Yangi

Birinchi jahon urushida zaharli gaz

Birinchi jahon urushida zaharli gaz


Birinchi marta zaharli gazdan foydalanish

1915 yil 22 aprelda soat 17 da. Germaniya mutaxassis qo'shinlari erga ko'milgan tsilindrlardan chiqadigan bo'g'uvchi gaz to'lqini Ypres shimolidagi ittifoqchilar chizig'ini vayronaga keltirdi va qurolning yangi turidan omon qolish uchun kurash olib keldi.

Hujum Ypresning shimolidagi ikkita mustamlakachi frantsuz bo'linmalarini o'z pozitsiyalaridan chiqarib yubordi, bu esa shaharni himoya qiluvchi ittifoqchilar chizig'ida 5 millik bo'shliqni yaratdi. Bu G'arbiy frontda zaharli gazdan birinchi samarali foydalanish va Germaniyaning eng yangi quroli bo'lgan xlor gazining kimyoviy quroli debyuti bo'lib, u o'pka to'qimasini bezovta qilib, o'limga olib kelishi mumkin.

Britaniyalik ofitser gazning frantsuz mustamlakachilariga ta'sirini tasvirlab berdi:

"Vahima qo'zg'atgan Turcos va Zouavesning kulrang yuzlari va ko'zlari ko'zlari chiqib ketgan, tomoqlarini ushlab, yugurish paytida bo'g'ilib qolishgan, ko'plari izlarini tashlab, oyoq-qo'llari chayqalib, cho'kib ketgan tuproqda yotishgan.

Askarlarni yangi quroldan himoya qiladigan texnologiya yo'q edi, shuning uchun operatsion gaz niqobi yo'q edi, shuning uchun ittifoqchilar askarlari suvga namlangan zig'ir niqoblari va lint va lentadan yasalgan "respiratorlar" bilan yasalgan.

Hujumning g'aroyib natijasidan hayratga tushgan nemislar, o'z muvaffaqiyatlaridan foydalanish imkoniyatidan mahrum bo'lishdi.

Zaharli gazdan dastlabki foydalanishdan so'ng, gaz urushining texnologiyasi va operatsion taktikasi nemislar va ittifoqchilar tomonidan urush davomida, shu jumladan turli gazlar va suyuqliklar, amaliy gaz niqoblari va gaz signalizatsiyasi uskunalari tezda ishlab chiqildi va joriy etildi. Jangovar davlatlar kimyoviy va harbiy maktablar tuzdilar, ularni hujum va mudofaa gaz urushi taktikasiga o'rgatishdi.

Yaqinda muzey tomonidan sotib olingan arxiv kollektsiyasi (Muzeyning onlayn to'plamlari ma'lumotlar bazasi orqali ko'rish mumkin) bu yangi urushni nemis ofitseri va gaz maktabi o'qituvchisi tajribasidan o'rganadi. Kurt Eduard "Fritz" Saberskiy 1915-16 yillarda Prussiya gvardiyasi zaxira korpusining 3-sanitariya kompaniyasining qo'mondoni, keyin 1917 yil martidan urush oxirigacha Berlindagi Prussiya qirollik armiyasi gaz maktabida o'qituvchi bo'lgan.

  • Saberskiyning o'qituvchi lavozimi uchun shaxsiy guvohnomasi
  • Hujumga tayyorgarlik ko'rish bo'yicha ko'rsatmalarni o'z ichiga olgan "Xandaqlarda gazdan himoya qilish" ko'rsatma varaqasi loyihasi, "Qo'riqchi ham shubhali hidlarga e'tibor qaratishi kerak" va "Telefon qurilmasini himoya qilishi" kerak.
  • Bir haftalik dars jadvallari, shu jumladan:
    • "Artilleriya gazidan o'q otish"
    • "Minomyotdan gaz otish"
    • "Gazdan himoya qurollari
    • "Gaz kasalliklarida birinchi yordam"
    • "Gaz niqoblari va kisloroddan himoya vositalari bilan ishlash mashqlari"
    • "Old tomondan ob -havo ma'lumoti" (havo bosimi va shamol yo'nalishi gaz hujumining samaradorligini aniqlash uchun juda muhim o'lchovlar edi)
    • "Hayvonlarni himoya qilish"
    • "Dushmanning gaz hujumi paytida o'zini tutish"
    • "Dalada gaz burg'ulash"

    Bir haftalik jadvalda "Urush agentlari" darsi bo'lib, u gaz aralashmasining formulalarini, masalan, xlorning fosgenga foizini va "Gazni chiqarish taktikasi" ni, gaz bulutining optimal uzunligini va tonnadagi gaz miqdorini o'lchash bilan muhokama qiladi. .

    Urush oxiriga kelib, nemislar 68000 tonna bilan eng ko'p zaharli gaz ishlab chiqarishdi, frantsuzlar 36000 tonna bilan ikkinchi, inglizlar 25000 tonna. Gaz qurbonlarining qariyb uch foizi halok bo'ldi, ammo yuz minglab odamlar vaqtinchalik yoki doimiy jarohat olishdi.

    Muzey kolleksiyasidagi ashyolar va hujjatlarning 97 foizdan ortig'i hadya qilingan. Muzeyni xayriya bilan qanday qo'llab -quvvatlashingiz mumkinligini bilib oling.


    Buyuk urushda gaz

    Har bir urush askarlarni mayib qilish va o'ldirishning yangi usulini birinchi o'ringa olib chiqadi. XVI va XVII asrlarda qurol kukuni, nihoyat, afsuski, dushmanlarning ko'pini bitta artilleriya hujumi bilan yo'q qilish mumkinligini anglatardi. Oxir -oqibat, Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida shuni ko'rsatdiki, bitta yadro quroli bitta qurol yordamida dushmanlarning yuz mingdan ziyodini o'ldirishi mumkin edi. 17 -asrdan 20 -asrgacha nogironlik va o'ldirish samaradorligi tobora oshib borayotgan bo'lsa, u birinchi jahon urushida inhalatsiyalangan zaharli gazlar yordamida tezlashdi.

    Birinchi jahon urushining o'ziga xos xususiyatlaridan biri kimyoviy qurollardan keng foydalanish edi. Garchi kimyoviy urush bu urushda umumiy o'limning 1% dan kamrog'ini keltirib chiqargan bo'lsa-da, "urush-urush" yoki "qo'rquv" omili dahshatli edi. Shu tariqa, 1925 yilgi Jeneva protokoli bilan gazlar bilan kimyoviy jang qilish qat'iyan man qilindi. U o'sha paytdan beri vaqti -vaqti bilan ishlatilgan, lekin hech qachon Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida. Ushbu xavfli kimyoviy moddalarning ba'zilari ishlab chiqarilishi shu kungacha davom etmoqda, chunki ular tinch maqsadlarda foydalanishadi, masalan, fosgen (karbonil diklorid) - sanoat reagenti, farmatsevtika va boshqa muhim organik birikmalarning kashfiyotchisi.


    Niqobli askarlar gaz buluti orqali zaryad oladilar.

    Birinchi jahon urushida bir nechta kimyoviy qurollar qurollangan va Frantsiya birinchi bo'lib gaz ishlatgan - ular 1914 yil avgustda ko'zdan yosh oqizuvchi gaz ishlatganlar. Xilil bromidi - xushbo'y va xushbo'y va rsquo yoki etil bromoatsetat. . & rsquo Ikkalasi ham rangsiz suyuqliklar bo'lib, ularni qurol sifatida tarqatish uchun atomizatsiya qilish kerak. Lakryurativ agentlar sifatida ular ko'zni tirnash xususiyati keltiradi va nazoratsiz yirtilishga olib keladi. Katta dozalar vaqtincha ko'rlikka olib kelishi mumkin. Agar ular nafas olsalar, nafas olish qiyinlashadi. Semptomlar odatda aloqadan 30 minut o'tgach yo'qoladi. Shunday qilib, ko'z yosh oqizuvchi gaz hech qachon dushman askarlariga qarshi qurol sifatida unchalik samarali bo'lmagan.

    Germaniyaning gaz urushi dasturini Fritz Xaber (1868 va 1934 y.) Boshqargan, uning birinchi qurolini 1915 yil aprelda Ypresda debyut qilgan xlor ishlatgan. ananas va murch va rsquo aralashmasi sifatida tasvirlangan yashil rang va hidli. U o'pkadagi suv bilan reaksiyaga kirishib, to'qimalarni buzuvchi va tezda o'limga olib keladigan yoki hech bo'lmaganda o'pka to'qimalarining doimiy shikastlanishi va nogironligiga olib kelishi mumkin bo'lgan xlorid kislotasini hosil qiladi. Kamroq konsentratsiyada, agar u o'pkaga etib bormasa, yo'tal, qusish va ko'zning tirnashiga olib kelishi mumkin. Xlor himoyalanmagan askarlarga qarshi o'lik edi. Taxminlarga ko'ra, Ypresda birinchi marta ishlatilganda 1100 dan ortiq odam o'ldirilgan. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, nemislar qanchalik samarali bo'lishiga tayyorgarlik ko'rmaganlar va o'z ustunliklaridan foydalana olmaganlar.

    Xlor va rsquosning foydaliligi qisqa muddatli edi. Uning rangi va hidini aniqlash oson edi, va xlor suvda eriydi, hatto gaz niqobsiz askarlar ham suv bilan namlangan, hatto siydik bilan namlangan latta-ko'ylaklarni og'izlari va burunlariga qo'yib, uning ta'sirini kamaytirishi mumkin edi. Bundan tashqari, gazni bulutga chiqarish muammolarga olib keldi, chunki inglizlar Loosda xlor ishlatishga urinishganda o'zlariga zarar etkazishdi. Shamol o'zgarib, gazni o'z odamlariga qaytarib yubordi.

    Fosgen (karbonil diklorid) - bu Xabar va rsquosning navbatdagi tanlovi, ehtimol 1915 yil dekabr oyida nemislar tomonidan Ypresda ishlatilgan. Fosgen - bu rangsiz gaz, uning hidi pichan va rsquo hidiga o'xshaydi, lekin hid aniqlanishi uchun uning kontsentratsiyasi bo'lishi kerak edi. millionga 0,4 qism yoki zararli ta'sirlar darajasidan bir necha baravar ko'p bo'lishi kerak. Fosgen juda zaharli, chunki u o'pka alveolalarida oqsillar bilan reaksiyaga kirishib, qon-havo to'sig'ini buzib, bo'g'ilishga olib keladi.


    Ittifoqchi askarlar gaz niqoblarini taqib, rasmga tushishmoqda.

    Fosgen xlorga qaraganda ancha samaraliroq va o'lik edi, lekin bitta kamchilik shundaki, simptomlar ba'zida 48 soatgacha namoyon bo'lishi mumkin edi. Minimal zudlik bilan ta'sirlar lakryurativdir. Ammo keyinchalik o'pkada suyuqlik to'planib (o'pka shishi) o'limga olib keladi. Birinchi jahon urushida 91000 gazning o'limining 85% fosgen yoki unga aloqador bo'lgan difosgen (triklorometan xloroformat) natijasida sodir bo'lganligi taxmin qilinmoqda.

    Birinchi jahon urushida eng ko'p ishlatiladigan gaz-bu & gsquomustard gazi [bis (2-xloroetil) sulfid]. Sof shaklda bu rangsiz, lekin Birinchi jahon urushida sarimsoq yoki otni eslatuvchi xantal rangga ega bo'lgan nopok shakllar ishlatilgan. Tirnash xususiyati beruvchi va kuchli pufakchali (pufak hosil qiluvchi vosita), u kontaktda kimyoviy kuyishga olib keladi, pufakchalardan sariq suyuqlik oqadi. Dastlabki ta'sir qilish alomatlarsiz va terining tirnash xususiyati boshlanganda, profilaktika choralarini ko'rishga kech bo'ladi. Xantal gazidan o'lim darajasi atigi 2-3%ni tashkil etdi, ammo kimyoviy kuyish va nafas olish muammolari bo'lganlar uzoq vaqt kasalxonaga yotqizilgan va agar ular tuzalib ketsa, keyingi hayotda saraton rivojlanish xavfi yuqori deb hisoblangan.


    Shamolli gaz Evropadagi jang maydoniga tarqaldi.

    Xloropikrin, difenilxlorarsin, Amerikada ishlab chiqilgan Adamsit (difenilaminxlorarsin) va boshqalar tirnash xususiyati beruvchi moddalar bo'lib, ular gaz niqoblarini chetlab o'tib, askarlarni niqoblarini olib tashlashga majbur qilib, ularni fosgen yoki xlor ta'sirida qoldirgan.

    Gazlar ko'pincha kombinatsiyalarda ishlatilgan. Gazning katta qismi artilleriya o'qlari bilan etkazib berilardi. Agent (lar) jangovar kallak ichidagi shisha butilkalarda suyuq holatda edi, ular aloqa qilganda uzilib, suyuqlik bug'lanib ketardi. Chig'anoqlar nemislar boshlagan tizimda rangli kodlangan edi. Yashil xoch qobig'ida o'pka moddalari bor edi: xlor, fosgen va difosgen. Oq Xochda ko'z yosh gazlari bor edi. Moviy Xochda xloropikrin kabi & lsquomask to'xtatuvchilari bor edi. Oltin (yoki sariq) xochda xantal gazi bor edi.


    Jon Singer Sarjentning "Gazlangan" filmida ingliz qo'shinlariga xantal gazi hujumining oqibatlari tasvirlangan.

    Orqaga nazar tashlasak, askarlarni zaharlash yo'li bilan olib boriladigan janglar - juda shafqatsiz, juda shaxsiy va Ikkinchi Jahon urushida har ikki tomonning ham shunday cheklovlari bilan ishlatilgan - bundan oldin 1899 yilda Gaaga konventsiyasi tomonidan taqiqlangan edi. Fritz Xaber hayotida, fosgen va "lsquoHaber Process & rsquo" ni ixtiro qilgan nemis kimyogari ammiakli o'g'itga atmosfera azotini biriktirish imkonini berdi. Nasroniylikni qabul qilgan nemis yahudiy, Xabar jarayoni uchun 1919 yilda kimyo bo'yicha Nobel mukofotini oldi. Xolokostdan ancha oldin vafot etgan bo'lsa-da, u millionlab yahudiylarni va boshqalarni, shu jumladan uning qarindoshlarini o'ldirish uchun ishlatiladigan gidrosianidlarga asoslangan Zyklon A va Zyklon B insektitsidlarini yaxshilagan kimyogarlardan biri edi.


    Yetkazib berish tizimlari

    Gazni ommaviy etkazib berishda ishlatiladigan birinchi tizim gazni tsilindrlardan qulay shamolga chiqarib, dushman xandaqlari orqali olib o'tishni o'z ichiga oladi. Bu usulning asosiy afzalligi shundaki, u nisbatan sodda edi va mos atmosfera sharoitida gaz niqobining himoyasini yengib chiqa oladigan kontsentrlangan bulutni ishlab chiqardi. Tsilindrni chiqarishning kamchiliklari juda ko'p edi. Avvalo, etkazib berish shamolning rahm -shafqatiga bog'liq edi. Agar shamol o'zgaruvchan bo'lsa, xuddi Loosda bo'lgani kabi, gaz orqaga qaytishi va do'stona qurbonlarga olib kelishi mumkin edi. Gaz bulutlari ko'plab ogohlantirishlarni berdi, bu esa dushmanga o'zlarini himoya qilishga vaqt berdi, garchi ko'p askarlar sudraluvchi gaz bulutini bezovta qilsa. Bundan tashqari, gaz bulutlarining kirib borishi cheklangan edi, ular tarqalishdan oldin faqat oldingi chiziqdagi xandaqlarga ta'sir qila olardi.

    Nihoyat, tsilindrlarni xandaq tizimining eng old qismiga joylashtirish kerak edi, shunda gaz to'g'ridan -to'g'ri hech kimning eriga chiqmaydi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, tsilindrlarni tez -tez tiqilib qoladigan aloqa kanallari orqali ishlov berish kerak edi va ularni bombardimon paytida tsilindrlarni muddatidan oldin sindirish xavfi bo'lgan joyda saqlash kerak edi. Oqayotgan tsilindr gazni chiqarishi mumkin edi, agar u aniqlansa, o'q otilishini o'ziga jalb qiladi.

    "Ooja" deb nomlanuvchi ingliz xlorli tsilindrining og'irligi 86 kg edi, uning faqat 60 lb (27 kg) xlor gazi edi va uni ko'tarish uchun ikkita erkak kerak edi. Fosgen gazi keyinchalik "sichqon" deb nomlanuvchi, og'irligi atigi 23 kg bo'lgan tsilindrda paydo bo'ldi.

    Gazni artilleriya qobig'i orqali etkazib berish, tsilindrlarda gaz bilan ishlashning ko'plab xavflarini yengdi. Masalan, nemislar 5,9 dyuymli artilleriya snaryadlaridan foydalanishgan. Gaz chig'anoqlari shamoldan mustaqil edi va gazning samarali diapazonini oshirdi, bu qurolga yaqin bo'lgan har qanday joyni himoyasiz qildi. Gaz chig'anoqlari hech qanday ogohlantirishsiz etkazib berilishi mumkin edi, xususan, deyarli hidsiz fosgen va mdash, gaz chig'anoqlari haqida ko'plab hisoblar bor, ular portlashdan ko'ra "plop" bilan tushadi, dastlab dud HE yoki shrapnel qobig'i sifatida ishdan chiqariladi, bu gazga ishlashga vaqt beradi. askarlarga ogohlantirish va ehtiyot choralarini ko'rishdan oldin.

    Gazni artilleriya orqali etkazib berish bilan bog'liq asosiy kamchilik qotillik kontsentratsiyasiga erishishning qiyinligi edi. Har bir qobiq gazning kichik yukiga ega edi va tsilindrni etkazib berishga mos keladigan bulut hosil qilish uchun maydon to'yingan bombardimonga uchrashi kerak edi. Biroq, xantal gazi to'plangan bulutni yaratishga hojat yo'q edi, shuning uchun artilleriya bu jang maydonini ifloslantiruvchi moddalarni etkazib berish uchun ideal vosita edi.

    Tsilindrlardan chiqmasdan o'lik kontsentratsiyaga erishishning echimi "gaz proyektori" edi, bu butun silindrni raketa sifatida o'qqa tutgan katta teshikli minomyot edi. Britaniya Livens proyektori (1917 yilda kapitan WH Livens tomonidan ixtiro qilingan)-diametri 8 dyuymli naycha erga burchak ostida cho'kib ketgan oddiy qurilma edi, elektr signalidan yonilg'i yoqildi, 30 yoki 40 lb (14) yoki 18 kg) gaz 1900 metrgacha. Bu proyektorlarning batareyasini o'rnatish va ularni bir vaqtning o'zida yoqish orqali gazning zich kontsentratsiyasiga erishish mumkin edi. Livnlar birinchi marta 1917 yil 4 aprelda Arrasda ishlatilgan. 1918 yil 31 martda inglizlar Lensga 3728 tsilindrni o'qqa tutgan eng yirik "gaz otishni" o'tkazdilar.


    Nima uchun kimyoviy qurol shunchalik yomon?

    Tomas I. Fait - AQSh Davlat departamenti tarixchisi. Uning kitobi Gaz niqobi ortida: AQSh armiyasining urush va tinchlikdagi kimyoviy urush xizmati, 1917–1929 Illinoys universiteti pressidan keladi. Ushbu maqolada bildirilgan fikrlar muallifliki va AQSh Davlat departamenti yoki AQSh hukumati qarashlarini aks ettirmaydi.


    Kimyoviy qurollarga hozirgi qarshilik birinchi jahon urushidagi zaharli gazlar urushi tajribasidan kelib chiqadi. Zahar qadim zamonlardan beri o'ldirishning xiyonatkor usuli hisoblansa-da, Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida misli ko'rilmagan kimyoviy qurollarni ishlab chiqarish va ulardan foydalanish hozirgi munozarani o'z ichiga oladi. Qo'shma Shtatlar kimyoviy qurollarning axloqi haqida. Birinchi jahon urushi davridagi kimyoviy urush tarafdorlari zaharli gazlar odatdagi quroldan ko'ra kam axloqiy emasligini ta'kidlashdi, lekin kimyoviy qurol qurbonlari uchun gumanitar tashvishlar jamoatchilik fikrida ustunlik qildi va natijada ulardan foydalanishni cheklovchi xalqaro shartnomalar tuzildi.

    O'n to'qqizinchi asrda zaharli gaz qurollari urush qonunlari bilan taqiqlangan edi, chunki kimyoviy urush haqida oldindan tuzilgan, salbiy fikrlar. 1899 yildagi Gaaga deklaratsiyasi mamlakatlardan "asfiksiya qiluvchi yoki zararli gazlarning tarqalishi bo'lgan raketalarni ishlatishdan tiyilishlarini" talab qildi. Bu asos sifatida 1868 yilgi Sankt -Peterburg deklaratsiyasining "urush zaruriyatlari insoniyat talablariga javob berishi kerak bo'lgan texnik chegaralarni" tan olgan va "nogironlarning azob -uqubatlarini behuda og'irlashtiradigan qurol -yarog 'ishlatilishini" tan olgan. erkaklar, yoki ularning o'limini muqarrar qiladilar. " Gaaga deklaratsiyasida zaharli gaz raketalari g'ayriinsoniy ekanligi tasdiqlanganiga qaramay, bunday qurollar Birinchi jahon urushida urushayotgan barcha davlatlar tomonidan ishlatilgan.

    Urushning birinchi muvaffaqiyatli gaz hujumi 1915 yil 22 aprelda Ypres shahrida bo'lib o'tdi, o'shanda nemis armiyasi zaharli xlorli gaz bulutini chiqarib, uni Britaniya, Kanada, Frantsiya, Marokash va Jazoir askarlariga olib borishga ruxsat berdi. Hujum halokatli edi va Birinchi Jahon Urushining boshqa davlatlari, ular qasos olish uchun o'zlarining zaharli gaz qurollarini ishlab chiqarishga shoshilishganida ham, ma'naviy buzilishlarni qoralashdi. AQSh targ'ibotchilari ham Germaniyaning zaharli gazdan foydalanishini noinsoniy deb ta'rifladilar. 1918 yil iyun oyida bo'lib o'tgan vatanparvarlik mitingida Ogayo shtati gubernatori Jeyms M. Koks "Germaniya boshqa davlatlar bilan urushda zaharli gaz ishlatmaslik to'g'risidagi tantanali shartnomasini buzdi" va "bu xalqning sharmandaligi tez orada unutilmaydi" dedi. Germaniyaning gazdan foydalanishi sharmandali degan tushuncha, zaharli gaz qurollari vahshiylik degan fikrni kuchaytirdi, shu bilan birga u AQSh va ittifoqchi davlatlar tomonidan nemislarga qarshi ishlatilishini asosladi.

    Birinchi jahon urushi paytida zaharli gazning keng qo'llanilishi haqidagi tajribalar ko'plab askarlarga urush tugashi bilan kimyoviy urushni to'xtatishga yordam berdi. Ular kelgusida kimyoviy qurol ishlatilishiga qarshi chiqdilar, chunki nafaqat gaz urushi boshqa askarlarga olib kelgan azob -uqubatlar, balki begunoh fuqarolarga zarar etkazish ehtimoli. 1925 yilda Frantsiyadagi Amerika ekspeditsion kuchlari qo'mondoni Jon J. Pershing Senatga xat yozib, ulardan zaharli gazli qurollarni taqiqlovchi Jeneva protokolini ratifikatsiya qilishni talab qildi. "Gazni har qanday shaklda ishlatishga ruxsat berish - bu eng halokatli gazlardan foydalanishga yo'l ochish va jang qilmaydigan erkaklar, ayollar va bolalar populyatsiyasining zaharlanishi bo'lishi mumkin", deb yozgan Persxing, "tsivilizatsiyani tasavvur qilib bo'lmaydi. bunday yo'nalish to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishi kerak. "

    Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin ko'pchilik kimyoviy urushni to'xtatishni xohlagan bo'lsa -da, ammo harbiylar orasida zaharli gaz qurolidan foydalanishni davom ettirishga da'vat qilganlar bor edi. AQSh armiyasi kimyoviy jangovar xizmatining boshlig'i Amos A. Fries 1919 yilda shunday deb yozgan edi: «Xalqaro tushuncha borki, gaz urushi - bu kashf etilgan urushning eng dahshatli usuli va u yo'q qilinadi, chunki bu juda dahshatli. Va shunga qaramay, bu dahshatli emas. " Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi kartoshka va boshqa kimyoviy urush mutaxassislari, urush, kimyoviy urush qurbonlari boshidan kechirgan azob -uqubatlar an'anaviy qurol qurbonlari ko'rganidan ko'ra yomonroq emasligini isbotladi, deb hisoblashdi. Ular Birinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin bu boradagi jamoatchilik fikrini o'zgartirishga urinish uchun jamoatchilik bilan aloqalar kampaniyasini uyushtirishdi va kimyoviy qurollar odatiy qurollardan ko'ra insonparvar, deb da'vo qilishdi.

    Fries va unga o'xshash boshqa odamlar kimyoviy qurolni rad etishni, urush paytida askarlar va tinch aholiga zarar etkazgan zaharli gazga nisbatan mantiqsiz, hissiy reaktsiya deb qarashdi. Ular jamoatchilikning zaharli gazga bo'lgan nafratida va urushning boshqa usullarini qabul qilishda ziddiyat borligini tan oldilar. Birinchi jahon urushi paytida AQSh 1 -gaz polkining qo'mondoni, Earl J. Atkisson bu qarama -qarshilikni 1925 yilda tasvirlab bergan. U shunday deb yozgan edi: "Urush odam uchun jirkanchdir, lekin u odamlarni yuqori portlovchi moddalar bilan parchalashni qabul qiladi. pulemyotlar va hatto minglab yoki o'n besh yuz kishisi bilan ummon o'rtasida jang kemasini cho'ktirish. Biroq, odamning terisini yoqish uning barcha madaniyatli instinktlarini g'azablantiradi.

    Atkisson, Fries va boshqa kimyoviy urush tarafdorlari bu qarama -qarshilik oxir -oqibat kimyoviy qurol foydasiga hal qilinadi deb ishonishgan. Ular, vaqt o'tishi bilan, nayza, o'q va bomba kabi, zaharli gazdan foydalanish maqbul bo'lishini kutishgan. Buning o'rniga, gazning qurbonlari o'q yoki boshqa urush qurollaridan ko'ra vahshiyroq ekanligi haqidagi e'tiqod saqlanib qoldi va dunyo xalqlari gumanitar asosda kimyoviy qurollarni taqiqlovchi xalqaro bitimlar tuzishda davom etishdi.

    Kimyoviy qurolga bo'lgan munosabatni Birinchi jahon urushida zaharli gazdan foydalanishning murakkab merosini hisobga olgan holda baholash kerak, o'sha paytdagi mutaxassislar kimyoviy qurollar bilan an'anaviy qurollar o'rtasida hech qanday axloqiy farq yo'q deb hisoblaganlar, bu kimyoviy xulosaga olib kelmasligi kerak. urush insonparvarlikdir. Urushning barcha usullarining g'ayriinsoniyligi, bu usullarning nisbiy vayronkor kuchi va ularning jang qilmaydiganlarga zarar etkazish salohiyati bilan o'lchanishi kerak. Suriyadagi mojaroni kuzatayotganlar, Sankt -Peterburg deklaratsiyasida aytganda, "urush zaruriyatlari insoniyat talablariga bo'ysunishi kerak bo'lgan texnik chegaralarni" aniqlash uchun ishlatilgan barcha qurollar vayron bo'lganini qayd etishlari kerak.


    Birinchi jahon urushida gaz hujumlari: zahar 1915 yilda chiqarilganda

    1915 yilda markaziy kuchlar va ittifoqchilar tovonlarini kavlab, bir necha oylik miqyosda qisqa mojaroga umid qilib, urushning tang ahvolini tugatishga harakat qilishdi. Birinchi marta zaharli gaz ishlatilgan. Nemislar o't o'chiruvchilar va zirhli qalqonlar bilan tajriba o'tkazdilar, frantsuzlar qo'l granatalarini ishlata boshladilar. Aprel oyida nemislar Ypresning ikkinchi jangini boshladilar va 168 tonna xlor gazini ishlatdilar. Sharqiy frontda Avstriya Karpatdagi rus kuchlariga qarshi uchta hujum uyushtirdi. Uchalasi ham muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. 100 mingga yaqin avstriyalik askar muzlab qoldi. Shimolda rus qo'shinlari Varshava va Rigadan chekinishni boshladilar. Polshada rus kuchlari "kuygan er siyosati" ni qabul qilishdi. Ular polyaklar va Polsha va Rossiyaning g'arbiy boshqa aholisini ekinlarini yoqib, uylarini tashlab ketishga majbur qilishdi. Bu millionlab qochqinlarni yaratdi. Dekabr oyida Serbiya armiyasining qoldiqlari, bir necha yuz ming tinch aholi bilan birga, Chernogoriya va Albaniyaning muzlagan tog'lari orqali qirg'oqqa qochib ketdi. Yo'lda 200 ming kishi vafot etdi (dastlab 700 mingdan). Nihoyat, Usmoniylar armanlarni Suriyaga majburiy deportatsiya qilishni boshladilar, bu aslida o'lim yurishi edi. Bu "Arman genotsidi" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lib, unda 1,5 million odam o'ldirilgan.

    Qishki hujumlar: Joffre nemislarni orqaga surib, Sharqqa qo'shimcha qo'shin yuborishining oldini olishga yordam bermoqchi edi. Shunday qilib, ular 1914 yil oxirida va 1915 yilda bir qator hujumlarni uyushtirdilar

    Birinchi Artois jangi (1914 yil 17 dekabr - 1915 yil 13 yanvar)

    Birinchi shampan hujumi (1914 yil 20 dekabr - 1915 yil 17 mart). 93,000 frantsuzlar va 46,000 nemislar.

    31 -yanvar: Birinchi marta ishlatilgan zaharli gaz - sovuq ob -havo tufayli unchalik ta'sir qilmadi. Mart oyida nemislar o't o'chiruvchilar va zirhli qalqonlar bilan tajriba o'tkazdilar, frantsuzlar qo'l granatalarini ishlata boshladilar.

    10 mart: Britaniya Birinchi Armiyasi (Sir Duglas Xeyg tomonidan ruxsat berilgan) Noyv-Chappellda nemislarga hujum qildi. Uning siyosati "tishlash va ushlab turish" edi, bu dushman chizig'ining bir qismini tezda egallab olish va ularni qarshi hujumga majburlash, ko'p qurbonlar berish edi.

    17 aprel: inglizlar tepalik 60ga hujum uyushtirdilar, ular nemislarning pozitsiyasini buzish uchun minalardan foydalanganlar.

    22 aprel: Nemislar Ypresning ikkinchi jangini boshladilar va 168 tonna xlor gazini ishlatdilar. Bu safar halokatli oqibatlarga olib keldi. Inglizlar vaqtinchalik respiratorlardan, shu jumladan siydik bilan o'ralgan matolardan foydalanganlar. Ittifoqchilar shaharni egallab olishdi. Jang bir oydan ko'proq davom etdi.

    8 may: Buyuk Britaniya va frantsuzlar Artois ikkinchi jangida birlashgan hujumni (birinchi marta) boshladi. Jang 6 hafta davom etdi. Frantsuzlar 100 ming, nemislar esa 75 ming kishini yo'qotdi.

    Sentyabr oyining oxirida inglizlar va frantsuzlar Loos, Artois (Uchinchi jang) va Shampan (Ikkinchi jang) ga hujum uyushtirdilar. Inglizlar birinchi marta zaharli gazdan foydalanishdi. Avvaliga inglizlar va frantsuzlar o'z maqsadlarini oldilar, ammo Germaniyaning o'jar mudofaasi ittifoqchilarning katta talofatiga olib keldi. Nemislar fosgen gazidan (xlordan ham yomonroq) foydalanishgan. Ular noyabr oyining birinchi haftasida yakunlandi. Hech bir tomon hech narsaga erisha olmadi.

    19 -dekabrda Ser Jon Frantsuz BEF qo'mondoni Ser Duglas Xayg bilan almashtirildi.

    Avstriya Karpatda rus kuchlariga qarshi uchta hujum uyushtirdi. Uchalasi ham muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. 100 mingga yaqin avstriyalik askar muzlab qoldi.

    Przemysl 23 -mart kuni ruslar qo'liga o'tdi. 126 ming mahbus va 700 dan ortiq katta qurol ruslarga tushdi.

    1-may: Germaniya-Avstriya birlashgan armiyasi Gorlis va Tarnovda ruslarga qarshi hujum boshladi. Ruslar chekinishga majbur bo'lishdi va ular urush boshlanganidan beri qo'lga kiritgan barcha erlarini yo'qotdilar. 30 ming rus asirlari olib ketildi. Avstriya kuchlari 3 iyun kuni Przemyslni, 22 iyun kuni Lvovni qaytarib oldi.

    Shimolda rus qo'shinlari Varshava va Rigadan chekinishni boshladilar. Polshada rus qo'shinlari "kuygan yer siyosati" ni qabul qilishdi. Ular polyaklarni va Polsha va Rossiyaning g'arbiy boshqa aholisini ekinlarini yoqib, uylarini tashlab ketishga majbur qilishdi. Bu millionlab qochqinlarni yaratdi.

    Varshava 5 avgustda nemis qo'shinlari qo'liga o'tdi. Ivangorod, Kovno, Novogeorgiev, Brest-Litovsk, Bialistok va Grodno qal'asi qulagandan ko'p o'tmay. Avgust oyining oxiriga kelib 1,5 million rossiyalik asir olindi. Ko'p o'tmay, Avstriya va Germaniya qo'shinlari bir -biriga bog'lanib, bitta chiziq hosil qilishdi.

    5 sentyabrda Nikolay Buyuk Gertsog Nikolayni qo'mondonlikdan chetlatdi va armiyaning shaxsiy qo'mondonligini oldi.

    18 sentyabrda nemislar Vilnyusni olib, rus himoyachilarini Polsha va Galitsiyadan butunlay quvib chiqarishdi. Rossiya 300 kilometrlik hududini yo'qotdi. Ammo er loyga aylandi va ruslar mudofaani yaxshilashdi. Bu Germaniya hujumini to'xtatdi.

    Rojdestvodan keyin rus armiyasi Bessarabiyada, Sharqiy Galitsiyada katta hujumlar uyushtirdi, shuningdek boshqa joylarga, shu jumladan Prippet botqoqliklariga hujum qildi. Bu hujumlarning hech biri muvaffaqiyat qozonmadi.

    1915 yil oxiriga kelib, Rossiya 3,4 million qurboniga uchradi va 2 million rus urushdan qochib ketdi.

    1916 yil yanvarda Rossiya muvaffaqiyatli hujum qildi

    Mart oyida tif epidemiyasi boshlanib, ko'plab serblar va avstriyaliklarni o'ldirdi. Kasallik Serbiyaga har qanday hujumlarning oldini oldi.

    1 aprel kuni Bolgariya turklari Makedoniyada (o'sha paytda Serbiyaning bir qismi bo'lgan) Valandovoga hujum qilishdi. Serb kuchlari bosqinni qaytarishdi.

    6 sentyabrda Bolgariya Markaziy kuchlar tarafida urushga qo'shildi. Avstriya-Vengriya va Germaniya bilan bir qatorda ular keyingi oyda (6-oktabr boshida) Serbiyaga bostirib kirishdi. Belgrad 9 oktabrda qulab tushdi (Bolgariya o'z aholisining 25 foizini urushga yuboradi ... bu eng yuqori foiz).

    5 -noyabrda Nis qulab tushdi va Markaziy kuchlarga Berlindan Konstantinopolga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri temir yo'l aloqasini berdi. Oy oxirida Serbiya armiyasi mag'lubiyatga uchradi va chekinishga majbur bo'ldi.

    Dekabr oyida Serbiya armiyasining qoldiqlari, bir necha yuz ming tinch aholi bilan birga, Chernogoriya va Albaniyaning muzlagan tog'lari orqali qirg'oqqa qochib ketdi. Yo'lda 200 ming kishi vafot etdi (dastlab 700 mingdan). Ittifoqchi dengiz kuchlari ularni Albaniya qirg'og'idan Korfuga evakuatsiya qildi.

    Frantsiya va Britaniya kuchlari Serbiya armiyasiga yordam berishga harakat qilishdi, lekin Bolgariya armiyasi tomonidan Makedoniyadan Gretsiyaga surildi. Ular Salonikada baza tuzdilar (Yunoniston hukumatining betaraf bo'lgan e'tirozlari ustidan).

    2016 yil yanvar oyida Avstriya armiyasi Chernogoriyaga bostirib kirdi. Hukumat taslim bo'ldi, lekin armiya Albaniyaga qochib ketdi. Avstriyaliklar ularni ta'qib qilishdi.

    Fevral: turklar Suvaysh kanalini tortib olish uchun Misrdagi ingliz qo'shinlariga hujum qilishdi. Ular qattiq mag'lub bo'lishdi.

    Turkiya armanlarni majburiy deportatsiya qila boshladi.

    Britaniya qo'shinlari Basrani himoya qiladilar va Dajla vodiysidan Bag'dod tomon yo'l oldilar. Dekabr oyida ular turklar qamal qilgan Kut-al-Amarada tuzoqqa tushib qolishdi.

    Keyingi oy, qutqaruv operatsiyasi urinib ko'rdi, lekin ularni yengillashtira olmadi. Ularni qutqarish uchun takroriy urinishlar ham muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi va ingliz qo'shinlari 1916 yil aprelda taslim bo'ldilar.

    23 may: Italiya ittifoqchilar tarafidagi urushga qo'shildi va Isontso daryosida Avstriya-Vengriyaga hujum qildi. Keyingi bir necha oy davomida ular u erda bir necha bor jang qilishdi, lekin hech qanday yutuqqa erisha olishmadi. Jang nihoyat qishki ob -havo tufayli 10 dekabrda tugadi.

    Yozda Italiya Adriatik sohiliga bir necha joyda bostirib kirdi.

    1914 yil 14 -dekabr: Germaniya kemalari Scarborough, Whitley va Hartleypool shaharlarini bombardimon qildilar. Bu bir necha tinch aholini o'ldirdi (1690 yildan beri birinchi marta!), Lekin bu mashhur inglizlarning nemislarga bo'lgan nafratini kuchaytirdi.

    Fevral: nemislar cheksiz suv osti urushini boshladi

    Mart: inglizlar Germaniyaning dengiz blokadasini boshlaydilar. Keyinchalik ular Shimoliy dengizni qazib olishadi.

    7 may: Germaniya qayig'i Lusitaniyani cho'ktirdi (1200 kishi, shu jumladan 120 amerikalik halok bo'ldi).

    Gollandiyalik ixtirochi Entoni Fokker (nemislar uchun) kashfiyot mexanizmini ixtiro qildi, bu esa nemislarning osmon hukmronligiga olib keldi ("Fokker balosi").

    1916 yil aprelda nemislar cheksiz suv osti urushi siyosatini boshladilar.


    Birinchi jahon urushida halokatli gazdan birinchi yirik miqyosda foydalanish

    1915 yil 22 aprelda Germaniya Imperator Armiyasi frantsuz mustamlakachilari qo'shinlarini nishonga olgan Belgiyadagi Ypres shahrida birinchi marta xlor gazini ko'p miqdorda ishlatdi. Ilgari tirnash xususiyati beruvchi (ko'z yosh gazlari) moddalarni ishlatishga har ikki tomondan ham amaliy ta'siri kam bo'lgan. Odamlarni ishdan chiqarishi va o'ldirishi mumkin bo'lgan gazga o'tish Birinchi Jahon Urushining kimyoviy urushi (1914-1918), "Ulug 'Urush" nomi bilan mashhur edi. (Agar dushman sizga qarshi o'ldiruvchi gaz ishlatsa, unchalik ajoyib emas!)

    Chuqurroq qazish

    Odamlar ming yillar davomida urush olib borgan va bir -birini o'ldirishning dahshatli usullarini orzu qilgan odamlarning zukkoligi cheksiz bo'lib tuyulgan bo'lsa -da, Birinchi jahon urushi hayotining dahshatli qiymati va tsivilizatsiyaning buzilishi uchun misli ko'rilmagan edi. va oxir -oqibat kimyoviy qurolni, xususan, zaharli gazlarni keng ishlatgani uchun. Gumanitar xodimlarning kimyoviy va biologik qurollardan foydalanishni taqiqlash yoki taqiqlashga urinishlariga qaramay, iliqlik qiluvchilar buyumlarni ishlab chiqarishda davom etishlari va uni "yaxshilashga" harakat qilib, uni yanada dahshatli va dahshatli qilishlari kerak. Birinchi jahon urushida ishlatilgan kimyoviy qurol qoldiqlari fermerlar tomonidan eski jang maydonlari haydalganda, ba'zida dahshatli oqibatlarga olib keladi. Boshqa hollarda, potentsial kimyoviy yoki biologik qurollar bilan tajriba o'tkazish ham kutilmagan oqibatlarga olib keldi, shu jumladan AQSh 1968 yilda tasodifan 6000 qo'yli dehqon podasini o'ldirdi yoki sovetlar tasodifan kuydirgi kasalligini biologik qurollardan chiqarib yubordi. 1979 yilda 64 kishini o'ldirdi (hech bo'lmaganda) va ko'proq jarohat oldi. Hatto jang maydonida ham, Birinchi jahon urushi paytida, zaharli gazdan foydalanish, shamol qarama-qarshi tomonga esishga qaror qilsa va do'stona qo'shinlar dahshatli kimyoviy moddalarga bo'ysunsa, o'zini ikki qirrali qilich sifatida ko'rsatdi!

    Nemislar xlor ishlatishdan oldin, har ikki tomon ham ko'z yoshlari to'kiladigan gazdan foydalanganlar, natija umidsizlikka uchradi. Nemislar xlorning katta zaxirasini yig'ib olgach, ular jang maydoniga hal qiluvchi ta'sir ko'rsatadigan etarli miqdordagi narsalarga ega bo'lishga qaror qilishdi. With a massive trove of 168 tons of chlorine contained in 5,730 metal cylinders, German troops at the front siphoned the deadly liquid out of the cylinders toward the French colonial troops from Martinique and Algeria, with a cooperative wind that blew a horrible grey-green cloud of gaseous chlorine toward the French. Immediately finding the gas to be burning and choking their eyes and lungs, the French troops left hastily for the rear in an absolute panic, a reaction that was unequivocally the right thing to do under the circumstances. This sudden rout left an 8000 meter gap in the French lines, a gap that should have/could have been exploited to great effect by the Germans. The German troops, unfamiliar with the use of poison gas in warfare, had not prepared with enough assault troops to exploit the break in French lines, and in any case, the German troops were quite wary of the gas, knowing instinctively that rushing into the deadly cloud of chemical poison was not a good idea. Thus, what could have been a shocking German victory instead became a disconcerting portend of things to come, as the chemical war in Europe was about to take a steep increase in the widespread use of poison gas and in the lethality and variety of chemical combinations used.

    World War I era soldiers at first were faced with no real defenses against poison gas, and some hit on the idea of urinating on a handkerchief or other cloth and holding it over their nose and mouth as a makeshift gas mask, a method that had some success. Quartermasters then began issuing gauze and cotton pads and a solution of bicarbonate of soda to wet the pad for front line soldiers to use when gassed. When gas masks were widely issued to both sides, the development of chemicals that could attack and incapacitate or kill people without even having to be inhaled necessitated the development and issuance of complete chemical resistant suits that covered the soldier’s entire body, a cumbersome but necessary method.

    Both sides in World War I continued to use and develop new chemical weapons, including improving the form of delivery from merely opening valves on the front lines of containers of the stuff to launching artillery shells filled with the deadly gas and liquids to strike deeper into enemy ranks and keep the deadly effect farther away from friendly troops. Phosgene and then Mustard weapons were developed, greatly increasing the lethality and disabling ability of the chemical weapons. Estimated casualties attributable to chemical weapons on all sides during World War I include over 90,000 deaths and over 1.2 million non-lethal casualties. One such non-lethal casualty was German Corporal Adolf Hitler, who went on to lead Germany during World War II and is sometimes claimed to have refused the use of chemical weapons because of his personal experience.

    In the wake of the horrible use of chemical weapons during World War I, the civilized world joined in the Geneva Protocol of 1925 (officially called “The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare”) to ban chemical and biological weapons. Thankfully, widespread use of chemical weapons has been curtailed since then, although during World War II serious consideration to using such weapons was contemplated by both sides. Since World War I, there have been at least a dozen conflicts in which chemical weapons have been used, notably by the Japanese in China during World War II by their diabolical Unit 731, including against civilians.

    Facing the prospect of countless thousands of Allied casualties in the coming invasion of Japan, US planners had to rule out the use of chemical weapons as a method of saving many American and Allied lives. A similar discussion over whether or not to use the new Atomic bombs on Japan also took place, and unlike the decision to not use chemical weapons, American war planners went ahead with the Atomic bombs after all. Were lives saved by the use of Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, or was that use a cruel and unnecessary show of force for propaganda reasons? The debate continues to this day, as does the debate over the propriety of using massive fire-bombing raids against German and Japanese cities, killing hundreds of thousands of civilians. At least we do not have to debate about the mass use of poison gas on the Japanese.

    Eslatma: The subject of biological warfare is even more insidious than that of chemical warfare, and in this year of 2020, the world is wondering if the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19, or SARS-CoV-2) was actually a man made engineered virus in a Chinese biological weapons lab. In fact, the US government intelligence agencies are seriously examining that possiblity.

    Talabalarga (va obunachilarga) savol: Is the use of chemical weapons ever justified? How about in retaliation for their use? Iltimos, ushbu maqola ostidagi sharhlar bo'limida bizga xabar bering.

    Agar siz ushbu maqolani yoqtirgan bo'lsangiz va yangi maqolalar haqida xabar olishni xohlasangiz, obuna bo'lishni xush ko'rasiz Tarix va sarlavhalar bizni yoqtirish orqali Facebook va bizning homiylarimizdan biriga aylaning!

    Your readership is much appreciated!

    Historical Evidence

    For more information, please see…

    The featured image in this article, a depiction of the German gas attack launched on French Territorial and soldiers of the Troupes coloniales, which was launched on 22 April, is in the public domain in Canada, because its copyright has expired due to one of the following:

    1. it was subject to Crown copyright and was first published more than 50 years ago, or

    it was emas subject to Crown copyright, and

    2. it is a photograph that was created prior to January 1, 1949, yoki 3. the creator died more than 50 years ago.

    Muallif haqida

    Major Dan is a retired veteran of the United States Marine Corps. He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology. Following his military service, he worked as a police officer eventually earning the rank of captain prior to his retirement.


    Weaponry: Use of Chlorine Gas Cylinders in World War I

    Poison gases share with nuclear weapons various unhappy distinctions. They not only occupy a significant place in the defensive and offensive planning of nations, but for many years they have also threatened mankind’s future on an apocalyptic scale. Once unleashed, they are uncontrollable–indiscriminately killing both soldier and civilian.

    Contrary to general belief, the combat use of asphyxiating, or at least irritating, gases did not begin with World War I. Leonardo da Vinci, for example, described the use of sulphur and arsenic dust as a fill for shells fired at naval targets. Going back quite a bit earlier in history, the Athenians and the Spartans used sulphur fumes in the 5th century bc when attacking fortified cities. The Germans, moreover, as early as 1762 used bombs that emitted asphyxiating fumes during the siege of the Austrian-held Silesian fortress of Schweidnitz.

    Closer to our own time, however, Germany, along with Britain, France and Russia, entered the Hague Convention of 1899, which specifically prohibited ‘the use of projectiles the sole object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases. Between the time Britain entered this convention in 1907 and the outbreak of war in August of 1914, the British government decided that although a dual-purpose projectile containing an explosive charge and a tear gas would not violate the literal terms of the convention, it nevertheless was contrary to the convention’s spirit and thus would not be used by the British army or navy.

    In contrast to the fair play attitude of the British, the Germans–and to a lesser extent the French–began to douse each other with tear gases almost as soon as the misery of trench warfare took hold on the Western Front late in 1914.

    When the war began, the French had held a small supply of tear-gas cartridges and possibly some tear-gas hand grenades. That stockpile was depleted by the fall of 1914, and in November of that year a resupply order was placed. The resupply order came about despite the apparent fact that the tear gas had gone completely unnoticed by the Germans!

    The Germans, in turn, first used an irritant on October 27, 1914, in the capture of Neuve Chappelle. That day, the Germans fired 3,000 rounds of 105mm howitzer projectiles filled with sneezing powder against some Indian troops and French cavalry. The shells contained shrapnel embedded in the sneezing powder. It was thought that the explosion would grind and disperse the irritant. In practice, the barrage was so ineffective that the French and British failed to realize that chemical munitions had been used until the fact was uncovered in a postwar investigation.

    Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the Germans collected a stock of 18,000 T-Stoff tear-gas shells for use against the czar’s army at Bolymov as both an experiment in gas ammunition and to support an attack designed to improve the German position in that particular sector.

    The result was another relatively harmless fiasco. The attack began on January 31, 1915, in extremely cold weather. Because of the cold, the T-Stoff fill for the shells failed to volatilize and disperse. Consequently, the anticipated results did not materialize, and the attack produced only a local improvement in the German tactical position.

    The Germans, like the French, continued using tear gas in spite of unsatisfactory results. There is evidence, for instance, that in March 1915 tear gas was used to bombard the French at Verdun and at Nieuport. Again, the effects were so trivial that the gas went unnoticed.

    At that point, one of the great chemists of the 20th century, Fritz Haber, a German reserve sergeant major of cavalry and artillery–and soon to be given an unheard-of direct promotion to captain–enters the narrative. Haber’s greatest scientific contribution, for which he won a Nobel Prize in chemistry, was the invention of a process for nitrogen fixation.

    With respect to chemical munitions, Haber, as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry, knew of the T-Stoff projectile work that was being carried out among members of his staff.

    He saw a test for those projectiles in December of 1914 and was convinced that the weapon was quite useless. With typical creative insight, he suggested to the supreme command that a barrage of gas rounds fired from trench mortars might be more effective. The army staff, however, told him that the production capacity needed for the proposed new ammunition was not available.

    It then occurred to Haber that gas, particularly chlorine, discharged from cylinders, would form a cloud. Haber recognized from the outset that the gas cylinder-gas cloud combination had serious weaknesses and was less than the best choice for a delivery system.

    As the chief of staff to the German Eighth Army on the Russian Front, Maj. Gen. Max Hoffman later would write: The digging in of the [gas] apparatus was very complicated, and at any moment there was the danger of the enemy noticing the work of digging in and by strong artillery fire destroying the apparatus, and the gas would stream out in our own trenches. Besides this, the weather conditions of our theatre of war were very unfavorable for such gas emission in the East we required a West wind–in the West an East wind, but as on our front the wind was mostly contrary, the employment of this invention was rendered still more difficult.

    In spite of such clearly unsatisfactory characteristics, the German army’s supreme command decided to proceed with the new weapon. The passage from tear gas to chlorine was not made without some soul-searching by the supreme command. Tear gas–and sneezing powder–could be viewed as non-asphyxiating and not deleterious (at least with respect to a long-term physical effect on its victims), and therefore not in violation of Germany’s obligation under the Hague Convention. Although chlorine unquestionably is an asphyxiant, the relevant provision in the convention was specifically limited to projectiles for diffusing the gas. Thus, Haber’s gas cloud proposal did not violate the express wording of the convention–it was not a projectile delivery system.

    In any event, chlorine and commercial compressed gas tanks were at hand in Germany, and the combination could be made available quickly and in large quantities without significantly interfering with other war-production activity.

    The important salient around Ypres in Flanders was chosen for Germany’s first essay with a weapon of mass destruction. There were other, potentially better sites, but the army commanders responsible for those locations all rejected the new weapon only Duke Albrecht of Württemburg, commanding the Fourth Army before Ypres, agreed to its use. The choice of Ypres, almost through default, would not be a happy one for the Germans. The terrain, although generally flat, is replete with shallow undulations and valleys of not more than 10 meters in depth. That topography disrupted the progress of the gas cloud and created local gas concentrations that impeded the progress of the riflemen advancing behind the cloud, many of them not equipped with gas masks.

    Perhaps Ypres’ worst feature for a gas-cloud attack was its unsatisfactory prevailing wind. Generally, the wind in Flanders blew from the Allied side of the line to the German side–the wrong way, obviously. A favorable wind speed, also an important consideration, was capriciously unpredictable across the salient’s front. Those considerations notwithstanding, work went forward.

    The Ypres salient formed a V in which the apex pointed almost directly east, into the German lines. The city of Ypres was located about in the middle of the open gap between the two arms of the V, the arm that formed the northern flank being held by French Algerian and Belgian troops, who then joined near the apex of the V with the Canadian and British troops manning the southern flank.

    The first gas batteries were dug in for use against the British occupying the southern flank as of March 10, 1915. The batteries, in general, were organized in banks of 10 commercial gas cylinders, each cylinder about 5 feet tall and weighing, when filled, approximately 190 pounds. Each bank of 10 cylinders, under the control of one German pioneer, was joined through a manifold to a single discharge pipe. Emplacing these batteries in the front line, without alerting the other side, was not a simple undertaking, but a strenuous task that involved a great deal of physical labor. Interestingly enough, the first gas casualties on the Western Front occurred among the Germans, who lost three soldiers to gas from cylinders ruptured by Allied shelling.

    After the batteries were in place, it was decided that wind conditions and the ragged configuration of the front line in that sector made it unsuitable for a gas discharge. New batteries of gas cylinders then were dug in along the northern flank of the salient, the batteries being concentrated at Bixschoote, near the junction between the northern flank of the salient and the front north of Ypres, and at Poelkapelle, near the apex of the salient. On April 11, the batteries were in place on the north flank, ready to deliver about 150 tons of chlorine gas on order. An attack was planned to follow behind the gas cloud, along a southern axis to sweep across the base of the salient, with the Bixschoote-Poelkapelle front as the line of departure for the German assault force.

    After several postponements, always awaiting suitable wind conditions, the attack finally was ordered at 5:30 p.m. on April 22, 1915. What followed staggers the imagination.

    As seen by the Canadians, who stood to the right of the Algerians, two greenish-yellow clouds formed on the ground and spread laterally to form a terrifying single cloud of bluish white mist. Blown by light wind, the cloud moved down on the Algerian trenches. The Canadians noticed a peculiar odor, smarting eyes, a tingling sensation in the nose and throat, and heard a dull, confused murmuring underlying everything.

    Soon, Algerian stragglers began to drift toward the rear, followed by horses and men pouring down the road and finally by mobs of Algerian infantry streaming across the fields, throwing away their rifles and even their tunics. One Algerian, frothing at the mouth, fell writhing at the feet of the British officer who tried to question him.

    Sir John French, commander of the British Expeditionary Force, later said: What happened is practically indescribable. The effect of the gas was so overwhelming that the whole of the positions occupied by the French divisions was rendered incapable of any resistance. It was impossible at first to realize what had actually happened. Fumes and smoke obscured everything. Hundreds of men were thrown into a stupor, and after an hour the whole position had to be abandoned with fifty guns.

    As seen by the Germans, the effects of the attack were horrible, the dead lying on their backs with clenched fists, the whole field bleached to a yellow color. The Germans advanced until dusk, when the assigned objectives for that day were reached. With the attack renewed on April 23, however, the Germans found Canadians filling the gap in the line left by the gassed Algerians during the preceding afternoon. Resistance was stiff, and, in classic Western Front style, the attack bogged down with no further significant gains. Poison gas was used five more times in this Second Battle of Ypres, but the Allied soldiers adapted well to the new weapon. When the gas cloud was low-lying, some would stand on a parapet to be able to breathe in the air above the lethal fog. Others soaked cloth in water and even in urine, and breathed through the cloth to prevent asphyxiation.

    By April 26, Gas Masks, Type I, rather useless patches of blue flannel mouth covering, were being distributed to the Canadian and British troops in the line. Thus, almost within hours of its first use, the new weapon was well on its way to being checkmated.

    For all their disadvantages, the ungainly German gas cylinders almost worked in that attack of April 22, 1915. Why were the Allies found in such a deplorably unprepared condition? The Allies had captured two German soldiers in Flanders, one on March 28 and the other on April 15. Both prisoners gave detailed information about the forthcoming gas attack, the prisoner taken on April 15 even having been captured with his respirator. There were quite a few other indications that a chemical attack was forthcoming, the most striking being the discovery on April 17, during a British attack from the salient’s southern flank, of German gas cylinders in position. Nothing was done the cylinders were not even reported. Perhaps the idea of gas warfare still seemed so alien to Western tradition that the Allies simply could not believe it would happen.

    As a result, by 7:30 in the evening, little stood between the Germans and victory. They had achieved their breakthrough on the Western Front, but, for reasons that still elude posterity, they failed to follow it up. The opportunity–and any future hope of using gas as a surprise weapon–passed them by.

    The first round of lethal gas used at Ypres by the Germans led to further gas attacks by both the Germans and the British all the way through the Battle of the Argonne at the end of the war in 1918, when John J. Pershing’s American doughboys had to contend with German mustard gas.

    This article was written by John P. Sinnott and originally published in the April 1994 issue of Harbiy tarix jurnal. Boshqa ajoyib maqolalar uchun obuna bo'lishni unutmang Harbiy tarix bugun jurnal!


    Pesticides, Tear Gas and History | From WW1 to Today’s Streets

    When I entered the Office of Pesticide Programs of the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1979, I knew practically nothing about pesticides. Though I had taken classes in chemistry in college and had even written my first book about industrialized agriculture, nothing prepared me for the secrets I uncovered during twenty-five years of work in a bureaucracy designed and brought up to keep secrets.

    My colleagues opened my eyes to the secret world of chemical sprays deceptively known as pesticides. They kept answering my questions and, more than that, they started giving me their memos, briefings, and scientific papers. They did not see much controversy in the “regulation” of pesticides. Most thought pesticides were necessary for farming.

    Anna Feigenbaum: Tear Gas

    In fact, EPA economists always defended pesticides, suggesting that without them food prices would go through the roof. Other EPA scientists like biologists, ecologists, chemists and toxicologists monitored those chemicals for ecological and health effects. They had read the pesticide law — The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act — and, some of them, were authors of regulations for their use on farms, lawns, homes, factories, and the natural world.

    Who was going to object to the killing of “pests” like insects, rodents, fungi, and weeds?

    It did not take me long to object to the use of pesticides, however. My knowledge about these chemicals increased rapidly. The writings of my colleagues and the discussions I had with them convinced me pesticides were more than pesticides. They are petrochemical biocides. They kill everything.

    But there was something particularly insidious about certain farm sprays that were born about a century ago in the heat of WWI. The organophosphates parathion and malathion, for instance, are nerve gases related to chemical weapons. They are chemical weapons in diluted form.

    I remember how EPA ecologists reacted to the news that parathion was killing honeybees in droves. They were very upset and urged senior officials to prohibit any more approvals of the deleterious nerve gas. The senior officials did no such thing. Honeybees continued to die from parathion poisoning for decades. EPA banned ethyl parathion in 2003. In 2015, the White House Energy-Climate Czarina and former EPA administrator, Carol Browner, announced the banning of methyl parathion on “all fruits and many vegetables.” Now, in 2018, honeybees die primarily from another version of neurotoxins, known as neonicotinoids, and manufactured in Germany.

    Yet I don’t remember hearing EPA scientists connecting parathion and other neurotoxic pesticides to warfare agents. I found that strange because one heard of the horrible consequences they had in common: pinpoint pupils, sweating, convulsions, vomiting, asphyxiation, and death.

    The military connection of many pesticides made their origins obscure and very difficult to decode. It was as if there existed a universal pact among experts in industry, academia and government not to question these extremely toxic compounds.

    If Americans knew their food is contaminated by neurotoxic agents, what would they say and do? And how would the environmental movement act on the evidence of nerve poisons in conventional food?

    According to Anna Feigenbaum, Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Media and Communication at Bournemouth University, modern tear gas also operates in the same mist of ignorance and fear that surrounds neurotoxic pesticides. Tear gas is not a gas at all. By tear gas we mean groups of chemicals, which are lachrymatory agents. This in Latin means they cause tears. Popular tear gases include CS (2-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile), CN (chroroacetophenone) and CR (dibenzoxazepine) – irritants released as smoke, vapor or liquid sprays. Another tear gas is pepper spray or OC (oleoresin capsicum). This is an inflammatory substance triggering tears.

    Feigenbaum chronicles the history of tear gas intelligently and with passion in her “Tear Gas: From the Battlefields of World War I to the Streets of Today” (Verso, 2017).

    According to Feigenbaum, tear gas started its warfare career in August 1914 when French troops fired grenades filled with methylbenzyl bromide into German trenches. The effect was to break the stalemate of trench warfare. Tear gas forced the German soldiers to run out of their protective trenches, only to be mowed down by French machine guns. This was the Battle of the Frontiers. In April 1915, at Ypres, the Germans retaliated with chlorine gas. The war of asphyxiating gases was in full swing.

    Daan Boens, Belgian soldier-poet lived through this nerve gas war. In 1918, he published a poem, “Gas,” in which he caught the barbarism of chemical warfare. Feigenbaum cites the poem:

    “The stench is unbearable, while death mocks back.
    The masks around the cheeks cut the look of bestial snouts,
    The masks with wild eyes, crazy or absurd,
    Their bodies drift on until they stumble upon steel.
    The men know nothing, they breathe in fear.
    Their hands clench on weapons like a buoy for the drowning,
    They do not see the enemy, who, also masked, loom forth,
    And storm them, hidden in the rings of gas.
    Thus in the dirty mist, the biggest murder happens.”

    Like the pesticide merchants and lobbyists, tear gas advocates have buried this murder. They, according to Feigenbaum, reject the effects of their product: tearing, gagging, miscarriages, burning of the eyes, blindness, and death. They paint the military origins and use of tear gases into oblivion. The result of this successful propaganda is that tear gas faces none of the prohibitions against chemical warfare agents. A straightforward war gas – tear gas – has become a peacemaker. Innocent of harm.

    Feigenbaum laments in particular the difficulties she faced in tracking sales and use of tear gas:

    “There are just too many secrets and too many lies. The international trade in tear gas is buried under bureaucracy and often classified beyond the reach of Freedom of Information requests. There are files upon files that have been shredded and burned, deleted, altered and falsified.”

    That’s to be expected of a chemical warfare agent dressed in civilian clothes.

    Yet Feigenbaum succeeded eventually in her task. Her book is a lucid history that puts tear gas on trial. She exposed the profiteers, scientists, military buyers, arms dealers, police suppliers and editors trying to put a humane face on a dangerous weapon.

    Neurotoxic pesticides are connected to tear gas by neurotoxicity. They are also products of chemical warfare. They kill by nerve poisoning and asphyxiation. They should be banned.

    As Feigenbaum sees it, in its civilian life, tear gas does more than killing. It is designed “to torment people, to break their spirits, to cause physical and psychological damage.”

    Read Feigenbaum’s book. It’s timely, well-written, and very important.

    Evaggelos Vallianatos worked on Capitol Hill for 2 years and at the US Environmental Protection Agency for 25 years. He is the author of hundreds of articles and 6 books, including “Poison Spring,” with McKay Jenkins. This article first appeared on Independent Science News. Its is reprinted here under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License See link below to original article. (The title has been changed to reflect the pesticide content of the article)


    Kimyoviy urush: Birinchi jahon urushidagi zaharli gazlar

    Click to enlarge

    Men maktabimdagi ba'zi o'quvchilarga bir necha hafta ichida Ypres va 1 -jahon urushining boshqa jang maydonlariga tarixiy sayohatda hamrohlik qilaman. Obviously, they’d much rather be learning chemistry, so I’ve been reading up on the different chemical agents used during World War 1, and this graphic is a byproduct of that. As it turns out, several of them were used for the first time at Ypres, so it’ll even be topical!

    A range of different chemicals were used as weapons throughout the conflict. The French were actually the first to utilise them in conflict, when they attempted to use tear gas against the German army in August 1914. The precise agent used seems to be uncertain, with both xylyl bromide and ethyl bromoacetate being mentioned both are colourless liquids, with the former having an odour described as ‘pleasant and aromatic’, and the latter being described as ‘fruity and pungent’.

    These tear gases weren’t designed to kill rather, to incapacitate the enemy and render them unable to defend their positions. They are all lachrymatory agents – that is, they cause crying, due to irritation of the eyes. They also irritate the mouth, throat and lungs, leading to breathing difficulties. Exposure to larger concentrations can lead to temporary blindness, but symptoms commonly resolved within 30 minutes of leaving affected areas.

    In practice, the use of tear gas on the battlefield wasn’t extraordinarily effective. However, it opened the door to the use of more harmful gases. The first of these was chlorine, first used on a large scale by the German forces at Ypres in April 1915. Chlorine is a diatomic gas, about two and a half times denser than air, with a pale green colour and a strong, bleach-like odour which soldier described as a ‘mix of pineapple and pepper’. It reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid, which can quickly lead to death. At lower concentrations, it can cause coughing, vomiting, and irritation to the eyes.

    In its first uses, chlorine was deadly. Against soldiers not yet equipped with gas masks, it wreaked havoc, and it’s estimated over 1,100* were killed in the first large scale attack at Ypres. The German forces weren’t prepared for just how effective it would prove, and their delay in pressing into the gap formed in enemy lines actually meant they gained very little ground initially.

    However, chlorine’s effectiveness was short-lived. Its obvious appearance, and strong odour, made it easy to spot, and the fact that chlorine is water-soluble meant that even soldiers without gas masks could minimise its effectiveness by placing water-soaked rags over their mouth and nose. Additionally, the initial method of its release posed problems, as the British learnt to their detriment when they attempted to use chlorine at Loos in France. The released gas changed direction as the wind changed, engulfing the British lines instead of those of the enemy, and leading to a large number of self-inflicted casualties.

    Phosgene was the next major agent employed, again used first at Ypres by the Germans in December 1915 (although some sources state the French were the first to employ it). Phosgene is a colourless gas, with an odour likened to that of ‘musty hay’. For this odour to be detectable, the concentration of phosgene actually had to be at 0.4 parts per million, several times the concentration at which harmful health effects could be expected. It is highly toxic, due to its ability to react with proteins in the alveoli of the lungs and disrupt the blood-air barrier, leading to suffocation.

    Phosgene was much more effective and deadly than chlorine, though one drawback was that the symptoms could sometimes take up to 48 hours to manifest. Its immediate effects are coughing, and irritation to the eyes and respiratory tract. Subsequently, it can cause the build-up of fluid in the lungs, leading to death. It’s estimated that as many as 85% of the 91,000 deaths attributed to gas in World War 1 were a result of phosgene or the similar agent diphosgene. It’s hard to put a precise number on, since it was commonly used in combination with chlorine gas, along with the related chemical diphosgene. Combinations of gases became more common as the war went on. For example, chloropicrin was often used for its irritant effects, and its ability to bypass gas masks, causing sneezing fits which made soldiers remove their masks, exposing them to poison gases.

    Along with chlorine, the most commonly known poison gas used in the conflict is mustard gas. Sulfur mustards are actually a class containing several different compounds in their pure forms, they are colourless liquids, but in warfare impure forms are used, with a yellow-brown colour and odour akin to garlic or horseradish. Mustard gas is an irritant, and also a strong vesicant (blister-forming agent). It causes chemical burns on contact with the skin, leading to large blisters with yellow fluid. Initially, exposure is symptomless, and by the time skin irritation begins, it is to late to take preventative measures.

    The effectiveness of mustard gas was due to its debilitating effects. Its mortality rate was only around 2-3% of casualties, but those who suffered chemical burns and respiratory problems due to exposure were unable to return to the front, and required extensive care for their recovery. Those who did recover were at higher risk of developing cancers during later life due to the chemical’s carcinogenic properties.

    Overall, though the psychological factor of poison gas was formidable, it accounted for less than 1% of the total deaths in World War 1. Though their use was feared in World War 2, and they were employed in some cases, they were never employed on as large and as frequent a scale as seen in World War 1. Use of poison gas as a weapon was later prohibited by the Geneva Protocol in 1925, which most countries involved in the First World War signed up to. However, the chemicals used still have their uses – for example, phosgene is an important industrial reagent, used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other important organic compounds.

    *Note: the article and graphic originally stated that the first use of chlorine gas at Ypres resulted in approximately 5000 deaths. However, recent recalculations suggest by the Flanders Fields Museum suggest that 1,100 is a more realistic estimate, albeit perhaps a slight underestimate.


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