony against leprosy, and St. Roch against plague, St. Anne parturition and St. Agatha against diseases of breast.

As already mentioned, after the fall of the Arab kingdoms the Spanish Muslim scientists settled above all in France, at Montpelier, and in Italy in Salerno, where the so-called Salerno school flourished and which, according to legend, was founded by a Greek, by a Latin and by a Hebrew and by an Arab a little before the year 1000. A plethora of Greek and Arab manuscripts were to be found in this school. As a result, there was a return to Greek and classical culture and Hippocratic medicine. In this epoch great importance was placed on moderation in diet and in wine. In addition, advice was given on what needed doing and what, on the other hand, should be avoided. For example, overdoing amorous activities was to be avoided, reading by candlelight should also be avoided, as should forcing oneself during defecation, and not overindulging in wine was essential. The principles of hygiene returned, of washing one's hands frequently, of wholesome healthy fresh air. Great importance was given to the concept of temperament, four of which were identified: the jovial temperament, the loving or amorous temperament, the choleric and the phlegmatic.

So, above all, great importance was given to what one ate in relation to the temperament. For example, if a person was very choleric, it meant he had a great deal of bile and too much fire. It was necessary to tone down and dampen such a temperament by making the person eat fish from marshes, which is cold, or otherwise the coot (which was considered to be a fish). Emphasis was place on examining the ill and on examining the urine. There was a degree of development in surgery, but not in the condition of the surgeon, who was still considered to be a sort of servant (as underlined by his raiment) and not a doctor.

The first universities were founded in this period. At first, there were the Studia, which were institutes sponsored by the lay civil community, whereas the university ("Universitas studiorum"), was, at first, a spontaneous phenomenon, originated where itinerant students chose a valid teacher by offering him a salary. In this case power lay in the hands of students who could change teacher when they wished if they were not satisfied. The emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, was the first to finance these students, giving them financial support if they remained and settled in his city. Then, the Church entered into the situation and the University could only become such through the issuing of a Papal Bull. The first university in the western world given a Papal Bull was the University of Bologna. The first Universities were based on the liberal sciences of the trivium (rhetoric, dialectics and grammar) and of the quadrivium (mathematics, geometry, astronomy (15) and music (16)). Medicine only entered into university disciplines about 150 years later: in Bologna the physician Taddeo degli Alderotti (1223-1303) argued medicine's cases with the rhetors, managing to elevate the status of medicine into a position alongside the other university disciplines.

(1) One recalls Herophilus's torcular.
(2) This was due to the fact that when an incision was made into an animal, the veins were full of blood while the arteries were not.
(3) One recalls the first attempt to classify the various vegetables with particular attention being paid to their medicinal properties, made by Theofrastos, a student of Aristotle.
(4) This is the sect which went back to the atomistic theory, to that of pores.
(5) Dental surgery is of Etruscan origin as they were able dentists: in fact, they used dental prosthetics and dental implants.
(6) From Pergamos were the people who invented books. These were made of sheepskins suitably treated, which could be written on, and which were used as a substitiute for the much more costly Egyptian papyrus.
(7) The first of these was quite diffuse in Europe and is still present in Gibraltar nowadays where there is a colony of monkeys on the Rock.
(8) It is believed that is was introducd by Mithradates, king of Ponto.
(9) This system was described by Aristotle following his studies on animals, which mainly concerned animals with long necks, such as horses in whose neck exists a vascular system which acts to keep the blood warm in the long passage towards the encephalon.
(10) On the occasion of the first exchanges between eastern and western, the former complained about the fact that the westerners smelt, and not just a little! Indeed, in the 17th century the King of France only washed once a year!
(11) An eschar forms in these which blocks the blood flow.
(12) An exquisite product of the Moorish civilisation is conserved in Cagliari in the National Art Gallery: It is a jug taking the form of a bird made of bronze which was offered to the guest so that he or she could wash their hands before the meal (a ewer).
(13) Among other things the remains of one of the saints and one of the church doctors were conserved for a good 500 years in Cagliari: St. Augustine of African origin, who had been Bishop of Hippo, in Numidia. When the Barbary pirates invaded Roman Africa, the African Bishops of Hippo brought the remains of St. Augustine to a safe place, namely Cagliari, where they remained for about 500 years until the Lombard king Liutprandus acquired the remains and those of St. Lussorius, Camerinus and Cesellus, who were the latter's grooms, from the judge of Cagliari in order to demonstrate that he was a truly Catholic king. St. Augustine and the other saints were buried in Pavia. On the other hand, the head of St. Lussorius ended up in Pisa, in the church of the Cavalieri. A silver bust of him was also commissioned to the famous Donatello. Demonstrating the strength of the cult of the saints, the tenure of the President of the Italian Republic (formerly of the King of Italy) was dedicated to St. Rossore (the Pisan equivalent of St. Lussorius).
(14) Until recently, the church of St. Saturnin at Cagliari was dedicated to Saints Cosmas and Damian since the two saints were painted in a picture inside the church. Today this church has been rededicated to its original saint.
(15) In reality it is astrology.
(16) It was considered to be an exact science in that it was composed of the exact succession of the seven notes.


Learn by doing: compare to Chinese medicine Or compare it to Indian medicine More about Roman medicine

Greek and Roman Science, by Don Nardo (1998). Nardo has written a lot of good easy to read books about the ancient world this one is no exception.

Hippocratic Writings, by Hippocrates and others. Translated by G.E.R. Lloyd. What the Greeks themselves had to say about medical theory and practice.

Hippocrates, by Jacques Jouanna and M. B. Devevoise (1999). A commentary on the Hippocratic writings and Greek medicine in general, for adults.


Healing History: The Story of Agnodice, a Woman Practicing Medicine in Ancient Greece

This marble plaque depicts a ‘parturition’, or birthing scene. Such scenes eased the fears of expectant mothers by depicting positive birthing images. Here, a pregnant woman reclines on a couch covered in drapes, attended by three women. They are dressed in classical Roman robes and one is holding the baby. / The plaque was excavated at Ostia, Italy. British Museum

By Abby Norman / 01.19.2017

Women in the medical arts can be traced back to the story of Agnodice. Some scholars argue that she was not a real person, but rather a well-constructed myth. Whether lore or not, her story has been held tight by midwives for millennia. As the story goes, Agnodice had been determined since her youth to aid women in their childbearing—a task that for much of human history fell to female relatives or wizened old women. Facing young Agnodice in Ancient Greece was the problem that women had been completely blocked from studying, let alone practicing, medicine, which included the somewhat mysterious witchery of midwifery.

Women have guided each other through the various stages of reproductive life for centuries and across cultures. They proceeded fairly uninterrupted in these tasks until the 1800s when the fears of men lent themselves to the systematic pathologizing of women’s health. As much as it is today, driving women out of those sacred healing roles and blocking their access to medical knowledge was motivated in large part by worries men harbored about the fate of their lineage. By controlling not just the profession of medicine itself, but the dissemination of medical knowledge, men were able to exert more precise control over women in order to mollify their deepest progenic concerns. The marginalization of Agnodice provides a useful entry into understanding the long history of medicalization in the Western tradition.

According to the legend, Agnodice entered medicine some 2,000 years ago by dressing as a man to circumvent the restrictions of her gender. In order to gain the trust of her female patients, she would undress enough to prove to her prospect patients that she was indeed a woman. As her reputation grew, she quickly became the most in-demand physician of her era.

This, of course, brought her undue attention, and the broader medical community became suspicious of her success. Male physicians were so threatened by this new doctor that they accused him of seducing women. In court, Agnodice then revealed herself to be female to disprove the accusations of lewdness, only to then be tried for breaking the law that prohibited women from studying and practicing medicine.

As the story goes, Agnodice did not back down, and she was victorious in her case. After her trial, women were allowed back into the dominion of midwifery, and doors began to open for them throughout other medical disciplines as well. But, it wouldn’t be the last time that men in the upper echelons of the medical establishment would seek to debar women from the vocation.

The feminine hegemony of early gynecology in the Western World began to break down at least since since the time of Hippocrates. He barred women from studying medicine under his tutelage—with the exception of one of his satellite schools in Asia Minor where they were allowed to study gynecology. Men sought to medicalize pregnancy, childbirth, and other aspects of women’s health as they feared what would happen if women had enough information, support, and resources to have agency over their reproductive health. The biggest threat being the intentional—or unintentional— bearing of illegitimate heirs.

Pressure on women to produce male heirs was often so intense that it was common for them to employ desperate measures to ensure a male heir. In the British monarchy alone, records show innumerable examples of “royal bastards”—illegitimate children of the Royal family going as far back as the Middle Ages. Purportedly, at least one of them had been snuck into the bedchamber in a warming pan after his mother, desperate to produce a royal heir, either had suffered a stillbirth or feigned a pregnancy. Male heirs inherited not just titles, but also property, assets, and the family trade. If a woman wanted to profoundly upset a man’s life, producing an illegitimate heir would be one way to do it.

Agnodice dressed in all white with darker clothing as a part of her disguise as a male physician. / Wikimedia Commons

Midwifery predates obstetrics by thousands of years, and it gave rise to the discipline in name (obsterix being the Latin for midwife) and in practice. The two were inextricably linked, and fairly interchangeable, until about the 20th century, when another wave of medicalization of childbirth took hold.

In the 17th century, men were successful in their attempts to infiltrate midwifery when “male midwives” or “accoucheurs” started cropping up in France. A few of these men pioneered techniques for delivering breech babies and suturing perineal tears that are still in use today, but it wasn’t until the accoucheurs reached Great Britain that their foray into midwifery became permanent. When men achieved control in both the academic and clinical sense, women lost what little control they had in reproductive medicine as both patients and practitioners.

In the U.S. and many other industrialized nations, childbirth has become regarded as an emergent medical event, an interpretation of childbirth that is still in its infancy. Whereas midwifery often includes options like home birth or unassisted birth, obstetrics aimed to prove that childbirth was a medical event best undertaken in a hospital under the watchful eye of a male physician. As the two practices diverged, academic and clinical obstetrics become a space for men to exercise their power and prowess, while midwifery remained largely in the hands of women. Today, they represent two distinct—but potentially complementary—approaches to pregnancy and childbirth.

The creation of the obstetric discipline provided a means for men to enter the formerly woman dominated field that was reproductive health. However, the medicalized approach to childbirth (which, among other practices, included the hospital births and Twilight Sleeps of the early 21st century) did not provide a comparable opportunity for women to gain entry into medicine as a whole. It took centuries, but women slowly began to reclaim their space in more “feminine” disciplines of medicine: today, 60% of pediatricians and 51% of OBGYNs are women.

It would seem, as has often been the case throughout history, that the unique attributes and offerings of women have prevailed in spite of oppression in the world of medicine. Recent research from Harvard shows that in a review of over a million patient records, patients who were treated by women physicians had lower readmission rates, better outcomes, and a statistically significant lowered risk of dying.

Women appear to have a firmer grasp on the ultimate objective of medicine: to heal. Throughout history, women have been regarded as natural healers, alternatively feared and revered for their curative powers. Women have oft been thought to possess innate prowess for healing, for nurturing, and for caretaking. To forsake these ‘maternal’ roles is, even today, regarded as irreverence. Therein lies a great irony the very proclivities for nurturing and healing that women have harnessed to position themselves for success in the medical field are also the very traits that can undermine that success. The responsibilities of motherhood have been pitted against the demands of a woman’s career for as long as they have attempted to wrangle both—a narrative that doesn’t seem to leave any room for the possibility that the two could ever achieve symbiosis.

When women can thrive they become powerful. The power to heal, in particular, has not been viewed equally as it manifests in men and women men who demonstrated an ability to heal were revered as physicians, while women were hunted as witches or dismissed as quacks. Men’s biggest concerns about women having agency over their own reproduction stem primarily from their distrust of women in general, who they suspect of having ulterior motives. Agnodice, like many women who came after her, were inspired to approach reproductive medicine as a profession not because they wanted to destroy men, but because they wanted to save women.

Women physicians are like Agnodice, eschewing their femininity, which they know is an asset, but that the world sees as an impediment. When masquerading as a man, Agnodice’s success was so beyond the precedent that men had set, it bred suspicions of salacious behavior. The women physicians today mastering patient communication and preventative medicine are healing despite the gender politics that stand in their way, meant to devitalize and hinder their success.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Jahon Tarixi - Qadimgi dunyo Tarixi. (Dekabr 2021).

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