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Ingliz fuqarolar urushi, Ikkinchi (1648)

Ingliz fuqarolar urushi, Ikkinchi (1648)

Ingliz fuqarolar urushi , Richard Xolms va Piter Yang, mamlakatning eng taniqli harbiy tarixchilaridan biri, bu urushning sabablaridan tortib, urushning so'nggi kampaniyalarigacha va protektorat oxirigacha bo'lgan ajoyib bir jildli tarix.


Birmingem atrofidagi fuqarolar urushi 1642-1648

1642 yil avgust Charlz I Koventrini muvaffaqiyatsiz qurshab oldi va Nottingemga ko'chib o'tdi. U Kenilvort qal'asida garnizon qoldirdi. Koventri va Uorikdan kelgan parlament qo'shinlari Kenilvort qal'asiga ko'chib o'tishdi va Charlz I o'z qo'shinlarini Tamvortga ko'chirishga majbur bo'ldi.

1642 yil avgust Curdworth Bridge Lichfield Road/ Marsh Leyn Curdworth B46 jangi
Ser Richard Villis (kavaler/royalist) Kenilvort qal'asidan Tamvort qal'asiga 2 ta ot, ajdaho, 500 piyoda askar va yuklarni kuzatib yubordi. Qirolichalar Kenilvortdan Berksvell, Meriden, Packington va Koleshill, Warwickshire 1200 parlament qo'shinlari va Birmingem odamlari orqali sayohat qilib, Fillongli, Maksstok va Koleshill orqali royalistlarni tark etishga harakat qilishdi.
Ser Richard Willys (kavaler/royalist) o'z odamlarini Kurdvort ko'prigining shimolida jangovar tarkibda tuzdi. U ko'prik janubidagi botqoq erga tushib qolgan deputatlarga hujum qildi. Parlament a'zolari orqaga chekinishdi va ser Richard Villis Tamvort qal'asiga ko'chib o'tdi. Kurdvort cherkovining imkoniyatlari tufayli 20 kishi o'ldirildi va janubiy devor bilan dafn qilindi.

1642 yil 17 oktyabr Qirol Charlz 1. (kavaler/royalist) Birmingem tomon yurdi,

1642 yil 17 oktyabr Shahzoda Rupert (kavaler/royalist) qirolning jiyani (kavaler/royalist) Charlz I. bilan uchrashish uchun Shturbridjdan Solixullga yurish qildi. Parxem lord Villobi boshchiligidagi parlament guruhi (88 otliq va piyoda askar) Vorsterga ketayotgan yo'lda hayron qoldi. erkaklar (300 piyoda va to'qqizta ot askari) King Norton Greenda dam olishdi (hali ham mavjud), janjal yuz berdi. 50 otliq o'ldirildi, 20 kishi asir olindi va 20 ta (parlament/dumaloq bosh) kuchlari o'ldirildi. Tomas Xoll Grammatika maktabi (hali ham mavjud) ustasi keyinchalik kuratorlik qilgan, besh marta qamalgan, talon -taroj qilingan, o'lim bilan tahdid qilingan. Uning & quot; Shrift himoyalangan & quot; kitobi (1652) Birmingemda chop etilgan, Birmingem aholisiga bag'ishlangan birinchi kitob edi. Kimga kutubxonasini va'da qilgan.
1662 yildagi bir xillik akti Xollni ruhoniy qilib chiqarib yubordi.
13/4/1665 Xoll vafot etdi va Kings Norton cherkovi dafn qilindi.
1892 yil kitoblar cherkovdan olib tashlandi.
1911 yil kitoblar katalogi
1936 yilgi kitoblar markaziy kutubxonada namoyish etildi
1983 yil unga eski gimnaziyada taxtali.


1642 yil 18 oktyabr Parlament yozuvlari Kings Nortondagi jang haqida xabar beradi
Birmingem janubidagi Vursestershir 1642 yil 18 oktyabrda qirol Charlz I Aston Xollda Uorikshirda qoldi (hozir ham bor), ser Tomas Xolte bilan

1642 yil 18 oktyabr Qirol Charlz I armiyasi (kavaler/royalist) Birmingemni (parlament/dumaloq) bosib o'tayotganda talon -taroj qildi. Bir oz talon -taroj qilingan va Charlz buning uchun ikkita kapitanni osib qo'ygan. Birmingem qurol -yarog'ning muhim manbai bo'lib, parlament a'zosiga 15000 qilich berdi, qirollik esa qilich bermadi. Qasos uchun Charlz I bagaj poezdi manorga tushdi.

1642 yil 18 oktyabr Kings Nortondagi janjalning ertasi kuni Xokkesli fermasida to'qnashuv sodir bo'ldi


1642 yil 19 oktyabr parlament a'zolari tomonidan Uorik qal'asiga olib borilgan (hozir ham mavjud) qirollik bagaj poezdi. Asirga olingan qo'shinlar Sent -Jons cherkovi Koventriga olib ketildi (hali ham mavjud)

1642 yil 19 oktyabr Taxminlarga ko'ra, qirol Charlz I Aston Xollda tunab qolganidan so'ng, qirol o'zining standart standartini yaqin atrofda ochgan (va keyin u nutq so'zlagan), shundan keyin "Shohlar tik" deb nomlangan.


1643 yil 3 aprel (Fisih dushanbasi) "Plunderlend shahzodasi qaroqchi gersogi" deb nomlanuvchi shahzodaning jiyani shahzoda Rupert 2000 kishi bilan kelib, turar joy so'radi, lekin u rad javobini berdi. U hech qanday jazo olmasligini va'da qildi
O'tgan yillar bagaj poezdini o'g'irlash, lekin bunga ishonishmadi. Rupertning nemis yollanma ajdarlariga ishonishmadi. Shahzoda Rupert o'z bosh qarorgohini Ship Innda qurdi. Erkaklar Kemp tepaligida (hozirgi Kamp Xill) lager qilishdi.
1974 yil Ship Inn parlament a'zolari Lichfilddan faqat 200 ta mushketka va 140 ta mushketyorni yo'q qilishdi, artilleriya va istehkomlar yo'q edi. Ular Rea daryosi yaqinidagi Deritend baland ko'chasini to'sishga harakat qilishdi. Ikki qirollik ajdaho ayblovi qaytarildi. Denbig Earl boshchiligidagi qirolchilar janubdagi to'siqlarni chetlab o'tib, Rea bo'ylab yurishdi va Old Crown Inn (hali ham mavjud) va Oltin Arslon (hali ham mavjud, lekin ko'chib ketishgan) yonidagi Mill St va High Street Deritenddan pastroqqa chiqishdi. Hill Park fuqarolar urushi dubulg'asi bilan qoplangan skelet 1815 yilda bu erda topilgan bo'lishi kerak.

1643 yil 3 -aprel. Kapitan Richard Graves (grevis/greves) boshchiligidagi bir guruh parlamentar otliqlar, Shohlar Norton/Mozli Xose Moseli Xoll (hali ham mavjud), (parlament/dumaloq) qirollar tomonidan Keypt Xil Smetvik Staffordshirga qarab quvilgan. (u 1646 yilda Xolmbi Xausdagi, Charlz I ning darvozaboni, Northamptonshirda, polkovnik bo'lganida, lekin u qirollik gumon qilingan.
hamdard va Charlzga qo'shilish uchun Frantsiyaga qochdi). Robert porter
(parlament/dumaloq) Birmingem shahar tegirmonining egasi Graves bilan yurdi. Kechqurun Deritendda ayblovni ilgari surgan, 60 yoshli Denbig grafini, Keyp -Xill yaqinidagi Shirland Leyn (Shirland yo'li) bo'ylab quvayotgan parlament xodimi, gumon qilinishicha, kapitan Richard Graves yarador qildi. Denbig 1643 yil 8 -aprelda vafot etdi, u shahzoda Rupertning sevimlisi edi, unga ko'ra, Birmingemni qasos sifatida yoqib yuborish buyurilgan (Xutton 1782 ga ko'ra, yong'in Bull ko'chasining 12 -uyida boshlangan). 4 aprel Denbi o'lishidan to'rt kun oldin bu dargumon. Bu harakat parlament a'zolari tomonidan targ'ibot sifatida ishlatilgan. 1/3 uylar yoqib yuborilgan (80), ba'zi manbalarda aytilishicha, lekin ertasi kuni Birmingemda taxminan 5300 aholi istiqomat qiladi.

1643 yil 4 aprel Robert Porterning Rea daryosidagi Lower Mill ko'chasidagi shahar tegirmoni, parlament uchun 15000 qilich yasagan, qirollar tomonidan Denbigning ilgari yaralangani uchun olib tashlangan.


1643 yil 10 -iyul Henrietta Mariya Charlz I rafiqasi Uolsoldan Kings Nortonga yurdi (kavaler/royalist) U Saratsen boshida qoldi (hali ham mavjud), Kings Norton yashil maydonida. Uning otliqlari, 3000 otliqlari va 30 ta piyoda askarlari bor edi. Ular Rea daryosi bo'yida qarorgoh qurdilar, bu hudud hali ham lager va Kamp Leyn deb atalgan

1643 yil 11 -iyul Henrietta Mariya Avonda Stratfordda shahzoda Rupert bilan uchrashdi

1643 yil 28 -avgust Ser Tomas Xoltning o'g'li Eduard Oksfordda qirolda ishlayotganda vabodan vafot etdi.

1643 yil 18 -dekabr Tomas Xolte Dadli qal'asi polkovnigi Levesondan 40 mushketyorni qarz oldi.


1643 yil 26 -dekabr Birmingemning 1200 nafar parlament tarafdorlari ser Tomas Xolte podshohlik qilayotgan Aston Hallga hujum qilishdi. Royalist mushketyorlar parlament artilleriyasi bilan raqobatlasha olmadilar. Aston zali 1660 yilda Charlz II restavratsiyasidan keyin tiklandi

1643 yil 28 -dekabr artilleriya yordamida 3 kunlik qamaldan keyin Xolte taslim bo'lishga majbur bo'ldi.
U qamalgan va uy talon -taroj qilingan. 12 otliq o'ldirildi va 60 dumaloq boshli. Aston cherkov hovlisiga cherkov yozuvlariga ko'ra besh askar dafn etilgan. Aston Xoll Aston Uorvikshir (hali ham mavjud), to'p urushidan fuqarolar urushiga etkazilgan zarar hali ham aniq

1644 yil aprel Shahzoda Rupert va shahzoda Moris (Rupertning akasi), qirolning jiyanlari, ehtimol Foks Xokkeslida bo'lganlarida, Birmingemdan iloji boricha ko'p qo'y va qoramolni o'g'irlagan.

1644 yil aprel Edgbaston zalidan polkovnik Foks boshchiligidagi parlament/dumaloq qo'shinlar Xokkesli fermasini qamal qilib, xo'jayin/kavaler janob Middlemorni haydab chiqarishdi. Edgbaston garnizoni
1644 podshohlar 19 ot va 150 yirtqich hayvonni olib ketishdi
1644 yil Dadli qal'asi va Lichfilddan qirollik qo'shinlari tomonidan talon -taroj qilingan
1644 - janob Middlemor Fox odamlari tomonidan quvib chiqarilgan qirollikchi. "Polkovnik" "tulki" deb nomlangan, chunki uning otasi Uolsoll va "xushchaqchaq" edi, chunki u kamdan -kam tabassum qilar edi, chunki Foks qo'shni Edgbaston cherkov cherkovini tahqirlab, dahlizga istehkomlar qurdi. Cherkov tomidan qo'rg'oshin o'qlar tayyorlash uchun eritilgan. Zalni to'sish uchun tomdan yasalgan yog'och va tosh ishlatilgan.
1644 tulki, shuningdek, Stirchli (Strutli) shahridagi Hazelwell zalini mustahkamlagan, bu erda c18 burilishidan oldin, bu Birmingemdan janubga va g'arbga asosiy yo'l edi. Polkovnik Tomas & quottinker & quot; Fox o'zboshimchalik bilan polkovnik (parlament/davra boshi). Edgbaston Xoll Foksdan parlament /dumaloq qo'shinlar to'planib, Bewdleyni qo'lga olishdi, Stourton qal'asini egallashdi, lekin Voresterdan polkovnik Jerar boshchiligidagi katta qirollik kuchlari tomonidan qaytarildi.

1643 yil oktyabrdan 1645 yil apreligacha? 2.544 18 yillar garnizonda o'tkazildi. Foks urushdan foyda ko'rganlikda ayblangan. Porter Edgbaston malikanasining ijarachisi polkovnik tulkiga foyda keltirgani haqida xabar berdi va tulkidan olingan manor bilan taqdirlandi. Edgbaston golf klubida 1718 ta yangi uy qurilgan
1645 yil yanvarda, serjant boshchiligidagi Dadli qal'asidan 400 otliq tomonidan qirollik qirg'ini. Major Xenningem knyaz Rupert (kavaler/qirollik) Xokkesli fermasida parlamentariylarni qamal qilish uchun keldi. Ertasi kuni qirol Charlz I ko'proq askarlar bilan keldi, parlament a'zolari taslim bo'lishdi va uy talon -taroj qilindi.
Hawkesley Farm Longbridge 1654 yilda qayta qurilgan, qo'shni dalalarda o'q -dorilar topilgan. Xandaqning bo'laklari bor, 1957/58 yildagi qazishmalar Birmingem -Vorsestershir yaqinidagi Hawkesley Farm Longbridge binosiga o'xshash katta omborni aniqladi, uni G'arbiy Xitdagi Xokkesli Xoll bilan adashtirmaslik kerak.


1645 yil 17 may Littletonning Franklidagi uyini qirolning jiyani shahzoda Rupert tomonidan vayron qilinishi, uni parlament qo'liga o'tishini to'xtatish. Uy hozirgi Vestminster fermasi qarshisida. Platformani hali ham ko'rish mumkin, xandaq xaritada belgilanadi.
Rupert, Birmingem yaqinidagi Worcestershire, Edgbaston shahridagi Cannon Hill orqali, Nasebiga ko'chib o'tdi.

J 1645 yil 14 -avgust Nasbi jangi

1648 Shotlandiya qirolichalari yana qirollik qirg'inlarini qiladilar, lekin Uorikda mag'lub bo'lishadi

Ommaviy axborot vositalari
Fuqarolar urushidagi Birmingem / Edgbaston / G'arbiy Midlend xaritalari
Kitoblar Doktor Gutteri O'rta cherkovlardagi buyuk fuqarolar urushi
Kitob Midlandlarda fuqarolik jangi R E. Shervud qavat 6 Birmingem ma'lumotnomasi
942.06 kutubxona 1 -risola, Marston Moor jangida o'ldirilgan shahzoda Rupert va uning iti va quytoyi tasvirlangan, Birmingem fonda yonadi, lekin geografik jihatdan noto'g'ri, chunki Daventri Birmingemdan g'arbda emas. 2 -risola - Birmingem janjalidan 10 kun o'tgach, 80 ta vayron qilingan uydan olingan parlament targ'ibot varaqasi.


Joylar
Curdworth ko'prigi
Kings Norton Green (janjal joyi)
Ship Inn Kamp Xill (buzilgan)
Old ko'prik bo'lgan Deritend High Street
Old Crown Inn va Oltin Arslon
Mill Lane Deritend (shahar tegirmonining uchastkasi)
Digbeth tomon qarang
Sent -Martins, Bull Ring
Fuqarolar urushi va Birmingem jangi voqealari tasvirlangan fuqarolar urushi mozaikasi, 1643 yil aprel oyida "Birmingem jangi"
Shireland Leyn Keyp Xill Smetvikdagi janjal va Denbig halokatli joy
yaralash
Saracens bosh shohlari Norton (qirolicha Genrietta Mariya shu erda uxlagan)
Kamp Leyn Kings Norton (qirollik lagerining joyi) lager pab
Aston zalining tashqi ko'rinishi
Aston zalining asosiy zinapoyasi
Aston cherkov hovlisi
Edgbaston zali
Edgbaston cherkovi
Bewdley ko'prigi
Stourton qal'asi
Hawkesley House Longbridge (ikkita qamal joyi)
Cofton Hall (eski zalning joyi)
Frankley zalining sayti
Frankli cherkovi
Cannon Hill Edgbaston
Saltli Xoll
Rupert Sent Nechells
Shahzoda Rupert Pub Nechells
Kromvel Leyn Bartli Grin

Jeyms M Xlend E.ed., B.a. P.g.c.e.
41 Woolacombe Lodge Road
Selli Oak
Birmingem
B29 6PZ

Virtual Brum - bu Buyuk Britaniyaning norasmiy Birmingem veb -sayti, u Brummagem yoki Brum nomi bilan ham tanilgan.
Ko'rsatilgan fikrlar Birmingem shahar kengashi yoki uning biron bir agentligiga tegishli emas. Kengashning rasmiy veb -saytini www.birmingham.gov.uk saytida topish mumkin

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foydalanish tafsilotlari uchun bu saytni qo'llab -quvvatlashga qarang


VirtualBrum
Pochta qutisi 11148
Birmingem
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Fotosuratdan voz kechish:- Agar biron bir grafik yoki matn mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan bo'lsa va siz uni bu erda ko'rsatishni xohlamasangiz,
meni sudga bermang! Mualliflik huquqi borligini isbotlang, men uni darhol o'chirib tashlayman.


Kirish

Pride ’s Purge - bu 1648 yil 6 -dekabrda sodir bo'lgan voqea uchun ishlatiladigan ism, chunki askarlar Yangi Model Armiyaga dushman deb hisoblangan deputatlarning Jamoat uyiga kirishiga to'sqinlik qilgan.

Birinchi ingliz fuqarolar urushida mag'lubiyatga uchraganiga qaramay, Charlz I muhim siyosiy hokimiyatni saqlab qoldi. Bu unga Scots Covenanters va parlamentariylar bilan ittifoq tuzib, uni ingliz taxtiga qaytarishga imkon berdi. Natijada 1648 yilgi Ikkinchi Ingliz fuqarolar urushi bo'lib, u yana mag'lubiyatga uchradi.

Faqatgina uning olib tashlanishi mojaroni tugatishi mumkinligiga ishonch hosil qilib, 5 dekabr kuni Yangi model armiyasining yuqori qo'mondonlari Londonni nazoratga olishdi. Ertasi kuni polkovnik Tomas Prayd qo'mondonlik qilgan askarlar parlamentga o'z raqiblari deb hisoblagan parlamentni majburiy ravishda uzoq parlamentdan chiqarib tashladilar va 45 kishini hibsga oldilar.

Tozalash 1649 yil yanvarda Charlzni qatl qilish yo'lini ochdi va Protektorat tuzilishi yagona qayd etilgan harbiylar hisoblanadi. davlat to'ntarishi ’état ingliz tarixida. [1]


Nonington: Kentish qo'zg'oloni va#038 1648 yildagi Ikkinchi Ingliz fuqarolik urushi

Quyidagi maqolada, Nonington bilan aloqador bo'lganlar, 1648 yilgi qisqa muddatli Ikkinchi Ingliz fuqarolar urushining kashshofi Kent qo'zg'olonida o'ynagan qismlar haqida qisqacha ma'lumot berilgan.

Qo'zg'olon, qisman, 1647 yilgi Rojdestvo kunining Kenterberi qo'zg'olonlaridan kelib chiqdi, bu Puritan meri va Kanterberi rasmiylari Rojdestvo bayramini an'anaviy tarzda nishonlashni taqiqlashga urinishidan boshlandi.

1648 yil may oyida erga ega bo'lgan zodagonlar va Kentning boshqa taniqli fuqarolari, jumladan polkovnik Robert Hammond va Entoni Hammond, uning jiyani, Sent-Alban sudi, Nonington va Ser Tomas Peyton qo'shni Knolton sudi 1648 yil may oyida parlamentga murojaat qilishdi. va parlament bu talabni rad etganida, qirolni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun qo'zg'olon ko'tarildi.

1648 yil 23-mayda Kanterberida o'tkazilgan Kentning etakchi fuqarolaridan tashkil topgan yig'ilish polkovnik Robert Xammondga piyodalar kuchini, polkovnik Robert Xattonga esa qirolni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun otliqlar qo'shinini topshirishni buyurdi. Ikki polkovnik o'z topshiriqlarini bajarishga vaqt yo'qotmadi.

Ertasi kuni polkovnik Xammond 300 ta yaxshi jihozlangan va piyoda askar bilan, polkovnik Xatton esa 60 ta otliq askarlari bilan Barham -Daunsda boshqa qirollik kuchlari bilan uchrashdi.

Dastlabki muvaffaqiyatlardan so'ng, Sharqiy Kent hududida, polkovnik Xammondning kuchini qo'llab -quvvatlovchilarga qarshi kampaniya 1000 kishiga etdi va u butun Kent bo'ylab va undan tashqarida ham shohlik ishi uchun kampaniya olib bordi.

Bir necha kundan so'ng, Sharqiy Kent qirg'og'ini himoya qilish uchun qirol Genrix VIII tomonidan qurilgan va Daunlarda frantsuz bosqiniga qarshi langar tashlagan Sandown, Deal va Walmer kichik qirg'oq mudofaa qal'alari garnizonlari Sharqiy Kent isyonchilariga taslim bo'lishdi. Deal va Valmer sohilidagi Daunlarda yotgan ingliz flotining kemalari ham isyonchilarga qo'shilishdi. Entoni Hammond, polkovnik Robert Hammondning jiyani, shuningdek, Nonington shahridagi Sent -Alban sudining kapitani va kapitan Bargreyv flot bilan muzokara olib borish uchun kelishuvga borishdi va ularning muzokaralarida kapitan Jon Mennes va kapitan Fogg yordam berishdi. Kapitan Mennes, 1650 -yillarda nashr etilgan turli asarlari bilan mashhur zukko va shoir, dengizchi ofitseri, qirollik hamdardligi tufayli Dengiz flotida o'z mavqeini yo'qotdi va 1660 yilda qirol Charlz II qayta tiklanganidan keyin u ser Jon Mennesga aylandi. Dengiz floti vitse-admirali va nazoratchisi. Ser Jonning rafiqasi Jeyn 1662 yilda Fredvilda vafot etdi, keyin mayor Jon Boyzning qarorgohi va Nonington cherkoviga dafn qilindi, u erda uning xotirasida yodgorlik bor. Bu ma'lum bir istehzoga ega, chunki 1648 yilda mayor Jon Boys Kent uchun parlament qo'mitasining a'zosi bo'lgan, uning harakatlari hech bo'lmaganda isyon uchun javobgar bo'lgan.

Dover qal'asi parlament a'zolarining qo'lida qoldi va bu vaziyatni to'g'irlash uchun 1643 yilda Kent parlamenti qo'mitasining a'zosi bo'lgan, ammo keyinchalik qirollikchi bo'lgan Kanterberi yaqinidagi Hardres sudi ser Richard Xardres isyonchilarning etakchilaridan biri bo'lib, 2000 ga yaqin odam yig'di. odamlar va qal'ani qamal qilish uchun ketishdi. Sharqiy Kent qirolliklari tezda qal'aning Mote Bulwark -ni egallab olishdi, u erda ular qal'ani bombardimon qilish uchun ishlatilgan o'q -dorilar do'konlarini topdilar. Hammond aka -ukalardan biri, ehtimol Frensis, Dover qal'asiga 500 ta to'p to'pini o'qqa tutgan artilleriyaga qo'mondonlik qilgani aytilgan, ammo bu bombardimonga qaramay qamalga bardosh bergan.

Parlament yangi model armiya qo'shinlarini polkovnik Nataniyal Rich va polkovnik Birxemstid qo'mondonligi ostida Sandoun, Deal va Uolmer qal'alarini qaytarib olish va Doverni qamal qilish uchun yubordi. Polkovnik Birxemstedning qo'shinlari 6 -iyun kuni Dover qal'asini ozod qilishdi va u 1660 yil may oyida monarxiya tiklanmaguncha parlament qo'lida qoldi, Charlz II qit'adan Londonga tojni qaytarib olish uchun Doverga qo'ndi.

Polkovnik Rich kichikroq qal'alarni qamal qila boshladi. Uolmer 12 -iyulda taslim bo'ldi, lekin boshqasi uning harakatlariga bir muddat qarshilik ko'rsatdi, chunki qirollik kuchlari dengizdan qamallarni olib tashlashga harakat qilishdi.

Donningtonni qamal qilish tugagandan so'ng, Vingem yaqinidagi Goodnestone shahridagi Bonningtonlik Sir Jon Boys, uning yaqin qarindoshi, qo'shni Nonington shahridagi Fredvillik mayor Jon Boys bilan adashmaslik kerak, Gollandiyaga jo'nab ketdi. Ser Jon 1648 yil avgustda 1500 ga yaqin Gollandiya va Flamand yollanma askarlari bilan dengiz orqali Sharqiy Kentga qaytdi va Deal va Sandgeyt qal'alaridagi qamallarni bo'shatish uchun behuda urinishdagi parlament kuchlari bilan bir qancha janglarda qatnashdi. Keyingi to'qnashuvlarning birida ser Jon engil jarohat olgani qayd etilgan "Qorniga o'q tekkan, bo'yniga sanchilgan va boshidan mushkning uchi bilan yaralangan". Yaxshiyamki, qilich kamarining qisqichi mushuk to'pining ko'p kuchini o'zlashtirdi va Ser Jon Sandoun qal'asida boshpana topganidan keyin omon qoldi.

Deal Castle 25 -avgustda garnizon, Kromvelning Prestonda g'alaba qozongani haqidagi xabarni, qal'a devorlari ustidagi o'q bilan biriktirilgan xabarni olganidan keyin taslim bo'ldi. Dala Qal'asidan qirg'oqqa bir mil narida joylashgan Sandoun qal'asi 5 sentyabrgacha davom etdi, garnizon, shu jumladan Ser Jon Boyz taslim bo'ldi. Keyin polkovnik Rich 1648 yildan 1653 yilgacha "Deal Castle" sardori sifatida xizmat qilgan.

Ser Jon Boyz bir muddat qamoqda o'tirdi va keyin qo'yib yuborildi, lekin u 1660 yilda monarxiya tiklanmaguncha parlament bilan kelishmovchiliklarni davom ettirdi. 1659 yilda u erkin parlamentni so'raganligi uchun yana qamoq jazosini oldi va Dover qal'asida qamoqqa tashlandi.

Kentish qo'zg'olonchilarining mag'lubiyatidan so'ng, polkovnik Robert Hammond 1648 yil iyuldan Preston jangida (17-19 avgust, 1648) qirollik kuchlari mag'lubiyatigacha parlament kuchlari tomonidan qamal qilingan Kolchesterni himoya qilishda qatnashdi. qamal qilingan garnizonning yengillikka umidlari va shunga ko'ra ular 28 avgust kuni ertalab qurollarini tashladilar. Taslim bo'lish shartlari shuni ko'rsatdiki "Lordlar va janoblar (ofitserlar) hammasi rahm asirlari edi"va oddiy askarlarni qurolsizlantirish va ularga Parlamentga qarshi yana qurol olmaslikka qasamyod qilganidan keyin uylariga qaytish uchun ruxsatnomalar berish kerak edi. Kolchester aholisi shaharni g'alaba qozongan parlament kuchlari tomonidan talon -taroj qilinishidan himoya qilish uchun .14000 funt sterling to'lagan.

Sent -Alban sudi polkovnigi Robert Hammondni uning ismi bilan aralashtirib yubormaslik kerak, 1647 yil 13 -noyabrdan 1648 -yilning 29 -noyabrigacha Karisbruk qal'asida Charlz I gaoler rolini bajargan va qaysi xizmat uchun polkovnik Robert Hammond (1621 - 24 oktyabr 1654). Parlament unga pensiya tayinladi. U fuqarolar urushi boshida Kromvelning yangi model armiyasida ofitser bo'lib xizmat qilgan va 1654 yilda Jamoatlar uyida o'tirgan.

Kent qo'zg'oloni parlamentda muhokama qilindi, quyida 1648 yil 1 -iyunga mo'ljallangan parlament ishi to'g'risidagi yozuvdan ko'chirma keltirilgan.
Kent Protsedurasining uzoqroq hisobi.
Shu kuni shu maqsadda Kentdan uzoqroq vaqt keldi: ‘O'tgan yilning may oyida chorshanba kuni, janobi oliylari to'rtta ot va uchta piyoda polkovnik Ingoldsbi polkining bo'shashgan kompaniyalari bilan Elthamdan (ular yotadigan joydan) yurish qilishdi. dala oldidagi kecha) Kraford -Xitga, u erda aytilgan kuchlar uchrashuvga yig'ilishdi va shundan so'ng Dartmutdan yurish qilishdi, keyin shahardan ikki mil uzoqlikda, janobi oliylarida razvedka bor edi, Kentish partiyasi Gravesendga olib boradigan ko'prikni mustahkamladi va barakado qildi: Buyuk partiyaning xatti -harakatlari ostida 300 ga yaqin otlar yuborildi, ular orqalarida taxminan 1 fut oyoqqa minishdi: ular ko'prik tomon yaqinlashganda, dushman. Ularga qaramay, bizning erkaklar yiqilishdi va Ot suvda suzdi, shuning uchun dushman o'z xavfini anglab, qochib ketdi: ularga buyruq bergan va juda faol bo'lgan bola esca Ped otini o'qqa tutib, uni tashlab qo'ydi, shunda o'g'li orqasidan otib tashlandi. Bu erda 20 ga yaqin o'ldirilgan, sho'ng'inlar yaralangan va 30 mahbus mahbuslar makkajo'xori dalalarida va uylarida yashirinib qochib ketishgan. Dushman partiyasi u erdagi qishloqlar, dengizchilar va ba'zi London shogirdlaridan iborat edi: Bitta janob Fips vatandoshlar bilan muloqotda juda faol edi.

Shundan so'ng, asosiy erlar Gravesenddan ikki yoki uch mil narida partiya oldiga borishdi va keyin Maulin tomon yurish to'g'risida buyruq berishdi, unga ko'ra armiya bu ertalab Maphamdan, juda kichik qishloqdan, (General Lord lord kecha yig'ilgan va uning kuchlari dalalarda) va Maulin yaqinida Halt qiladi, u erda buyurtmalar beriladi. Janobi Oliylari, askarlardagi tartibsizliklarning oldini olish yoki mart, otlar yoki mollarni talon -taroj qilish, shuningdek, olingan narsalarni tiklash uchun e'lon yubordi. Biz yuradigan shaharlarda juda kam erkaklarni ko'rish mumkin, lekin faqat muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lishidan qo'rqib, ayollarning qayg'uli nolasi bor. Dushmanlar juda ko'p, ular kamida o'n mingga bo'lingan, ular orasida katta qismi kavalerlar. Ularning asosiy rahbarlari - ser Gamaliel Dadli, ser Jorj Lisle, ser Uill. Kompton, ser Robert Treysi, polkovnik Ley, ser Jon Many, Ser Tho. Peyton, Ser Tho. Palmer, Esquire Hales, general, ser Jeyms Xeyls, ser Uilyam Many, ser Jon Dorrel, ser Tomas Godfrey, ser Richard Xardress polkovnik Vashington, Polkovnik Hammond, Polkovnik L ’Estranj, polkovnik Kulpepper, polkovnik Xaker, janob Jeyms Dorrel, janob Jorj Nyuman, bir paytlar parlament polkovnigi va janob Velton, parlament xazinachisi.

Ser Rich. Xorress mayor Gibbon tomonidan Kanterberiga chekinishga majbur bo'ldi.

Major Gibbon, Dover qal'asi yordamida, ser Richard Xardressni Kanterberiga chekinishga majbur qildi, u o'sha joyni qamal qildi va shu kuni biz Maydstoun yoki Eylsford daryosi ustida bo'lamiz va dushmanni uchishga majbur qilamiz. biz suzamiz, chunki biz kuchli otlar, oyoqlar va ajdarlar partiyasini qoldirdik, Rochester dovonini yahshilab, daryoning narigi tomoniga yiqilib, Maydstoun va Eylsfordni yaxshi qilamiz. Katta Gibbons Dover tomon yotadi, shuning uchun ularda dengizdan boshqa hech narsa yo'q.

1797 yilda "Gentleman jurnali" da chop etilgan maqoladan quyidagi ko'chirma Kentish qo'zg'oloni va uning ishtirokchilari haqida to'liq ma'lumot beradi.
"Qo'rqamanki, u isyon paytida vaqtni yaxshi o'tkazdi. Lloyd o'zining "Sodiqchilar xotiralari [London fol.1668]" kitobida, 1648 yilda Kentda ko'tarilish haqida hisobot berganida, janob Xeyls, ser Uilyam Brokman, janob Metyu Karter, ser Entoni Ouker bilan birga Jon Jon Robertsning ismini aytadi. , Ser Richard Hardres, polkovnik Xatton, janob Arnold Braim, ser Jon Minnes va polkovnik Xamond, Kentning boshqa janoblari bilan Norvichlik Earl Jorj Goringni general lavozimiga qabul qilishdi. Men fursatdan foydalanib, bu ishning bir nechta tafsilotlarini juda kam va qiziq bo'lmagan kichik bir traktdan aytib o'taman: "Bu baxtsiz voqeaning eng to'g'ri va aniq munosabati, baxtsiz Kent, Esseks va Kolchester ekspeditsiyasi, M [atthew" ], bu ishda sodiq aktyor, Anno Dom. 1648. 1650 yilda chop etilgan. 1647 yil Rojdestvo kunida Kenterberi o'zini tuta boshladi, va tartibsizliklar davom etar ekan, parlament polkovnik Xusonning polkini u erga joylashtirdi. Uilyam Man, janob Lavlas, janob Savin, janob Dadli Uayld va boshqalar qo'lga olinib, mahbuslarni Lids qal'asiga olib ketishdi. Uitsuntiddan taxminan ikki hafta oldin, parlament isyonchilarni hayot va o'lim ustidan sinash uchun maxsus komissiya tomonidan serjant Vayld va serjant Stilni yubordi, lekin katta hakamlar hay'ati hisob -kitoblarni topa olmadi. 1648 yil 11 mayda parlamentga ariza yozib, ularning shikoyatlaridan shikoyat qilib, qirolni parlamentning ikkala palatasini shaxsan davolanishga ruxsat berishni talab qildi. Ser Genri Xeyman va ser Maykl Livsey bu petitsiyaga ikkita katta raqib bo'lganligi aytiladi. Parlament leytenant o'rinbosarlariga ushbu petitsiyani bosish va imzolashning oldini olish to'g'risida buyruq yubordi va shunga ko'ra, ba'zi leytenantlardan Maidstounda yozilgan, 16 mayda Jeyms Oksendon va Uilyam imzolagan buyruq chiqarildi. Jeyms. Murojaat qiluvchilar oqlanish va javobni e'lon qilishdi, shundan so'ng poezd bandlariga buyurtma berildi: bu, agar iloji bo'lsa, o'z erklari nomuslari va erkinliklarini saqlab qolishga yoki urinish paytida halok bo'lishga qaror qilgan "shaharlik erkaklar singari" arizachilarni g'azablantirdi. Klarendon, janob Rojer L'Estranjning g'ayrat -shijoatidan kelib chiqqan holda, skotch qo'shinlari qirollikka kirgunga qadar, janob Xeylsga, qurol -yarog 'haddan tashqari tez qurollanishni ayblashda noaniq ko'rinadi. "okrugning ritsarlari, janoblari, ruhoniylari va franchlinlari" nomidan, ular Mayklning behuda harakatlariga qaramay, Skott zalida, Ashfordda, Fevershemda va boshqa joylarda barcha qurol va o'q -dorilarni tortib olishdi. Livesay va leytenantlarning boshqa o'rinbosarlari, ularni bostirish uchun, janob Xeylz graflikning o'sha qismida katta partiya tashkil qilganida, ularga qo'shilishdi. Endi Vay, Ashford, Sittingbourne, Rochester, Gravesend va amperda kuchli jasadlar yig'ilgan edi. va 23 may kuni Kenterberida katta tuman yig'ilishi bo'lib o'tdi va yana bir ruhiy bayonot tuzib, ularning arizasi befarqligidan shikoyat qilib, okrugning shu qismiga ishonib topshirilgan komissarlarga topshiriq berdi. Polkovnik Robert Hammond piyodalar polkini ko'tarish uchun, polkovnik Xatton esa ot polkini ko'tarish uchun: ularning uchrashuvi ertasi kuni Barham-Downda bo'lib o'tdi, ertasi kuni polkovnik Xammond 300 futli, yaxshi o'rnatilgan va qurollangan va polkovnik Xatton, taxminan 60 ot.

Bu polkovnik Robert Hammond Xempdenning singlisiga uylangan va u bilan beixtiyor adashgan Karisbruk-Qasr gubernatoridan juda boshqacha odam edi. U Nonington esqidagi Sent -Albanlik Entoni Hammondning amakisi edi. va keyinchalik Irlandiyadagi Govran qal'asining gubernatori bo'lib, u erda Kromvel tomonidan uyat bilan otib tashlangan. [Nobelning Kromvel xotiralari, II xatolaridagi qarang. p. i22.]. Polkovnik Robert Xatton, Bishopsburnda, Osvaldsdan bo'lgan Robert Robert Xattonning o'g'li, knt. 1653 yil 10 -yanvarda vafot etgan, shuningdek, Entoni Aucerga turmushga chiqqan qizi Yelizaveta qolgan. Polkovnik Xatton 1658 yilda vafot etdi va 19-oktabrda Bornda dafn qilindi, Barham-Down shahridan, bu erdagi ko'pchilik zodagonlar ular bilan uchrashishdi. Polkovnik Hammond va polkovnik Xatton o'z odamlarini Doverda chorakka yurishdi. "Ser Richard Hardres, ser Entoni Aucer va Entoni Hammond janoblari, tinchlik sudyalari va erkaklar, janob Tomas Pik bilan bo'lgani kabi, erkaklar bilan muloqotni targ'ib qilishda samimiy, haqiqiy va mehr-shafqatli. , sendvichga yurish qildi. " Bu erda ular o'zini Uels shahzodasi deb atagan yolg'onchi topdilar va bu erda ular o'z arizalarining nusxalarini flotga yuborish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lishdi. Endi taslim bo'lish uchun Dover-qal'aga chaqiruv qog'ozi yuborildi, behuda yarasalar, xuddi shunday-Deal va Valmer qal'alariga. Shuningdek, Frantsiya va Gollandiyaga 10 mingdan ziyod odamni olib kelish uchun maktublar yuborilgan. Endi, "komissarlar, qolgan janoblar bilan birga, polkovnik Hammond polkini o'zlari bilan olib ketishdi, Deal tomon yurishdi, hozirda ular mingga yaqin, yaxshi qurollangan va mukammal hal qilingan, ranglar oq, tinchlikparvarlik kelishuvining samimiy aybsizligi uchun javobgar: Kolon: Xattonning oti, bir necha ajdaho bilan: qirqqa yaqin janoblar tartibli ravishda qo'shinlarga to'planishdi va shu tariqa Downs bo'ylab yurishdi. Bir tomondan mamlakatga chiroyli ko'rinish, keyin esa kemalar boshqa tomondan Downs langariga minib yurishdi, bu ikkalasini ham ruhlantirib qo'ydi, qal'alarni ham ruhlantirdi, so'ngra tuzish shartnomasi. Deal ularni quvonch bilan kutib oldi: uning qal'asi va Valmer qal'asi topshirildi va flot ularning ishini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Endi ular sendvich tomon yurish qilishdi, janob A. Hammond va kapitan Bargraveni shartnoma bo'yicha qoldirishdi, ular samolyotni boshqarish uchun topshirishdi, buning uchun ular sodiqliklari uchun joylaridan ko'chirilgan ikkita dengiz zobiti ser Jon Mennes va kapitan Fogga yuborishdi. . Ular sendvichdan Kanterberiga yurish qilishdi va "o'sha kecha, yakshanba kuni kechqurun, ular Kenterberida bo'lishdi, hech qanday imkoniyat yoki vaqtni qo'ldan boy bermay, eng yaxshisini takomillashtirishdi, ertasi kuni Rochesterdagi uchrashuvga tayinlanishdi. . Bu erda ko'plab janoblar va boshqalar qo'shilishdi, ular ilgari umuman shug'ullanmagan edilar, agar qolganlar bizga qarshi bo'lmasa, ser Jon Roberts va leytenantlarning yana bir yoki ikki o'rinbosari, ular petitsiyaga imzo chekishdi va obuna bo'lishdi. pul qarziga, garchi ular ilgari, Qo'mitaning qolgan a'zolari bilan, iltimosiga qarshi, lekin shifokorlar kabi, shaxsiy manfaatlari bilan boshqalarga yordam berish va rozi bo'lishga, o'z manfaatlarini ko'zlashga harakat qilishgan. adolatli va halol tadbirkorga samimiy mehr. " Bu erda polkovnik Xammond o'z polkini tugatdi va o'sha paytda Tetan grafi Ashford, Hotfild va Charing haqida katta ishlarni ko'rsatdi, garchi u keyinchalik murtad bo'lgan bo'lsa ham. Bu kichkina armiya endi Rochesterga yo'l oldi va bir qismi Dartfordgacha yetib bordi, lord Fairfaks ularga qarshi kurashayotgani haqidagi mish -mishlarga ko'ra, ular Rochesterga qaytishdi. The next day, the whole met at a rendezvous at Barming-down, near Maidstone, where the Earl of Norwich was chosen general, and whence they marched back into quarters, contrary to the General’s opinion, who advised that the whole should remain together in the field but the Council of war determining otherwise, the General, with a large body, returned to “Rochester, where Sir Anthony Aucher and Mr. Hales left them, intending to return the next day: but, alas! in the night, Lord Fairfax marched down upon the party remaining at Maidstone, consisting of the regiments of Sir John Mayney and Sir William Brockman, who, notwithstanding a most gallant resistance, were beaten, before the news reached the main army who however, on the first rumour, were drawn out, and had actually begun their march. Had the whole remained together at Maidstone, perhaps the fate of the King and kingdom might have been turned by it! On this intelligence, Col Hammond and Col. Hatton were ordered back to Sittingbourne, and afterwards to remain at Canterbury, where Sir Richard Hardres was prevailed on to return, to secure the Eastern parts for Major Osborn, whose name is altered by a pen, in my book to Gibbon, and whom I strongly suspect to he Mr. Thomas Gibbon the elder, of Westcliffe, an officer of the Parliament, was already in those parts, with a troop of horse, securing Sir Michael Livesay, who was raising all the force he could thereabouts. The Earl of Norwich now pushed on, with the remainder of his army, to Greenwich, whence, after some difficulties, they crossed the Thames, and got to Colchester of which the subsequent surrender, with the melancholy fates of Sir Charles Lucas, Sir George Lisle, and the Lord Capel, are well known”.


Asosiy manbalar

(1) John Milton, The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649)

Surely they that shall boast, as we do, to be a free nation, and not have in themselves the power to remove or to abolish any governor supreme, or subordinate, with the government itself upon urgent causes, may please their fancy with a ridiculous and painted freedom, fit to cozen babies but are indeed under tyranny and servitude, as wanting that power which is the root and source of all liberty, to dispose and economise in the land which God hath given them, as masters of family in their own house and free inheritance. Without which natural and essential power of a free nation, though bearing high their heads, they can in due esteem be thought no better than slaves and vassals born, in the tenure and occupation of another inheriting lord, whose government, though not illegal or intolerable, hangs over them as a lordly scourge, not as a free government - and therefore to be abrogated.

Though perhaps till now no protestant state or kingdom can be alleged to have openly put to death their king, which lately some have written and imputed to their great glory, much mistaking the matter, it is not, neither ought to be, the glory of a Protestant state never to have put their king to death it is the glory of a Protestant king never to have deserved death. And if the parliament and military council do what they do without precedent, if it appear their duty, it argues the more wisdom, virtue, and magnanimity, that they know themselves able to be a precedent to others who perhaps in future ages, if they prove not too degenerate, will look up with honour and aspire towards these exemplary and matchless deeds of their ancestors, as to the highest top of their civil glory and emulation which heretofore, in the pursuance of fame and foreign dominion, spent itself vaingloriously abroad, but henceforth may learn a better fortitude - to dare execute highest justice on them that shall by force of arms endeavour the oppressing and bereaving of religion and their liberty at home: that no unbridled potentate or tyrant, but to his sorrow, for the future may presume such high and irresponsible licence over mankind, to havoc and turn upside down whole kingdoms of men, as though they were no more in respect of his perverse will than a nation of pismires.

(2) John Lilburne, Richard Overton and Thomas Prince, Englands New Chains Discovered (March, 1649)

If our hearts were not over-charged with the sense of the present miseries and approaching dangers of the Nation, your small regard to our late serious apprehensions, would have kept us silent but the misery, danger, and bondage threatened is so great, imminent, and apparent that whilst we have breath, and are not violently restrained, we cannot but speak, and even cry aloud, until you hear us, or God be pleased otherwise to relieve us.

Removing the King, the taking away the House of Lords, the overawing the House, and reducing it to that pass, that it is become but the Channel, through which is conveyed all the Decrees and Determinations of a private Council of some few Officers, the erecting of their Court of Justice, and their Council of State, The Voting of the People of Supreme Power, and this House the Supreme Authority: all these particulars, (though many of them in order to good ends, have been desired by well-affected people) are yet become, (as they have managed them) of sole conducement to their ends and intents, either by removing such as stood in the way between them and power, wealth or command of the Commonwealth or by actually possessing and investing them in the same.

They may talk of freedom, but what freedom indeed is there so long as they stop the Press, which is indeed and hath been so accounted in all free Nations, the most essential part thereof, employing an Apostate Judas for executioner therein who hath been twice burnt in the hand a wretched fellow, that even the Bishops and Star Chamber would have shamed to own. What freedom is there left, when honest and worthy Soldiers are sentenced and enforced to ride the horse with their faces reverst, and their swords broken over their heads for but petitioning and presenting a letter in justification of their liberty therein? If this be not a new way of breaking the spirits of the English, which Strafford and Canterbury never dreamt of, we know no difference of things.

(3) Gerrard Winstanley, The Law of Freedom (1652)

Kingly government governs the earth by that cheating art of buying and selling, and thereby becomes a man of contention his hand is against every man, and every man's hand against him. And take this government at the best, it is a diseased government and the very City Babylon, full of confusion, and if it had not a club law to support it there would be no order in it, because it is the covetous and proud will of a conqueror, enslaving the conquered people.

This kingly government is he who beats pruning hooks and ploughs into spears, guns, swords, and instruments of war that he might take his younger brother's creational birth-right from him, calling the earth his, and not his brother's, unless his brother will hire the earth of him so that he may live idle and at ease by his brother's labours.

Indeed this government may well be called the government of highwaymen, who hath stolen the earth from the younger brethren by force, and holds it from them by force. He sheds blood not to free the people from oppression, but that he may be king and ruler over an oppressed people.

Commonwealth's government governs the earth without buying and selling and thereby becomes a man of peace, and the restorer of ancient peace and freedom. He makes provision for the oppressed, the weak and the simple, as well as for the rich, the wise and the strong. He beats swords and spears into pruning hooks and ploughs. He makes both elder and younger brother freemen in the earth.

(4) Gerrard Winstanley, The Law of Freedom (1652)

When public officers remain long in place of judicature they will degenerate from the bounds of humility, honesty and tender care of brethren, in regard the heart of man is so subject to be overspread with the clouds of covetousness, pride, vain glory. For though at first entrance into places of rule they be of public spirit, seeking the freedom of others as their own yet continuing long in such a place, where honours and greatness is coming in, they become selfish, seeking themselves and not common freedom as experience proves it true in these days, according to this common proverb, Great offices in a land and army have changed the disposition of many sweet-spirited men.

And nature tells us that if water stands long it corrupts whereas running water keeps sweet and is fit for common use. Therefore as the necessity of common preservation moves the people to frame a law, and to choose officers to see the law obeyed, that they may live in peace: so doth the same necessity bid the people, and cries aloud in the ears and eyes of England, to choose new officers and to remove old ones, and to choose state officers every year.

The Commonwealth hereby will be furnished with able and experienced men, fit to govern, which will mightily advance the honour and peace of our land, occasion the more watchful care in the education of children, and in time will make our Commonwealth of England the lily among the nations of the earth.

(5) Oliver Cromwell commenting on the activities of the Levellers and the Diggers (1649)

What is the purport of the levelling principle but to make the tenant as liberal a fortune as the landlord. I was by birth a gentleman. You must cut these people in pieces or they will cut you in pieces.

(6) John Milton, The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660)

If we prefer a free government, though for the present not obtained, yet all those suggested fears and difficulties, as the event will prove, easily overcome, we remain finally secure from the exasperated regal power, and out of snares shall retain the best part of our liberty, which is our religion, and the civil part will be from these who defer us, much more easily recovered, being neither so subtle nor so awful as a king reinthroned. Nor were their actions less both at home and abroad, than might become the hopes of a glorious rising commonwealth: nor were the expressions both of army and people, whether in their public declarations or several writings, other than such as testified a spirit in this nation, no less noble and well-fitted to the liberty of a commonwealth, than in the ancient Greeks or Romans. Nor was the heroic cause unsuccessfully defended to all Christendom, against the tongue of a famous and thought invincible adversary nor the constancy and fortitude, that so nobly vindicated our liberty, our victory at once against two the most prevailing usurpers over mankind, superstition and tyranny, unpraised or uncelebrated in a written monument, likely to outlive detraction, as it hath hitherto convinced or silenced not a few of our detractors, especially in part abroad.

After our liberty and religion thus prosperously fought for, gained, and many years possessed, except in those unhappy interruptions, which God hath removed now that nothing remains, but in all reason the certain hopes of a speedy and immediate settlement for ever in a firm and Besides this, if we return to kingship, and soon repent (as undoubtedly we shall, when we begin to find the old encroachment coming on by little and little upon our consciences, which must necessarily proceed from king and bishop united inseparably in one interest), we may be forced perhaps to fight over again all that we have fought, and spend over again all that we have spent, but are never like to attain thus far as we are now advanced to the recovery of our freedom, never to have it in possession as we now have it, never to be vouchsafed hereafter the like mercies and signal assistances from Heaven in our cause, if by our ungraceful backsliding we make these fruitless flying now to regal concessions from his divine condescensions and gracious answers to our once importuning prayers against the tyranny which we then groaned under making vain and viler than dirt the blood of so many thousand faithful and valiant Englishmen, who left us this liberty, bought with their lives losing by a strange after-game of folly all the battles we have won, together with all Scotland as to our conquest, hereby lost, which never any of our kings could conquer, all the treasure we have spent, not that corruptible treasure only, but that far more precious of all our late miraculous deliverances treading back again with lost labour all our happy steps in the progress of reformation, and most pitifully depriving ourselves the instant fruition of that free government, which we have so dearly purchased, a free commonwealth.

(7) Edmund Ludlow, Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow (c. 1680)

In the mean time the Major-Generals carried things with unheard of insolence in their several precincts, decimating to extremity whom they pleased, and interrupting the proceedings at law upon petitions of those who pretended themselves aggrieved threatening such as would not yield a ready submission to their orders, with transportation to Jamaica or some other plantations in the West Indies and suffering none to escape their persecution, but those that would betray their own party, by discovering the persons that had acted with them or for them.

(8) Christopher Hill, Xudoning inglizchasi: Oliver Kromvel va ingliz inqilobi (1970)

After the failure of his first Parliament and some unsuccessful royalist and republican conspiracies in the early months of 1655, Oliver accepted his generals' scheme for direct military rule. The country was divided into eleven districts, and over each a Major-General was set, to command the local militia as well as his own regular troops.

The Major-Generals took over many of the functions of Lords Lieutenants, formerly agents of the Privy Council in the counties. But their social role was very different. Lords Lieutenants had been the leading aristocrats of the county. Some Major-Generals were low-born upstarts, many came from outside the county: all had troops of horse behind them to make their commands effective. This was the more galling at a time when many of the traditional county families were beginning to benefit economically from the restoration of law, order and social subordination. The rule of the Major-Generals seemed to them to jeopardize all of these. There was not much temptation to return to local government under such circumstances.

The Major-Generals interfered, on security grounds, with simple country pleasures like horse-racing, bear-baiting, and cock-fighting. The Major-Generals were instructed not only to set the poor on work - the JPs' job anyway - but to consider by what means "idle and loose people" with "no visible way of livelihood, nor calling or employment. may be compelled to work". They were to see that JPs enforced the legislation of the Long Parliament (and indeed of the Parliaments of the 1620s) against drunkenness, blasphemy and sabbath-breaking - offences which the justices were ready enough to punish in the lower orders, but in them only. The Major-Generals were to make all men responsible for the good behaviour of their servants. They were to take the initiative against any "notorious breach of the peace'. They were to interfere in the licensing of alehouses - a matter on which the House of Commons had defeated even the great Duke of Buckingham. They also interfered, often quite effectively, against corrupt oligarchies in towns. They had little confidence in juries of gentlemen and well-to-do freeholders, and Cromwell himself shared the prejudice. Above all they took control of the militia, the army of the gentry, away from the "natural rulers". Quite apart from the latter's objections to having their running of local government supervised, controlled and driven, the whole operation was very costly. At least justices of the peace and deputy-lieutenants were unpaid.

(9) Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost (1965) page 42

During the Commonwealth, at the height of what is usually called the English Revolution, the House of Lords was abolished. It is a remarkable fact that the peers as a status group were entirely unaffected by the fundamental change in the political constitution of the country. Those that did not go into exile with the royalists, went on living in their magnificent seats, enjoying their social and apparently all their other privileges, even some of their political eminence as individuals. Cromwell's government continued to address them by their titles and ended by attempting to create its own class of peers. This is eloquent testimony to the apparently indispensable function of the English peerage in the traditional English social structure and to the extent to which their order existed independently of the House of Lords itself.

(10) A. L. Morton, A People's History of England (1938)

Under the influence, temporarily, of General Harrison and the Fifth Monarchy men, and disgusted by the war policy of the merchants, Cromwell agreed to the calling of an Assembly of Nominees (known later as Barebone's Parliament) consisting 140 men chosen by the Independent ministers and congregations. It was a frankly party assembly, the rule of the saints, or that sober and respectable Independent middle and lower middle class which, in the country districts, had not been deeply influenced by the Levellers and remained to the end the most constant force behind the Commonwealth. The assembly soon proved too revolutionary and radical in its measures for Cromwell. After sitting five months it was dissolved in December, 1653, to make way for a new parliament for which the right wing group of officers around Lambert had prepared a brand new paper constitution - the Instrument of Government.

This constitution aimed ostensibly at securing a balance of power between Cromwell, now given the title of Lord Protector, the Council and parliament. The latter included the first time members from Scotland and Ireland and there was a redistribution of seats to give more members to the counties. Against this, the franchise was restricted to those who possessed the very high property qualification of £200 and by the disqualification of all who had taken part in the Civil Wars on the royalist side. The new parliament was thus anything but a popular or representative body, but this did not prevent it from refusing to play the part assigned to it, that of providing a constitutional cover for the group of high officers now controlling the Army. The parliament of the right proved as intractable as the parliament of the left had been and dissolved at the earliest possible moment in January 1655.

The country was divided into eleven districts, each under the control of a major-general. Strong measures were taken against the royalists, and it is from this period that much of the repressive legislation traditionally associated with Puritan rule dates. It should, however, be noted that the major-generals were often merely enforcing legislation of the preceding decade or even earlier. What the gentry most resented was forcible interference with the JPs in running local government as best pleased them.

(11) Gerald E. Aylmer, Qo'zg'olon yoki inqilob: Angliya fuqarolar urushidan tiklanishgacha (1986) page 174

The full system was in operation for something over a year, from the autumn of 1655 until the mid-winter of 1656-7. It is clear, both from their surviving correspondence with the Protector and his Secretary of State and from local government records where these are available, that some of the Major-Generals were more active than others some were tenderer towards royalists in their handling of the decimation tax, others took less part in local government as JPs and left alehouses and cruel sports to the ordinary magistrates in their counties. Hid their unpopularity was not an invention of post-Restoration royalist propaganda, as is evident from what happened in the next parliament. Most of them were outsiders to the areas where they were in charge, and a large proportion of them were self-made men below the social status and landed wealth of those who would normally have been JPs in most counties. Above all the decimation tax, whatever its intentions and whatever its justification in ex-Cavalier support for Penruddock's and other plots, looked like a return to the penal taxation of the 1640s and a breach of the 1652 Pardon and Oblivion Act.

(12) Hyman Fagan, The Commoners of England (1958) page 134

As long as he lived, the Commonwealth continued, for he was a very capable man and an able politician. During his rule the army remained loyal to him but when he died in 1658, all the disagreements came to the surface. Faced with a threatened revolt, the upper classes decided to restore the monarchy which, they thought, would bring stability to the country. The army again intervened in politics, but this time it opposed the Commonwealth. Its Commander-in-Chief, General Monk, went over to those who were planning to restore the king.

The restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 was the decision of all the property-owning classes-the old nobility, the new nobility, the commercial interests and the manufacturers. For these classes, the land question had been solved. Land could now be bought and sold without restriction as any other commodity. The barriers to trade and commerce had been destroyed. The English Revolution had achieved its objective of sweeping away the barriers which were preventing the rise of the new system.

The English Revolution, during its first phase, shattered the bonds of feudalism, and laid the foundation for the new system of capitalism. The restoration was not a defeat of the English Revolution it consolidated the power of the commercial classes, Only the aims of the Levellers and Diggers had not been achieved. Although the king was restored to the throne the powers of Charles II were entirely different from those of Charles I. He ruled with limited powers, controlled by the commercial class. The Restoration showed the strength the new middle class, not its weakness, and was a sequel to the revolution. Indeed, as one writer puts it, although Charles II was called king by the Grace of God, in reality he was king by the merchants and squires.

The newly restored ruling class took revenge on the most active men of the English Revolution, as ruling classes have done throughout history. They took a gruesome revenge on Cromwell. They dug up his corpse in Westminster Abbey, dragged it through the streets, and hung it in chains on Tyburn gibbet. The condemned rebels went undaunted, to their death. On the way to the scaffold, Major-General Harrison of the New Model Army said: "I go to suffer upon the account of the most glorious cause that ever was in the world."


The Third English Civil War 1649-1651

The execution of Charles I did not sit well with the Scottish parliament and, in a direct snub to the newly formed Commonwealth south of the border, they declared the exiled Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland. There was a condition, however, and this was that he agreed to Presbyterian Church rule across Britain before being allowed to land in Scotland.

Charles tried to improve his bargaining position by encouraging the Royalist champion, the Earl of Montrose, to come out of exile and raise a force once more. This Montrose did, but rather than a ‘threatening’ force he invaded Scotland with a small army and tried to recruit once more amongst the Highland clans. This plan never really got off the ground and his outnumbered army was destroyed at Carbisdale in April 1650. Charles abandoned Montrose to his fate, and the brave Earl was summarily executed in Edinburgh.

Shortly after this sad act had played out, Charles signed the Solemn League and Covenant and gained the support of the Scottish parliament and their covenanter armies. Cromwell now rightly saw Charles II as the major threat to the new Commonwealth and left Ireland in the hands of his subordinates to lead an army north to confront the Scottish.

The Battle of Dunbar, courtesy of Osprey Publishing

The armies met at the Battle of Dunbar in September 1650 where the outnumbered Parliamentarian forces were victorious and Cromwell went on to occupy much of southern Scotland.

Early the following year Charles was officially crowned King of Scotland, but by this time was frustrated by the lack of unity in the Scottish Parliament and so looked south for more Royalist support. After another defeat at the hands of Cromwell’s New Model Army at Inverkeithing in July 1651, Charles marched south across the border at the head of a small Scottish force and headed to the west of England. This was a traditionally Royalist area and the hope was that many English troops would flock to his banner. The support failed to materialise in the numbers needed and Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester in September 1651.

Charles was forced once more into exile, spending the weeks after Worcester evading capture in disguise. Moving through different safe houses and famously hiding out in an oak tree, Charles finally made it to the coast and escaped to France. This effectively ended the English Civil Wars.


A History of the Apocalypse – 6.3. The sectarianism of the English Civil War

In 1625 Charles I took the throne of England as the successor of James I, and his reign proved to be an endless struggle between Royalty and the Parliament. It was a period marked by conflicts, plots, assassinations, intrigues, open violence and street movements. Between 1629 and 1640 the king managed to obtain absolute power and he ruled England without the Parliament, but he gradually lost the loyalty of his supporters. As a result, amid the political and religious dissensions, in 1642 the English Civil War erupted.

The first part of the war, between 1642 and 1646, and the second part, between 1648 and 1649, were characterized by the instigation of the supporters of Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament. The third part of the war, between 1649 and 1651, consisted in the fight between the supporters of Charles II and the supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War led to the execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II and the replacing of the monarchy with the republican governments. In 1649 the Commonwealth was instituted until 1653, followed afterwards by two Protectorates of Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell. The Civil War ended with the victory of the Parliament at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651. The Commonwealth was briefly reestablished between 1659 and 1660, before the restoration of the monarchy in the person of Charles II.

Between the collapse of the totalitarian-monarchical system of government and the establishment of the parliamentary one, 1640-1680 were years of unprecedented freedom. Stimulated by the fall of the old certainties and by millennial enthusiasm, by the possibility to freely meet and discuss, English society was experiencing the most diverse feelings. For some like John Milton the nation was heading toward a glorious destiny. During the Interregnum the poet depicted England as being saved from the traps of a worldly monarchy, as a new chosen nation of God, led by a Moses of the last days in the person of Oliver Cromwell. 561 Such expectations shaped the convenient notion that the Millennium would be first established in England, and only after that in the rest of the world. 562 For others, the anticipated collapse of England was a prelude for the collapse of the world. 563 Either way, the sense of social dissolution, the installation of chaos on all the levels of society and the fall of the Episcopal system gave rise to a wide range of discussions about how society should be restructured.

The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke built systems of political philosophy. Leviatan (1651) and Two Treaties of Government (1689) promoted systems of government based on human reason. 564 Oliver Cromwell had the ambition to govern with a plutocratic parliament voted by an electorate of the rich. But back then the common Englishmen saw politics and religion as brother and sister and they thought about politics in religious terms. The Royalists wished to crown Charles II and to maintain monarchism according to the biblical tradition started by Saul and David, in contrast to parliament, which has no biblical support and is a purely human creation. Groups such as the Fifth Monarchists instigated for the establishment of a theocracy in order to prepare the path for Parousia. Gerrard Winstanley’s Diggers defended a radical-agrarian solution, while for others, such as Colonel Thomas Harrison or Lieutenant Colonel William Goffe, adopting one political system or another was irrelevant because God was about to come and establish his own order. 565

The turmoil of the English Civil War was the promised land for dissident political-religious groups because the overthrow of the monarchy significantly weakened the Anglican censorship. These groups were not political parties in the way they are understood today, but people gathered around certain beliefs. More precisely, they were a combination between political party, sect and secret society. Most of them had been founded before the Civil War, but they took advantage of the social chaos to come forward and make themselves heard. And, even though they supported different points of view, their rhetoric was similar. Furthermore, the individual allegiance to one group or another was very fluid, with the possibility to… (This text is incomplete. If you wish to read it in full, please purchase the book)


The Battle of Preston

The Battle of Preston destroyed the Royalists’ chances of success in the English Civil War. The victory of the Parliamentarians under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton, meant it was the last battle of the English Civil War.

In April 1648, Marmaduke Langdale had led a group of Scots across the border to capture Berqick and Carlisle. On 8 July, the Marquis of Hamilton commanded a larger force into into Carlisle. This meant that by July, men were prepared to march south in support of the Royalist cause However, Scottish advance experienced delays which allowed the Parliamentarian force to cross the Pennines east to attack the invaders.

After Pembroke Castle fell to Cromwell on 11 July, more men were available to march north and support Lambert.

Battle of Preston

However, the Parliamentarian forces faced a stronger amy. Hamilton’s troops numbered 20,000, while Cromwell only had 9,000.

But Cromwell’s smaller army was disciplined, putting it in a superior position to the Scots’ army, which was dispersed over 20 miles. Although Hamilton’s cavalry had the advantage of travelling by horse, the units were disorganised and the terrain was not conducive to speedy travel. what’s more, the rain made the ground boggier than normal.

On 17 August Cromwell launched an attack on the infantry at the rear of Hamilton’s army.

The fighting in Preston was vicious. Hamilton soon realised that keeping his force dispersed over such a large distance was a big mistake. The fighting on 17 August at Preston killed thousands of the Scots’ troops.

The night of 17 August was extremely wet and the Scots who were still in the field were suffering from the damp and hunger. About 4,000 Scots laid down their weapons at Warrington instead of fighting a smaller Parliamentarian force. Hamilton surrendered his forces at Uttoxeter to John Lambert when his men refused to march.

Those soldiers who had volunteered to join Hamilton’s army were harshly treated by the Parliamentarian army. Many were sent as virtual slaves to the plantations in Barbados and Virginia. Those conscripted into the army were sent home.

The battle was a huge setback for Charles, who had lost his power-base in England, Wales, Ireland or Scotland.


On 16 August 1648 Oliver Cromwell and John Lambert, an English Parliamentary general and politician, marched down the valley of the Ribble towards Preston. They marched with the knowledge of the enemy, Hamilton's, dispositions and with intent to attack. Militia of Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland and Lancashire marched with them, alongside the Army. Despite this, they were still slightly outnumbered, having only 8,600 men and Hamilton having around 9,000. Hamilton's men, however, were mainly scattered along the road from Lancaster through Preston, towards Wigan.

Langdale, advanced guard for the Scots, called in his advanced parties on the night of 13 August and collected them near Longridge. Whether or not Langdale reported the advance of Cromwell is unknown, however, if he did then it appears Hamilton ignored the report. On 17 August Sir George Monro was with the Scots from Ulster and a half day's march to the north and Langdale was to the east of Preston.

After giving into the begging of his lieutenant-general, Hamilton sent Baillie across the Ribble to follow the main body just as Langdale, with 3,000 men and 500 horses, met the shock of Cromwell's attack on Preston Moor (now Moor Park). After four hours struggle Langdale's men were driven to the Ribble.

The Battle of Preston was fought in boggy terrain. With many of Hamilton's force based in Preston and the rest spread out over a large distance, Cromwell bludgeoned the Scots into submission. The fighting in Preston was considered bloody, even by the standards of the English Civil War.

The battle continued on 18 August, with many of the Scot's wet, hungry and their ammunition damp from the rain. This led to the Scots laying down their weapons at Warrington. Hamilton marched his men south away from Preston and was pursued through Wigan and Winwick to Uttoxeter and Ashbourne. It was there that the remnants of the Scottish army laid down its arms on 25 August.

The Battle of Preston was ultimately the finishing blow to the Royalist hopes in the Second Civil War.


English Civil Wars Causes

One of the primary reasons that caused the wars was the personality of Charles I. He believed in the divine rights of the kings could never accept the notion that a king can do anything wrong. Charles had seen the kind of relation to his father, James shared with the Parliament.

It was since then that he had thought that Parliament was wrong and during his tenure, he was known to argue with the Parliament on many matters. Charles did not allow the Parliament to meet for as long as eleven years. However, by 1642, Charles was forced to do what the Parliament said as they had the power to raise funds.

The biggest blow in the relation between the Parliament and Charles was in 1642 when he sent soldiers to arrest five of the Parliamentarians. This act of Charles to arrest the members of Parliament is said to have triggered the civil wars.


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