Yangi

Gadao g'ori, Guam: Rok san'ati, bosh, afsonalar

Gadao g'ori, Guam: Rok san'ati, bosh, afsonalar

Tinch okeani orollarida uzoq va ajoyib tarixga ega bo'lgan noyob madaniyatlar ko'p va Guamning kichik oroli bunga yaqqol misol bo'la oladi. Oroldagi eng mashhur joylardan biri bu Gadao g'ori bo'lib, u xalqaro miqyosda rok san'ati uchun muhim joy sifatida tan olingan va bu erdagi tasvirlar Guamning tub xalqlari afsonalariga chuqur singib ketgan.

Guam tarixi

Guam oroli Tinch okeanining g'arbiy qismida joylashgan va Mikroneziyaning bir qismi hisoblanadi. Orolga birinchi bo'lib kelganlar Janubi-Sharqiy Osiyodan kelgan va ular Chamorrosning ajdodlari, Guamning tub aholisi. Evropaliklar kelishidan oldin, Chamorros juda tabaqalashgan jamiyatni rivojlantirdi.

Chamorro Oddiy kiyim kiygan odamlar. (CC BY 2.0)

XVII asr oxirida ispanlar orolni mustamlakaga aylantirdilar va bu mahalliy aholi sonining keskin pasayishiga olib keldi. 1891 yilda Guam 1891 yildagi Ispaniya-Amerika urushi paytida Amerika qo'shinlari tomonidan qo'lga olindi. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi paytida orol ikkinchi Guam jangida ozod qilinishidan oldin yaponlar tomonidan bosib olindi. Bugungi kunda orol Qo'shma Shtatlarning qo'shilmagan hududi bo'lib, u AQShning muhim harbiy -dengiz bazasiga ega.

Gadao g'orining rasmlari

G'or - Tinch okeanining g'arbiy qismidagi eng ajoyib rok san'ati va Chamorro san'atining eng muhim namunalari. G'orning ikkita devorida taxminan ellikta piktogramma yoki tasvir bor. Piktograflarni yaratishda ishlatiladigan bo'yoq, marjondan ohak va mahalliy daraxtlarning qatroni bo'lgan. Piktograflar g'or devorlarining yuzasiga chiziqlar chizish va ohak birikmasi yordamida bo'yash orqali qilingan va barcha tasvirlar oq rangda.

Gadao g'oridagi bitta piktogramma Guam madaniyatining belgisiga aylandi. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Piktograflar odamlardan yoki g'ayritabiiy figuralardan iborat deb ishoniladi va ularni raqamlarni yopishtirishga o'xshatish mumkin. Turli xil tasvirlar mavjud, ular orasida hayvonlarga o'xshash figuralar ham bor, lekin hozircha eng mashhuri-ikkita erkakning bittasi hindiston yong'og'iga o'xshash narsalarni ko'targani. Piktogrammalar balandligi ½ dyuym (2 sm) dan 7 dyuym (20 sm) gacha. Ikkala odamning piktogrammalarining aksariyati g'orning sharqiy devorida joylashgan. Devordagi ba'zi rasmlar juda sirli, shu jumladan sirli ramzlar va boshsiz figuralar.

Gadao g'orining ajoyib tarixi

G'ordagi qoyatosh san'ati XX asrgacha o'rganilmagan. Rok san'ati Chamorro madaniyatining muhim qismi edi, chunki piktograflar Guamdagi boshqa g'orlarda ham topilgan. Rasmlarni yaratish uchun kelishilgan sana yo'q. Ular miloddan avvalgi VIII asrga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin edi yoki mahalliy boshliqlar o'z hokimiyatini mustahkamlagan Latte davridan kelib chiqishi mumkin edi. Aynan o'sha paytda Latte Stones qurilgan va ba'zilar ularni elitaning kuchayib borayotgan kuchining ifodasi deb bilishadi. Sferik boshli ustunlar bo'lgan Latte toshlari orolning o'ziga xos tuzilmalaridan biridir.

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Latte toshlari. (CC BY 2.0)

Biroq, rok san'atining bir qismi orol kolonizatsiyasidan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki ko'pchilik bu piktogrammalarning ba'zilari xoch yoki xochga mixlanishni anglatadi. Bu xristian ramzi bo'lgani uchun, u faqat XVII asr oxirida joriy qilingan bo'lar edi.

Gadao g'ori haqidagi afsona

Ko'pgina mutaxassislar, shuningdek, mahalliy Chamorro ba'zi piktogrammalar va mahalliy afsonalar o'rtasidagi o'xshashlikni qayd etishgan. Xususan, biror narsani, ehtimol kokosni ko'tarib yurgan ikki kishining tasviri Gadao afsonasi bilan bog'liq ko'rinadi. Bu boshliq eng buyuk jangchi bo'lgan va oroldagi eng kuchli odam - Guaman Gerkules nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan. Bu Malaguaña ismli boshqa boshlig'ini g'azablantirdi va Gadaoga qarshi chiqishga qaror qilib, raqibini qidirib ketdi. Yo'l davomida u tasodifan Gadao bilan uchrashdi, lekin kimligini sir tutib, Malaguainga hiyla ishlatishga qaror qildi. U uni kuchli boshliqqa olib borishini va safaridan keyin ovqat bilan ta'minlashni va'da qildi. Gadao ovqat tayyorlay boshladi va yalang'och qo'llari bilan kokos sutini siqib chiqardi. Buni ko'rdi Malaguaña, agar bu odam shunchalik kuchli bo'lsa, uning boshlig'i qanchalik kuchli bo'lishi kerakligini tasavvur qiling. Aqlli Gadao hech qachon o'z ismini oshkor qilmagan va Malaguaña uyga tushib ketgan. Bu qudratli boshliq haqidagi bir necha hikoyalardan faqat bittasi. G'or afsonaviy boshliq nomi bilan atalgan, ehtimol u Guam bilan aloqada bo'lgan haqiqiy hayot boshlig'i bo'lgan.

Gadao g'ori qayerda?

G'or Guamning janubi-g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Inarajan shahri yaqinida joylashgan. U tropik plyajdan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan joyda joylashgan va yo'ldan qisqa yurishdir. Bu juda qulay, chunki yo'l unchalik katta bo'lmagan g'orning og'ziga olib boradi. Bu joy vayron bo'lgan qadimgi Chamorro qishlog'i va bosh Gadao haykali yaqinida joylashgan.


Fil Dotri va#8212, 18 iyul, 2011 yil

Ba'zida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari juda xavfli joy bo'lganini unutish oson, ayniqsa bizning eng katta muammoimiz - bu smartfonlarning noto'g'ri ishlashi va realiti -shoularning etishmasligi. Birinchi amerikaliklar qo'pol chegarachilarga dizenteriya, ochlik va hatto daryo qaroqchilari bilan duch kelgan xavf haqida o'ylash kerak. Qonunbuzarlar va o'g'rilar bir paytlar amerikalik kashshoflarni, ayniqsa, daryo bo'ylab sayohatchilarni, mehribon notanish odamga ishonish uchun o'ldirgan.

Biz birinchi borganimizda, Cave-In-Rock g'orini suv bosgan. Mana, quruq ob -havo sharoitida qanday ko'rinishga ega.

Kentukki va Illinoysning janubi o'rtasidagi Ogayo daryosi bo'yida, AQShning erta va g'aroyib daryosi qaroqchilar g'oridan yaxshiroq misol yo'q. G'or, Shouni milliy o'rmonining janubiy tomonida, hech qanday joyda bo'lmaganga o'xshaydi, "Cave-In-Rock" deb nomlangan kichik shaharchada.

Cave-In-Rock lojasi tashqarisidagi yo'l belgisi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Cave-In-Rock tarixi

Kengligi 55 fut bo'lgan kichik g'or 1800-yillarning oxirlarida sayohatchilar uchun asosiy to'xtash joyi bo'lgan, chunki u issiqdan oson boshpana va daryo qayiqlari uchun aniq to'xtash joyini ta'minlagan.

Bu vaqtga qadar, Cave-In-Rokda o'g'rilar va qotillar yashagan, ular yolg'on bahona bilan sayohatchilarni g'orga jalb qilishgan, ehtimol oziq-ovqat, materiallar yoki yo'l-yo'riq taklifi. Keyin qaroqchilar sayohatchilarni o'ldirib, jasadlarini Ogayo daryosiga tashlab, ismlarini tarixdan o'chirib tashlashardi.

Daryo qaroqchilari g'orga eng mashhur nomini berishdi-"Pirat g'ori" va 1700-yillarning oxiridan 1800-yillarning o'rtalariga qadar toshda o'ralgan ba'zi katta qonunbuzarlar bor edi.

Mehmonxona Cave-In-Rock haqida ma'lumot va ob'ektlar haqida ma'lumot beradi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Aka -uka Xarpe - vaqtincha yashovchilarning eng mashhurlari, ular Amerikaning birinchi haqiqiy ketma -ket qotillari bo'lgan, ular orasida 40 ga yaqin qotillik bo'lgan. Harplar o'lim buyrug'idan qochib, g'orda qoldi. Ularning ish tartibi ko'pincha o'z qurbonlarini pichoqlash va daryoga tashlashdan oldin tanalarini toshlar bilan tortish bilan shug'ullangan-ammo ular aslida Cave-In-Rokda kimnidir o'ldirishganmi yoki shaharda qancha vaqt qolishgani aniq emas. Qanday bo'lmasin, bu ularning oxirgi to'xtash joylaridan biri edi. Katta Xarpe akasi kuzatuvdan o'tkazildi va o'ldirildi, ukasi esa umrini qochoqlikda o'tkazdi va yakunda qo'lga olinib, qatl qilindi.

Piknik pavilonlari Cave-In-Rokdagi Ogayo daryosiga qaraydi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Semyuel Meyson Cave-In-Rock-dan o'zining mashhur Mason Gangining shafqatsiz daryo qaroqchilari va avtomagistrallari shtab-kvartirasi sifatida foydalangan yana bir mashhur fuqaro edi. U boshqa mashhur qaroqchi Jeyms Ford bilan ham ishlagan bo'lishi mumkin, garchi ular bir -birlari bilan uchrashgani haqida aniq dalillar yo'q. Bu Disneyni Samuel Meyson va Jeyms Fordni Deyvi Krokett multfilmida yovuz odam sifatida ishlatishiga to'sqinlik qilmadi.

Boshqa qonunbuzarliklarga 1800-yillarning oxirida sayyohlik markazi sifatida obro'-e'tibor qozonishidan oldin shaharga yomon nom bergan Sturdivant Gang, qalbakilashlar guruhi va har xil nomdagi qaroqchilar, cho'ntaklar va daryo kalamushlari kiradi. Cave-In-Rock-ga tashrif buyurgan qaroqchilarning barchasini ro'yxatga olishning iloji yo'q, chunki ro'yxat yo'q-qaroqchilar tabiatan maxfiy va ularning ismlari va jinoyatlari tarixda yo'qolgan.

Cave-In-Rock parki va Ogayo daryosining go'zal manzarasi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Bu nuqtaning bir qismi. Cave-In-Rokning sayyohlik obro'si sifatida mashhur bo'lishining asosiy sababi bu tarix emas, balki g'or atrofidagi folklordir. Aniq ma'lum emas-daryo qaroqchilarining dahshatli jinoyatlari to'g'risida o'nlab hikoyalar va ko'plab dalillar bor, lekin qurbonlar yoki jinoyatchilar haqida aniq ma'lumotlar ko'p emas.

Vaqti -vaqti bilan, aholi oltin tangalar, grafiti yoki eski uy ostiga ko'milgan jasad kabi hayratlanarli narsani topishi mumkin. Ko'pincha, hamma narsa tashrif buyuruvchining tasavvuriga bog'liq va bu Cave-In-Rockni mutlaqo chidab bo'lmas holga keltiradi. Bu erga sayyohlar g'or atrofidagi parkni ziyorat qilish va qaroqchilar yashiringan va kashshoflar dahshatli o'lim bilan o'lgan kichik qoyani ko'rish uchun kelishadi. G'orning jinoyatlari xayolotda yanada dahshatli va sovuq bo'lib qoladi va ko'plab tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun bu juda ajoyib.

Ogayo daryosining loyqa suvlariga tushadigan yo'l. Cave-In-Rock bundan tashqarida va chapda. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

G'orga tashrif

Daryo qaroqchilari g'ori o'nlab nomlar bilan tanilgan, bu g'or haqidagi afsonaning so'zma-so'z tarqalishi tufayli.

River Pirate g'orining tepasida, yaxshi saqlangan o'tlar va dam olayotgan oilalar uchun bir nechta piknik boshpanalari bo'lgan juda yaxshi park bor. Bu joy qaroqchilar yuz yil oldin sayohatchilarni halokatga olib borgan joy, deb o'ylash qiyin, lekin, albatta, piknik stollari va g'orga tushadigan aylanuvchi tosh zinapoyalar atrofidagi dahshatli tuyg'u bor. maydon.

Ogayo daryosining ko'tarilgan suvidan to'lib ketgan Cave-In-Rock daryosi qaroqchilari g'orining kirish yo'li. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Cave-In-Rock-ning bog'i juda chiroyli, lekin bir nechta oddiy to'siqlar va yuqorida aytib o'tilgan piknik stollaridan tashqari, bu baxtsiz sayohatchilar 1800-yillarda ko'rgan narsalarga o'xshash holatda saqlangan. Bu shuni anglatadiki, tashrif buyuruvchilar sayohat qilishda ayniqsa ehtiyot bo'lishlari kerak-noto'g'ri yo'nalishda bir qadam, va siz o'zingizni jarlikdan osilib qolasiz.

Bu shuni anglatadiki, Cave-In-Rock parkida Illinoys shtatining eng go'zal manzaralari bor. Parkdagi burilish yo'llarining har biri kuchli Ogayo daryosini kuzatish uchun ajoyib nuqtaga olib keladi va paromli qayiqlar bir necha daqiqada o'tib ketishi bilan hayratlanarli va hayajonli manzara yaratiladi. Bizga bir necha mahalliy aholi ham bu hududda ajoyib baliqchilik borligini aytishdi. Qaroqchi daryosi g'origa olib boradigan suv bosgan yo'l yaqinida mushuk va ko'k gul suvdan sakrayotganini ko'rish mumkinligiga ishonish oson.

Illinoys shtatining Cave-In-Rock dagi g'orning yon tomoni, bu erda 2011 yildagi katta toshqin paytida ko'rilgan. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

G'orning og'zi

G'orni belgilaydigan hech qanday belgi yo'q, uning umumiy yo'nalishini ko'rsatuvchi o'qlardan tashqari, tashrif buyuruvchilarga bu joyning geologiyasi yoki tarixi haqida ma'lumot beradigan plakatlar yo'q. Bu "Pirat g'ori daryosi" g'aroyibligining bir qismidir: bu toshdagi teshik, sun'iy yorug'liksiz, sayohatchilar uchun qo'llanmalarsiz, hech qanday jonivorga tasalli bermasdan.

G'azablangan, ho'l, qiziq Amerika muxbiri qudratli ohio daryosiga kirib, qaroqchilar g'origa kirishga harakat qilmoqda. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Biroq, grafiti bor. Siz har qanday jamoat joyida grafitini qattiq qo'riqlanmaydigan joyda topasiz, lekin Cave-In-Rock grafiti ancha orqaga qaytadi. 1800-yillarning grafitlari bor (hech bo'lmaganda, grafiti shunday da'vo qiladi-aytishning yaxshi usuli yo'q, lekin o'yilgan ismlar qonuniy bo'lishi uchun etarlicha eski ko'rinadi). Bundan tashqari, strukturaning geologiyasini chalg'itadigan, ammo g'or tarixini qonunbuzarlar uyi sifatida kamaytirmaydigan, yaqinda vandallarning qo'pol ohanglari va imzolari bor.

G'or yuqoridagi parkga juda ko'p yo'llarni cho'zadi. Yorug'lik uchun, g'ordan parkgacha cho'zilgan ulkan bacaga o'xshash katta tosh doirasi bor. Bu sayyohlarning tushishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun panjara bilan o'ralgan. Shuningdek, odamlarga narsalarni tashlab, g'orlarning arvohlari haqidagi mish -mishlardan xavotirda bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan xurofotchilarga masxara qilish uchun ajoyib joy.

Cave-In-Rock davlat bog'idagi bu chuqur, yaxshi o'q g'orning o'ziga qaraydi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Cave-In-Rok bog'i hamma uchun ochiq va qo'shni Kentukki tomon paromda sayohat qilish mutlaqo bepul. Bog'da sayohatchilar uchun turar joy bor va qayiqda sayr qilish, suzish uchun ajoyib imkoniyatlar mavjud. Biroq, tashrif buyuruvchilarga (618) 289-4545-dagi bog'ning turar joyiga qo'ng'iroq qilish tavsiya etiladi, chunki g'or Ogayo daryosidan toshib ketishi mumkin.

Illinoys janubidagi mashhur Cave-In-Rock g'origa qaraydigan milning yaqin ko'rinishi. (Fil Dotri surati va Richard Grigonis nusxasi)

Agar siz atrofda bo'lsangiz, to'xtashga arziydi-Cave-In-Rock g'aroyib, ammo yoqimli shahar va Dengiz garovchilari g'ori, ayniqsa, amerikaliklarning boshidan kechirgan sinovlari va qiyinchiliklari bilan qiziqadiganlar uchun ajoyib joy. ko'chmanchilar.


O'lim vodiysining yashirin shahri va rdquo haqida 7 ta fikr

Bu Yunon afsonasidan olingan bo'lib, Orfey o'liklarning yurtiga (Tartar) kirib, Hadesni vafot etgan rafiqasi Evriditsaga qo'shiq berib, lirasi bilan qo'shiq aytadi. Hades rozi bo'ldi va unga xotini u bilan ketishi mumkinligini aytdi, lekin xotini Evridits uni quvib ketayotganida Orfeus ortiga qaray olmadi. Aks holda, u yana uni yo'qotadi. Orfey noaniq bo'lib qoldi va orqasiga qaradi, bu uning xotinini Tatar/Hadesga olib ketishiga sabab bo'ldi. Kimdir hikoyani o'g'irlagan!

Men shunchaki hikoya o'g'irlanmagan, bu yorug'lik dunyosi va soya olami o'rtasida kesishish tabiatining ramzi ekanligini aytib, aniqlik kiritmoqchi edim. Agar kishi orqaga qarasa (yoki to'g'ridan -to'g'ri soyali dunyodagi narsalarga qarasa, ular yo'qoladi).


Ray Stouns

Barcha fotosuratlarni ko'rish

Insoniyat jamiyatlari, boshqa narsalarga qaraganda, tanqislikka asoslanib, ob'ektlarning qiymatini belgilaydilar. Bu, albatta, Yapning ulkan pul toshlariga tegishli. Yap orolida ohaktosh manbalari yo'q va faqat 9000 funtlik toshli "tanga" ni kanoe va sallar yordamida ochiq okeanning yuzlab kilometrlari bo'ylab tashish uchun qilingan harakatni tasavvur qilish mumkin.

O'lkashunoslik ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, bundan 500-600 yillar oldin Anagumang ismli odam ekspeditsiyani o'zi tug'ilgan Yap orolidan 300 mil naridagi uzoqdagi Palau oroliga olib borgan. Yap odamlari Palauning ohaktosh manbalaridan darrov hayron bo'lishdi. Palau aholisi Yap erkaklariga ikki orol o'rtasida g'ayrioddiy iqtisodiy almashinuvni o'rnatib, tovar va xizmatlar evaziga tosh qazishga ruxsat berishdi. Dastlab yangilik bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, bu toshlar tez orada Yapda to'g'ri valyuta rolini o'ynadi. Birinchidan, toshlar baliq shakliga o'yilgan edi, lekin keyinchalik biroz amaliyroq disk shakli qabul qilindi. Tosh 20 -asrgacha asosiy valyuta bo'lib qoldi.

Har qanday valyutada bo'lgani kabi, Rai toshlari chayqovchilarni o'ziga tortdi. Irlandiyada tug'ilgan amerikalik dengizchi va sarguzashtchi Devid Din O'Kif Gonkongdan olib kelingan zamonaviy asboblar yordamida Rai toshlarini ko'p miqdorda ishlab chiqarishni boshladi. Aytishga hojat yo'q, bu amaliyot valyutaning qadrsizlanishiga olib keldi, bu hatto qattiq pullar ham inflyatsiyadan himoyalanmaganligini isbotladi.

Bugungi kunda Ray toshlarini Okinavadagi okean madaniyati muzeyida, shuningdek Vashingtondagi Smitson tabiat tarixi muzeyida ko'rish mumkin.

Borishdan oldin biling

United Airlines - Yapga haftasiga ikki marta seshanba va shanba kunlari Guamdan xizmat ko'rsatadigan yagona aviakompaniya. Kichik, milliy aviakompaniya, Caroline Islands Air, Yap va Palau o'rtasida haftasiga bir marta yoki charter orqali uchadi. Stone Money Bank yoki Yapdagi boshqa saytlarga tashrif buyurish uchun tashrif buyuruvchilar rahbardan ruxsat olishlari kerak. Yap shahridagi barcha erlar xususiy mulkdir va tashrif buyuruvchilar yolg'iz sayr qilishlariga yo'l qo'yilmaydi.


Gadao g'ori, Guam: Rok san'ati, bosh, afsonalar - tarix

Bir paytlar do'st bo'lgan sigir va karabao bor edi. Ular bir -birlari bilan gaplashishni yaxshi ko'rishardi, lekin hech biri boshqasiga ishonmasdi. Juda issiq va nam kunlarning birida sigir va karabao Inarajan sohilida uchrashishdi. Ikkalasi ham daryo ko'rfazga kiradigan salqin suvda dam olish uchun tushishdi. Suvga kirishdan oldin sigir terisini olib, banan daraxti tagiga yashirdi. Karabao terisini kokos daraxti tagiga yashirdi.

Ular tetiklantiruvchi suzishdan zavqlanayotganda, bir mahalliy aholi ikki hayvonning terisini topib, ularga hiyla ishlatishga qaror qildi. U terilarni almashtirdi. U sigirning terisini olib, kokos daraxti tagiga qo'ydi va karaboning terisini banan daraxtining ostiga qo'ydi. Qorong'ulik yaqinlashganda, hayvonlar suvdan qaytish va terisini kiyish vaqti keldi deb qaror qilishdi. Ular plyajga etib kelishganda, qorong'i tushdi. Qorong'ida har bir jonivor o'z yashirin joyiga qaytdi va tez kiyindi. Qorong'ida terini ko'ra olmaganligi uchun, na hayvon uning noto'g'ri terini kiyganini bilmas edi.

Hozirgi kunga qadar sigirning terisi juda katta, shuning uchun uning tez yugurishi qiyin. Biroq, karabaoning terisi tor va juda tez yugurishga qodir.

Sirena

Agana daryosi yangi yuvilgan yashil o'rmon barglaridan burilib, Agana qishlog'i yaqinidagi okean sörfiga qo'shildi. Aynan shu Minondodagi oqim yaqinida bir oila ko'p yillar oldin yashagan. Oilada uch qiz va bitta o'g'il bor edi. Sirena oiladagi eng kenja va eng chiroyli qiz edi.

Oiladagi boshqalardan farqli o'laroq, Sirena dunyodagi hamma narsadan ko'ra suzishni yoqtirardi. Onasi unga yaxshi xotin va ona bo'lish uchun o'z yoshidagi qiz bilishi kerak bo'lgan tikuvchilikni, pishirishni, supurishni, yuvishni va boshqa xayrli ishlarni o'rgatmoqchi bo'lgan. Sirena, faqat suzishni xohlardi.

Bir kuni Sirenaning onasi Sirenani daryo bo'yida Agana Springsda yashaydigan xolasidan temir olish uchun ko'mir olish uchun topshiriq yubordi. Daryoga cho'milish va suzish vasvasasi shu qadar kuchliki, nima bo'layotganini bilmay turib, Sirena suvda suzdi va zavqlandi. Tez orada u o'z vaqtini yo'qotdi va, albatta, unga nima yuborilganini unutdi.

Qorong'i tusha boshladi va Sirenaning onasi xavotirlana boshladi. U Sirenaning suvga bo'lgan qiziqishini bilar edi, lekin qizi yaxshi suzuvchi edi. Dazmol uchun ko'mirni uzoq kutganidan onasi g'azablandi va g'azablandi. U ehtiros bilan pichirladi: "Qizim baliqqa aylansa". O'sha paytda tashrif buyurgan Sirenaning xudojo'y onasi: "Uning yuqori yarmi avvalgidek qolishi kerak", dedi.

U hali ham suvda suzayotganda, Sirena vujudida o'zgarish bo'lganini sezdi. Oyoqlariga qarab, u baliqning dumiga aylanib qolganini ko'rdi. U suvdan chiqib ketishga qiynalayotganda, tanasining pastki qismi baliqqa aylandi. Shunda Sirena umrining qolgan qismini o'zi yaxshi ko'rgan suvda o'tkazishini bildi.

Daryo oqimi uni okeanga olib bora boshladi. Sirena juda yaxshi suzishni bildi va bundan juda mamnun edi. U okeanga suzib ketdi va uni na onasi, na onasi ko'rdi.

Ko'pgina baliqchilar va kemalar Sirenani dunyo okeanida suzayotganini va kuylaganini ko'rgan va eshitganligi haqida tez -tez aytiladi. Qachonki kimdir unga juda yaqinlashsa, Sirena suzadi va uzoq vaqt davomida boshqa ko'rinmaydi. U billur moviy dengizning ko'p joylarida paydo bo'ladi.

Sirenani faqat inson sochidan to'qilgan to'r bilan ushlash mumkin. Aytishlaricha, Sirena bir marta kema kapitani tomonidan ushlangan, biroq bir necha daqiqadan so'ng qochib, okean tubiga g'oyib bo'lgan.

Qaerdadir go'zal Sirena suzmoqda va zavqlanmoqda. Uni ko'rgan keyingi odam, ehtimol siz bo'lgandirsiz.

Lamlam tog'ining afsonasi

Bir paytlar Guamdagi ulkan g'orda Lamlam ismli katta boshliq bo'lgan. G'or shohlik kabi keng edi, devorlari yaltiroq toshlar va qo'lda o'yilgan.

Bir kuni boshliqning oshpazi kasal bo'lib, unga xizmat qila olmadi. Boshliq och qolgach, olov yoqib, o'zi ovqat pishirishga qaror qildi. Yong'in juda ko'p issiqlik berdi, lekin boshliq uni issiq deb o'ylamadi. Olovga ko'proq o'tin qo'yarkan, u qo'lini yoqib yubordi. G'azablanib, olovga tobora ko'proq o'tin qo'shdi. G'or shitirlab, titray boshladi. Tez orada kuchli portlash sodir bo'ldi.

Bu falokat oroldagi eng baland cho'qqini yaratdi, unga buyuk boshliq Lamlam sharafiga nom berilgan. Bugun, agar siz Lamlam tog'ining cho'qqisiga chiqishingiz kerak bo'lsa, siz nafaqat atrofingizdagi okeanni ko'rasiz, balki oyoqlaringiz ostida yerning shovqini va chayqalishini ham his qilasiz.

Puntan Dos Amantes

Uzoq vaqt oldin, ispanlar hali ham Guam orolida hukmronlik qilayotganlarida, kuchli oilaga chuqur qayg'u keltirgan va ispanlarga qattiq mag'rurlikni eslatib turadigan voqea sodir bo'ldi, inson qalbiga quloq solmaslik kerak.

Qadimgi Aganada mag'rur oila yashagan. Otasi ispan aristokrati, onasi esa olijanob qonli Chamorro edi. Garchi ular egallagan erlar va egallab turgan lavozimlari ularning qadr -qimmati va mag'rurligi uchun etarli sabab bo'lsa -da, ularning eng yaxshi mulki ularning yagona qizi edi, chunki u kamdan -kam ko'rinadigan go'zallikka ega edi. U chiroyliroq edi, chunki uning kamtarligi shunchalik samimiy va jozibasi shu qadar tabiiyki, uning go'zalligi atrofdagilarga ko'rinardi. Uni o'g'il bolalar ham, erkaklar ham izlashardi, garchi u yoshi ham, qarisi ham, chirkin ham, chiroyli hammaning ustidan tabassum qilsa -da, uning aybsizligi uni tushunmovchilik va yomonlikdan himoya qilgan.

Kunlarning birida o'zidan uch barobar ko'p, o'ziga ishongan jasorat uni sudga keldi. Ispaniya qiroliga xizmat ko'rsatgan kapitan sifatida, qizning shuhratparast otasi uni yaxshi kutib oldi, u nevarasi qiziga shunchalik sharaf beradi, deb maqtandi. Birinchi tashrifidan boshlab, fikrli ota kapitan qizining eri bo'ladi, deb qaror qildi.

Biroq, qizi hech qanday tarzda sovchini rag'batlantirmadi va behuda kapitanning o'zi, unga hech qanday qiziqish bo'lmasligini anglamadi. O'ziga ishonch bilan, u uzoq vaqt qarshilik qila olmasligiga amin bo'lib, uchrashishga majbur qildi.

Ota kapitanni xushmuomalalik bilan ushlab turishda davom etganini ko'rganida, qiziga uni nevaraga uylantirish niyatida ekanini tushuntirdi. Ko'zlarini hurmat va kamtarlik bilan pastga qaratib, u hech narsa demadi, lekin otasining mehrsiz qattiqqo'lligi uni qattiq og'ritdi. U unga kelajagi uchun eng yaxshisi nima ekanligini bilishini aytganida, u uni mamnun qilishni va otasining xohishlariga bo'ysunishni xohlardi, lekin ayollik instinkti uni: "Men yaxshi kapitan uchun hech narsani his qilmayman", deb tan olishga majbur qildi. G'azablangan ota unga ota -onasi oldidagi burchini eslatdi. U muloyimlik bilan so'radi: "Mening bitta yaxshi otam bor. Menga shuncha erga boshqasi kerakmi?"

Uning hukmiga shubha qilganidan g'azablangan otasi, unga bo'ysunish kerakligini yoki uzoq Ispaniyadagi monastirda bo'ysunishning ma'nosini bilish uchun uni uyidan abadiy yuborishini ogohlantirdi. U yig'lab, onasining oldiga yugurdi, u qiziga otasining xohishiga ko'ra iste'foga chiqish kerakligini aytdi. Dengiz uni sukunat va tinchlik bilan tinchlantirganda, qiz o'zini baxtsiz his qilib, qirg'oq bo'ylab yurdi.

Qiz yaxshi qiz bo'lishni xohlardi va umrining oxirigacha sevimli orolidan haydalishidan qo'rqardi. U ham o'z hayotini go'zal orzusiga aylantiradigan, o'zi tanlagan o'g'ilga uylanishni orzu qilar edi. Ammo u uni faqat yuragida ko'rdi. U yolg'iz va baxtsiz, Tumon ko'rfaziga qaragan baland yarim orolda, pastda ulkan okean chayqalib yurdi. U erda, botayotgan quyoshga qarshi, yolg'iz o'ylagan yigit o'tirdi. Uning muloyim ko'zlari yolg'iz yulduzni o'rganayotganday tuyuldi va undan hayot qanday bo'lishi kerakligini so'radi. U ham qidirayotganini ko'rdi. U o'zini orzusidagi bolani topgandek his qildi.

Uning unga qaraganini bilgach, unga yuzlandi. U uning go'zalligidan hayratda edi va u qandaydir tarzda uning qayg'usi va orzusini his qilganini sezdi.

U o'rnidan turib, sekin uning yoniga keldi. Uning qo'li tasalli berish uchun uning yelkasiga tegdi va u har doim tushunishini tushundi. Oxirgi quyosh nuri yo'qolguncha va tungi yulduzlar to'liq paydo bo'lishidan oldin, ular sevgi ma'nosini bilib olishdi.

O'sha kuni kechqurun qiz uyga qaytdi. Endi u kapitanning istalmagan yutuqlariga qarshilik ko'rsatish uchun haqiqiy sababga ega edi. Biroq, o'sha kechada yonoqlarida yangi qizarishdan ko'zini qamashtirgan ofitser har qachongidan ham qat'iyatli va g'ayratli bo'lib qoldi. Uning kechki ovqatda juda aqlli va tantanali so'zlari bo'sh va yoqimsiz bo'lib qoldi, u koridorda uning issiq quchog'idan qochib ketdi. Uning sabrsizligi va g'azabi haqiqiy muloyimlik nima ekanligini bilmasligini ko'rsatdi.

Yorqin qiz o'z xonasida yolg'iz o'zi kapitan uni bayram kunlarida minib yurgan yaxshi otini xohlaganini tushundi. Yuragi botib, u otasi uni beg'ubor, qudratli odamga sudda uning roziligini olish uchun uni erni tanlab berayotganini ko'rdi. U shunday fikr yuritganda, pastdagi kapitan ketishdan oldin masalani majburlashga qaror qildi. U qizning qo'lini talab qildi va otasi rozi bo'ldi. Darhol u o'z qarorini e'lon qilish uchun qizni yotog'idan chaqirdi. Qizining tepa yuzi oqarib ketdi. U qizni baxtli bo'lishiga va kelajagi xavfsiz bo'lishiga ishontirib, uni silab qo'ydi.

U ko'z yoshlariga bo'ysunar edi, lekin uning mag'rurligi haqiqatni haqiqiy kastiliya uslubida aytishga jur'at etdi.

"Men yoqmayman - men kapitanni sevmayman. Men qila olmayman - men uning xotini bo'la olmayman."

Qizining itoatsizligidan xijolat bo'lib, g'azablanib, u buyurdi: "Siz qila olasiz - va qilasiz!"

Mag'rur kapitan hech narsa demadi, lekin u o'zining yirtqich va chiroyli ayg'iriga o'xshab, uni sindirishini va'da qildi. U qo'lini hurmat va hatto hurmat bilan o'pishni o'rganar edi.

Yig'layotgan qiz, otasining buyrug'i bilan xo'rlangan va ezilgan, yuqoriga yugurib chiqib, onasiga nima bo'lganini aytib berdi. Onasi, erining irodasiga, agar uning donoligiga bo'ysunmaslikni erta o'rgangan odobli xotin, qizining hammasi yaxshi bo'lishiga ishontirishga harakat qildi.

"Siz kapitanni bir kun yaxshi ko'rasiz - ota -onangizga bo'lgan muhabbat tufayli", dedi onasi.

Qiz ko'z yoshlari va quvonch o'rtasida, o'sha oqshom balandlikda uchrashgan bolaga oshiq bo'lganini onasiga tan oldi. Onasi bolasini bag'riga bosgancha, bu yangilikdan boshini chayqadi, lekin qizining ehtirosiga ta'zim qildi. U eriga qizining yulduzlarni o'qiy oladigan yosh baliqchini sevib qolganini aytardi.

Onasi darhol ketdi, lekin mag'rur ota unga ayollarning bema'niliklarini gapirishni taqiqladi. Qolaversa, endi u qanday qilib grandga aytgan so'zidan qaytishi mumkin? U hech qachon qiziga, uning boyligining eng katta mukofoti, o'z hayotini kambag'alga sarflashga yo'l qo'ymaydi. Onasi ikkilanmay qaytib, qiziga otasi aytganlarini aytib berdi.

Ertasi kuni otasi jim bolasiga nikoh bayramining sanasini e'lon qildi. U otasining o'yinning amaliy sabablarini tinglar ekan, u birinchi marta ispancha yo'lni - buyukligidagi shafqatsizlikni, imperiyadagi yuraksizlikni, mag'rurlik va iste'foni talab qilganini tushundi. Uning kichkina hayoti ustidan qorong'u kuch paydo bo'lishidan oldin, u o'zini kichik va yo'qolgan his qildi.

U kun bo'yi o'z xonasida yolg'iz qoldi. Kech kirganda, u o'zini sevib qolgan Chamorro bola bilan uchrashish uchun uydan o'g'irlab ketdi. Kelishilganidek, u birinchi marta uchrashgan va yulduzlar paydo bo'lishini ko'rgan eng baland nuqtada unga qo'shilgan.

U kech qoldi va bola endi boshqa kelmaydi deb o'yladi. U qo'rqib ketdi, u aytgan shohona sovchi uchun uni allaqachon unutgan. Qorong'ida uning qadamlarini eshitib, uning oldiga yugurdi va ular bir -birlarini quchoqlab olishdi.

Yonoqlaridan ko'z yoshlari to'lib -toshgan, oyning to'la nurida uning yuzini ko'rgach, uning shodligi to'satdan tashvishga tushdi. Keyin u unga nabirasi bilan bo'lajak nikohi haqida gaplashdi.

Uning katta, muloyim ko'zlari endi mag'lub bo'ldi, ichidagi nur o'ldi. U abadiy xayrlashishiga ishondi. U chindan ham sevgani uchun qayg'usini yutdi va baxt tilashga harakat qildi, lekin bu so'zlar og'zida o'ldi.

U so'zsiz tushundi va pichirladi, u o'zini hamma narsaga ishontirdi. Ular quchoqlashdi, o'pishdi, yig'lashdi va bir -birlarini ushlab turishdi, bu oxirgi marta bo'lganini bilishmasdi.

Kecha uzaygan sari, ular bir -birisiz yashash uchun alohida yo'llarini ajratmasligini bilishardi. Agar ular qo'lga olinsa, bola uchun o'lim bo'lishi aniq bo'lsa -da, ular birgalikda qochib ketishardi.

Ularga omon qolish imkoniyatini berish uchun ba'zi narsalar kerak bo'ladi. U qayiq, to'r, baliq ovlash vositasi va qurol olib kelardi. U pul va boshqa kerakli narsalarni olardi. Bir necha kundan keyin ular hech kim topa olmaydigan boshqa orolga qochib ketishadi.

Ertasi kuni uyda yosh qiz so'nggi voqealardan xavotirlanib, bezovta bo'ldi. Har doim mavjud bo'lgan kapitan uni chalg'itishni kamtarlik va bo'ysunish belgisi sifatida qabul qildi. Uning unga bo'lgan qoniqarsiz istagi otasini marosimga tayyorgarlik ko'rishni tezlashtirishga ko'ndirdi, shunda u hafta tugashidan oldin bo'lib o'tadi. Bir kuni u o'sha odamning yutuqlariga dosh berolmayman deb o'ylaganida, u Chamorro sevgilisi bilan uchrashish uchun tashqariga chiqmoqchi bo'ldi, lekin otasi unga to'y tugaguncha uydan chiqishni taqiqlab qo'ydi. Bunga ishonch hosil qilish uchun, u katta uyning devorlariga uning eshigiga qo'riqchi va kapitanning odamlarini qo'ydi.

Qizlar tashqariga chiqolmay kunlar o'tdi. Bola nima deb o'ylashni bilmasdi. Eng dahshatdan qo'rqib, u otasining xohishiga bo'ysundi deb o'yladi. Nihoyat, sukunatga dosh berolmay, nima o'ylashni bilmay, bola ko'chaga kirdi va uning oynasini qidirish uchun soqchilar oldidan o'tib ketdi. Uning balkonining quyosh chiqishiga qarab turganini esladi. Topdim deb o'ylagach, jonini qo'liga oldi va ochiq derazaga ohista chaqirdi. Qorong'u teshikda yuz paydo bo'ldi. Bu uniki edi.

U uydan qanday chiqib ketgani va soqchilar ularni qanday ko'rmaganligi noma'lum, lekin ertasi kuni onasi qizining yo'qolganini bilib qoldi. The mother knew, immediately, what her daughter had done, but she did not know where the girl could have fled. She delayed some time before going to her husband.

When the father learned what had happened, he became furious. He informed the captain that his daughter had been kidnapped by a low rowdy and together the elderly men set out with soldiers and horsemen to scour the hills of Tumon Bay.

Toward noon, the young couple was sighted fleeing through the tangantangan. Searching soldiers kept them from getting to the canoe the boy had hidden in a cave. The captain, in shrewd military style, had his mounted men circle ahead as far as the high peninsula above the caves.

The two lovers sighted their pursuers behind them. Instinctively, they felt their only escape was at the top of the point. They climbed through the underbrush and over the sharp volcanic rock which cut their hands and feet. When they reached the summit, their hearts were glad. Their relief was short-lived. They were surrounded on all sides. The horsemen slowed as they neared the jutting peak because they saw that the youngsters were trapped. On the great black horse rode the captain, who was very angry. Next to him rode the stern father who suddenly became uneasy because his daughter was so close to the edge of the cliff. Still advancing, he called to her, but she did not hear him. The lovers knew there was one thing left for them to do. The boy shouted a warning for the men to stay back, and the father signaled the men to halt and to watch. The couple stood at the very edge of the precipice. The men were puzzled when the boy and girl tied their hair together.

The two acted as if they were utterly alone. They looked deeply into each other's eyes and kissed one last time. The anxious father shouted a warning to the girl to obey, and the captain spurred his horse forward to try to seize the boy. In that instant, the young couple leaped down the long, deep cliff into the roaring tide below.

When the father galloped up to the edge, all he could see was the floating hair and the yellow wedding ribbon his daughter had used to make the final bow with the unknown boy's hair. Too late the father understood the meaning of their hair tied together.

The men, in their canoes and boats, searched for them the rest of the day, but they did not find their bodies.

Since that day, the islanders look to the jutting peak by Tumon Bay with a kind of reverence. They are paying homage to the young couple who showed them that real love comes from the entwining of two souls, true to one another in life and in death.

The Legend of Taotaomona

The taotaomonas are the ghosts of the ancient people of Guam. The taotaomona may take the form of a person who is very big and strong. Some of the taotaomonas, being headless and having deformed bodies, are very ugly looking indeed.

There is one special taotaomona called Anufat. He is very ugly and has teeth six inches long. He also has a hole in each side of his head, with ferns stuffed in each hole. Whenever Guamanians walk through a cemetery, they always whistle because they don't wish to disturb Anufat. If they don't whistle, Anufat may become startled and cause great harm.

The taotaomonas of Guam live in the jungles and disturb the taotaomonas, they may pinch you, leaving red marks on your body, or they may cause you to become sick. The only cure for this sickness is to visit a witch. If you put the sleep from a dog's eye into your eyes, you can see the taotaomona. If you look into the steam of cooking rice, you can also see a taotaomona.


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Gadao’s Cave, Guam: The Rock Art, The Chief, The Legends - History

Ruins of what may have been the Kaheiki heiau lie in the undergrowth in lower Nu‘uanu. But different accounts place this ancient temple in different locations.

Nu‘uanu is mentioned in the earliest legends, as Puakea has told us. Aside from the gods who were in residence here, who were the people? As in other parts of the islands, these ancients include the menehune and other strange creatures referred to as the ‘e‘epa. Xuddi menehune, ‘e‘epa are generally described as being short in stature ("imps," one source says "gnomes," according to another). These creatures were placed there by the gods to guard legendary beings described in the next page. But there are traditions and landscapes associated with them here.

The walled edge of a platform on this possible site of Kaheiki heiau . An extensive complex lies in the underbrush, but whether these are ancient or more recent ruins is unknown.

Kaheiki heiau is one such site. Kaheiki heiau is said by some to be located near the ridge between Nu‘uanu and neighboring Pauoa Valley. Westervelt's Hawaiian legends of old Honolulu (1991) states "There was a heiau ning menehunes, where the road goes up the valley, at the foot of the hill on the eastern side of Nu‘uanu Valley, the hill known now as Pacific Heights." But Robert Nui, in his work Lost Heiaus (no date), says that "Legends locate this temple in the vicinity of Waolani."

Of its origins, Robert Nui goes on to say "Kahano was a kupua or demi-god. He lay down on the ocean floor, stretched out his arms, resting one on Kahiki and the other on Oahu. Thus was formed a bridge for the menehunes to travel back and forth while building the temple of Kaheiki." The menehune for Ka-hanai-a-ke-akua, whose story is part of the legend of Keaomelemele, is told on the next page.

Kaheiki also appears in the story of Kaupe . Featured in this story is Kahilona, the priest of Kaheiki heiau. Under Kahilona, Kaheiki becomes the center of the mo‘o-kahuna class of priests, who are skilled in the art of kilokilo, or the reading of signs in the earth, sky and sea. (These mo‘o lineages, we will see, have their origin explained in the story of Keaomelemele).

Kaupe was a man-eating dog (a kupua, or demigod) who terrorized the islands, especially O‘ahu. Once he stole a chief's son from the island of Hawai‘i, and took him to O‘ahu to sacrifice. The chief then came to O‘ahu, landing secretly and going to Kaheiki to consult with Kahilona.

Kahilona taught the chief a number of prayers and chants to defend himself and outwit Kaupe. One of them went,

O Ku! O Lono! O Kane! O Kanaloa!
By the power of the gods,
by the strength of this prayer,
Save us two! Save us two!

Going at night to where the boy was held, this chief used those chants to set him free. They passed quietly past the sleeping dog, and fled in the direction of Kaheiki.

Two petroglyphs of dogs, in a rock overhang above Nu‘uanu stream. Numerous such carvings are found in area around Alekoki pool.

"While they were running, a great noise was heard far behind them, " Westervelt (1991: 205-8) writes in his version of the story: "The dog had been awakened, and had discovered the escaped prisoner. Then, rushing like like a whirlwind. he found the direction in which they had fled. This was the path naturally taken by those leaving O‘ahu to escape to Hawai‘i. The great dog, only waiting to learn the course taken, pursued them on wings of the wind."

But the two actually hid on O‘ahu as Kaupe fled to Hawai‘i. At Kaheiki they learned from Kahilona the prayers needed to defeat Kaupe. When they were fully instructed they returned to Hawai‘i and waged war against their enemy, and defeated him.

But it is said that the ghost of Kaupe was not killed: "He returned a ghost-god to the highest parts of Nu‘uanu Valley, where in his shadow body he can sometimes be seen in the clouds . Sometimes his cloud form is that of a large dog, and sometimes he is very small but there his ghost rests and watches over the lands which at one time he filled with terror."

The area most widely associated with the strange ancient inhabitants is Waolani, a small separated valley in upper Nu‘uanu. Robert Nui (n.d.) refers to Waolani as "the famed resort of the ‘e‘epa people." Kamakau (1993) similarly remarks that the ridges above Waolani were "where the ‘e‘epa people are said to have lived and most of the people of strange powers who lived at Waolani." McAllister (1933) wrote that it was in the vicinity of Waolani "that the menehunes came to the assistance of Kekupua in the building of a koa canoe for Kakai, chief of Wahiawa, that his wife might voyage to Kahiki in search of a lost brother."

This site on the ridge above Waolani is said to be the remains of a heiau of the Menehune. Kamakau wrote, "There was another heiau on the ridge adjoining Kapalama and looking into the valley called Ke-ana-a-ka-mano (the cave of the shark), and another looking into Nu‘uanu Valley, and these were the heiaus where the ‘e‘epa people are said to have lived and most of the people of strange powers who lived at Waolani".

The Pohaku-a-UmeUme is a famous stone in Waolani associated with these ancient peoples. Its legends are told in the Footprints chapter. But this stone also has historical significance. Here is a story told by Mrs. Anne Peleioholani Taylor, recorded in 1952 (Sterling & Summers, 1978: 303):

The knife-edge trail on the ridge above Waolani separates Nu‘uanu from Ke-ana-a-ka-mano, the upper valley of Kapalama.

"The stone was used to test the powers of those who would be umeume experts.

"The stone had powers connected with those of the lineage of the descendents of Oahu's king, Kakuhihewa. The stone had the magic ability to detect a true descendent of Kakuhihewa. When a umeume graduate tried to tilt the stone, he was unable to do so unless he was a descendant of Kakuhihewa.

"Pohaku-Aumeume was the place where any child of the Kakuhihewa line had its naval cut. It was more important that the mother have the blood of Kakuhihewa than the father. The magic powers of the stone were called upon in case there was a dispute over the name to be given the child or who was to rear the child.

"If the father's people wanted to name and rear the child and the mother's people wanted to name it for one of their ancestors, then the stone settled the argument."

"The priest of Waolani Heiau acted as judge and arbitrator. He held the child while the decision was made. The mother and her family would line up on one side of Pohaku-Aumeume. The father and his family lined up on the other side. Each family selected a person to do the testing. Often the mother decided to test the stone herself. If the mother were not in good health, she might ask her mother to be the tester.

"Whichever side was able to tilt or move the stone won the contest and the baby. He would select a name 'suggested by the stone,' from either family and award the child to whom he thought best."

These are some of the many tales and wondrous sites of ancient Nu‘uanu. Go to the next page to learn more about Nu‘uanu's legendary setting.


Is rock music, like cave painting, a thing of the past?

For sheer outlandish spectacle the mythic onstage feats of Iggy Pop rival those of any Cúchulainn. Lacerating himself with broken glass walking on the audience’s hands while smearing himself with peanut butter turning up for an audition with The Doors (post-Morrison) naked as the day he was born. Part of the reason fans get hooked on this stuff is because its essence is to defy the distinction between what’s performance and what’s real.

“I’m dying in a story,” Iggy crooned, “I’m only living to sing this song”. David Hepworth touches on this essence in his book. Fans’ “greatest investment is in the myth itself”, he writes, which can be “even more important than the songs you sing”.

Uncommon People: The Rise and Fall of the Rock Stars, 1955-1994

Uncommon People: The Rise and Fall of the Rock Stars presents Hepworth’s narrative of rock’s history. It’s a narrative that assumes rock to be, like cave painting, a thing of the past. Hepworth is a music journalist and editor who founded or edited a string of notable publications such as Mojo, Qva Smash Hits and whose last book was the faintly dull 1971 – Never a Dull Moment: Rock’s Golden Year.

Garchi Noyob odamlar has a promising premise – to orient rock’s history around the centrality therein of freaks – his narrative quickly settles into the usual stale postures and platitudes. Much the same arc, not coincidentally, as we find in the careers of those stodgy male rockers to whom he’s beholden.

Over 300 pages Hepworth tells the story, as he sees it, of rock’s rise and fall. For each year from 1955 to 1995, there’s a brief chapter focused on one artist and significant event. The year 1955, for example, focuses on Little Richard’s musical breakthrough 1965, on The Who’s internal tiffs.

Once we’re out of the 1960s, though, rather than keeping his focus on new blood, Hepworth tends to stick with mainstream 1960s artists as they grow complacent, conceited and musty. This suits his narrative of nostalgia and decline and ignores the more vital rock musicians of recent decades.

Beefheart and Big Star

His 1986 shuns The Smiths for the frog-throated Dylan. His 1989 is summed up not by The Pixies, nor Sonic Youth, but Bonnie Raitt (!) No room at Hepworth’s cocktail party for tatty types like Beefheart or Big Star, or for abrasive women like Nina Hagen or PJ Harvey. No punk (Ramones, Sex Pistols, Slits), and nothing that’s not Anglophone (Serge Gainsbourg, Can).

You get the picture. If this book were an album, it would be one of those corporate Best Ofs that bunch a lot of familiar songs together in a characterless way and which are designed to lie at the bottom of a glove compartment.

Hepworth has two theses. The first is that rock apotheosises societal freaks. Rock stars are those who “had no reason to expect that they would ever be special” yet who also ‘”refused to accept that they would ever be anything but exceptional”. These are people who ascended society’s ladder usually without having typical advantages such as an expensive education or social connections. Hepworth’s second thesis is that the rock star as an animal is now dead, made extinct by the changing digital environment much like the polar bear will be made extinct by climate change. “The true rock stars rose and fell with the fortunes of the post-war record industry. They came along in the mid-fifties and passed away in the last decade of the century just gone.”

Lou Reed: typist

To back this up he gives some interesting anecdotes. Little Richard’s Tutti Frutti, it turns out, was penned to celebrate sodomy. Lou Reed, after the split-up of The Velvet Underground, briefly tried his hand at being a square, taking a job as a typist. The account of Elvis’s death is gloriously pathetic. Hepworth is at his best when writing about the 1950s, which in many ways remains rock’s key period. But there’s too much here that we’ve heard a million times before. Hearing once again the Cinderella story of how a then-unknown Jimi Hendrix got up onstage in London and jammed with Cream and wowed everyone has about the same effect as hearing some drunk blokes outside a pub singing Rod Stewart. And Hepworth’s is indeed a bloke’s eye view of history – women are rare and fleeting. Bowie sleeping with a 14-year-old girl is passed over without judgment.

It’s no coincidence that the advent of the rock star coincided with Warhol’s screen-print icons. Rock is a paradigmatic art of the mass-media age and, contra Hepworth, that age is still very much with us, even if the media and instruments continue to evolve. “On the air you could be anyone you wanted,” Hepworth says of how radio and TV enabled early rock. So long as young people still have the imagination and drive, our mass media age will continue to engender such mythic monsters and superfreaks.


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